National Gallery of Art - THE COLLECTION
image of Death and the Miser Hieronymus Bosch (artist)
Netherlandish, c. 1450 - 1516
Death and the Miser, c. 1485/1490
oil on panel
overall: 93 x 31 cm (36 5/8 x 12 3/16 in.) framed: 105.9 x 43.5 x 5.4 cm (41 11/16 x 17 1/8 x 2 1/8 in.)
Samuel H. Kress Collection
1952.5.33
Not on View
From the Tour: Netherlandish Painting in the 1400s
Object 5 of 9

1924Friedländer, Max J. Die altniederländische Malerei 14 vols. 1924-1937. Berlin, 1937: 14:101. (English ed. Leiden, 1969. Translated by Heinz Norden. 14 vols. 1967-1976. Leiden, 1969: 5:91, 113, Suppl. 135, pl. 117.)
1932Glück, Gustav. Bruegels Gemälde. Vienna, 1932: 57, under no. 10. (Vienna, 1937: 50, under no. 10).
1935Baldass, Ludwig. "Ein Kreuzigungsaltar von Hieronymus Bosch." Jahrbuch der kunsthistorischen Sammlungen des allerhöchsten Kaiserhauses (Jahrbuch der kunsthistorischen Sammlungen in Wien) N.F. 9 (1935): 89.
1937De Tolnay, Charles. Hieronymus Bosch. Basel, 1937: 27, 90, no. 7, 127, pl. 20. (English ed. Translated by Michael Bullock and Henry Mins. New York, 1966: 25, 91, 347, no. 7, repro.)
1942M. Knoedler & Co. Flemish Primitives: An Exhibition. Exh. cat. New York 1942. New York, 1942: 68.
1942Brian, Doris. "The Masters of Gothic Flanders." Art News 41, no. 5 (April 15-30, 1942): 14, 18-19, 33, repros.
1943Baldass, Ludwig. Hieronymus Bosch. Vienna, 1943: 22-23, 30, 36, 68, 76-77, 236, figs. 29-30. (2nd ed. Vienna, 1959: 27, 64, 82, 229, fig. 22-23. 3rd ed. Berlin, 1968: 61-62, fig. 33, 34. Engl. ed. New York, 1960: 26-27, 75, 222, pl. 21-22, color pl. 21.)
1944Elst, Joseph van der. The Last Flowering of the Middle Ages. Garden City, New York, 1944: 103-104, pls. 90-91. (French ed. L'age d'or flamand. Paris, 1951: 199-200, color plate.)
1945Tervarent, Guy de. "The Origin of One of Jérôme Bosch’s Pictures." Translated by John Wrightsman and Dora Round. Message: Belgian Review 39 (January 1945): 44, fig. 1.
1946Combe, Jacques. Jérôme Bosch. Paris, 1946: 20-21, pl. 42. (Engl. ed. Jheronimus Bosch. Translated by Ethel Duncan. Paris, 1946: 20-21, pl. 42.)
1949Bax, Dirck. Ontcijfering van Jeroen Bosch. The Hague, 1949: 133, 239, 244, 248, 257-258, 261-263, 277, 283, fig. 58. (Engl. ed. Translated by Marie Antoinette Bax-Botha. Rotterdam, 1979: 313, 320-321, 328, 329, 340, 341, 343, 346, 364, 370, fig. 141.)
1952Frankfurter, Alfred. "Interpreting Masterpieces: Twenty-Four Paintings from the Kress Collection." Art News Annual No. 21, 1952 50, no. 7 (November 1951): 113-114, pl. 108.
1953Dorfles, Gillo. Bosch. Biblioteca Moderna Mondadori 360. Milan, 1953: 36, 75, 173, fig. 21.
1955Popham, A. E. "An Unknown Drawing by Hieronymus Bosch." Actes du XVIIme Congrès International d'Histoire de l'Art, Amsterdam, 23-31 Juillet 1952. The Hague, 1955: 248.
1955Philip, Lotte Brand. Hieronymus Bosch (about 1450-1516) . New York, 1955: 18 no. 14, 19, color repro.
1955Shapley, Fern Rusk. "The National Gallery of Art at Washington: Acquisitions 1945-1955." The Studio 150, no. 748 (July 1955): 3, 6, repro.
1956Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington. New York, 1956: 38, color repro.
1957Shapley, Fern Rusk. Comparisons in Art: A Companion to the National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC. London, 1957: no. 53.
1958Tervarent, Guy de. Attributs et symboles dans l'art profane 1450-1600. 2 vols. Geneva, 1958-1964. Traveaux d'humanisme et Renaissance 29. Geneva, 1958: 1:34.
1958Middeleeuwse Kunst der Noordelijke Nederlanden. Exh. cat. Rijksmuseum, 1958. Amsterdam, 1958: 138-139, under no. 180.
1959Linfert, Carl. Hieronymus Bosch: The Paintings, Complete Edition. Translated by Joan Spencer. Garden City, New York, 1959: 10, 113, pl. 26.
1959Paintings and Sculpture from the Samuel H. Kress Collection. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1959: 280, repro.
1960Broadley Hugh T. Flemish Painting in the National Gallery of Art (Booklet no. 5 in Ten Schools of Painting in the National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC). Washington, 1960: 8, 30-31, color repro.
1960The National Gallery of Art and Its Collections. Foreword by Perry B. Cott and notes by Otto Stelzer. National Gallery of Art, Washington (undated, 1960s): 6.
1961Seymour, Charles. Art Treasures for America: An Anthology of Paintings & Sculpture in the Samuel H. Kress Collection. London, 1961: 78-79, 208, color fig. 70-71.
1961Eisler, Colin. New England Museums. Primitifs Flamands. Corpus. Brussels, 1961: 48.
1962Winkler, Friedrich. Review of Primitifs Flamands, Corpus: New England Museums by Colin Eisler. Kunstchronik 15 (1962): 321.
1962Adhémar, Hélène. Le Musée National du Louvre, Paris: Primitifs Flamands, Corpus. 2 vols. Brussels, 1962: 1:25, 29.
1962Cairns, Huntington, and John Walker, eds., Treasures from the National Gallery of Art, New York, 1962: 60, color repro.
1963Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. New York, 1963 (reprinted 1964 in French, German, and Spanish): 126-127, repro.
1965Summary Catalogue of European Paintings and Sculpture. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1965: 17.
1966Cairns, Huntington, and John Walker, eds. A Pageant of Painting from the National Gallery of Art. 2 vols. New York, 1966: 1:98-99, color repro.
1966Cinotti, Mia. L'opera completa di Bosch. 1st ed. Classici dell'arte. Milan, 1966: 92, no. 15, 93, fig. 15. (French ed. Tout l'oeuvre peint de Jérôme Bosch. Translated by Simone Darses. Les Classiques De L'Art. Paris, 1967: 92, no. 15, 93, fig. 15.).
1966Lemmens, Gerard, and Ed Taverne. "Hieronymus Bosch: Naar aanleiding van de expositie in' s-Hertogenbosch." Simiolus 2, no. 2 (1966-1967): 88.
1967Jheronimus Bosch. Exh. cat. Noordbrabants Museum,'s-Hertogenbosch, Eindhoven, 1967: 167-168, under no. 51.
1968European Paintings and Sculpture: Illustrations (Companion to the Summary Catalogue, 1965). Washington, 1968: 9, repro.
1968Boon, Karel. "Review of Hieronymus Bosch by Charles de Tolnay." The Burlington Magazine 110, no. 780 (March 1968): 157.
1968Cuttler, Charles D. Northern Painting, from Pucelle to Bruegel: Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and Sixteenth Centuries. New York, 1968: 201-202, fig. 252.
1969Cuttler, Charles. "Bosch and the Narrenschiff: A Problem in Relationships." Art Bulletin 51, no. 3 (September 1969): 275-276, fig 8.
1970Reuterswärd, Patrik. Hieronymus Bosch. Uppsala Studies in the History of Art, Figura nova series 7. Stockholm, 1970: 173-174, 216-217, 266-267 no. 19, fig. 35, 36.
1972Snyder, James E. Review of Musée du Louvre--Inventaire général des dessins des écoles du Nord: maîtres des anciens Pays-Bas nés avant 1550 by Frits Lugt. Art Bulletin 54, no. 1 (March 1972): 89.
1972Filedt Kok, Jan Piet. "Underdrawing and Drawing in the Work of Hieronymus Bosch: A Provisional Survey in Connection with the Painting by Him in Rotterdam." Similous 6, no. 3/4 (1972-1973): 151-153, fig. 16.
1973Sybesma, Jetske A. "Hieronymus Bosch: An Investigation of His Underdrawings." Ph.D. diss., Bryn Mawr College (1973): vii, 71, 73-78, 81, 83, 84, 87, 89, 90, 183, 184, 192, 196, 275-276, 305; Sec. 3:2 nt. 9; pls. 1-5.
1973Gibson, Walter S. Hieronymus Bosch. New York, 1973: 43, 46-47, fig. 31, color fig. 32.
1974Rhode Island School of Design. Europe in Torment, 1450-1550. Exh. cat. Providence 1974. Providence, 1974: 76.
1975European Paintings: An Illustrated Summary Catalogue (National Gallery of Art). Washington, 1975: 36-37, no. 1112, repro.
1975Fraenger, Wilhelm. Hieronymus Bosch. Dresden, 1975: 250, 296-297, 515, fig. 93-95, as Sterbestube.
1975Rowlands, John. Bosch. London, 1975: 8, 15, color pl. 16.
1977Pope-Hennessy, John. "Completing the Account." Review of Colin Eisler, Paintings from the Samuel H. Kress Collection, London 1977. Times Literary Supplement no. 3,927 (17 June 1977).
1977Silver, Larry. "Power and Pelf: A New-Found Old Man by Massys." Simiolus 9 (1977): 87-88, fig. 24.
1977Eisler, Colin. Paintings from the Samuel H. Kress Collection: European Schools Excluding Italian. Oxford, 1977: 66-69, figs. 60-61, text figs. 11A-C, color repro detail.
1978Takashina, Shuji. L'oeuvre complet de Hieronymus Bosch. In Japanese. Tokyo, 1978: 246-247, no. 7, pls. 18-19.
1978Chailley, Jacques. "Jérôme Bosch et ses symboles. Essai de décryptage." Académie royal de Belgique. Classe des Beaux-Arts. 2nd series. Mémoires 15 Fasc. 1 (1978). Brussels, 1978: 106-108.
1979Martin, Gregory. Hieronymus Bosch. New York, 1979: no. 7, color repro.
1979Watson, Ross. The National Gallery of Art, Washington. New York, 1979: 54, pl. 37.
1980Unverfehrt, Gerd. Hieronymus Bosch: Die Rezeption seiner Kunst im frühen 16. Jahrhundert. Berlin, 1980: 26, 36, 44-45, 54, 78-79, 223.
1981Meijer, Bert W. "Titian Sketches on Canvas and Panel." Master Drawings 19, no. 3 (Autumn 1981): 284.
1982Graziani, René. "Bosch's Wanderer and a Poverty Commonplace from Juvenal." Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 45 (1982): 212.
1982Morganstern, Anne M. "The Pawns in Bosch's Death and the Miser." Studies in the History of Art 12 (1982): 33-41, figs. 1, 2, 4, 5.
1983Gibson, Walter S. Hieronymus Bosch: An Annotated Bibliography. Reference Publications in Art History. Boston, 1983: 47, 53, 54, 80, 184, 188, 189, 200
1984Editors of Time-Life Books. Ghosts. The Enchanted World. Alexandria, Va., 1984.
1984Morganstern, Anne. "The Rest of Bosch's Ship of Fools." Art Bulletin 66, no. 2 (June 1984): 295-302, figs. 4, 12.
1984Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington. Rev. ed. New York, 1984: 166, no. 184, color repro.
1984Raupp, Hans Joachim. Untersuchungen zu Künstlerbildnis und Künstlerdarstellung in den Niederlanden im 17. Jahrhundert. Hildesheim and New York, 1984:
1985European Paintings: An Illustrated Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1985: 55, repro.
1985Snyder, James. Northern Renaissance Art: Painting, Sculpture, the Graphic Arts from 1350-1575. New York, 1985: 205, 201 color pl. 36.
1986Hand, John Oliver and Martha Wolff. Early Netherlandish Painting. The Collections of the National Gallery of Art Systematic Catalogue. Washington, 1986: 17-22, repro. 16.
1986Mittler, Gene A. Art in Focus. Peoria, 1986: 236-237, fig. 13.11. (4th ed. New York, 2000: 411 fig. 18.13.)
1987Marijnissen, Rorger H. et al. Hiëronymus Bosch, het volledig oeuvre. Haarlem, 1987: 320-327, color repros. (Dutch ed. Antwerp, 1987; Dutch ed. Amsterdam, 1989; French ed. 1987; English ed. Antwerp, 1987; English ed. "Expanded with a Supplement." Translated by Ted Alkins and E.J.L. Bacon. Brussels, 2007: 320-327, viii, xiv-xv, xxxiii, color repros.)
1987Vandenbroeck, Paul. Jeronimus Bosch: Tussen volksleven en stadscultuur. Berchem, 1987: 96-97.
1991Covey, Herbert C. Images of Older People in Western Art and Society. New York, 1991: 155-157, fig. 41.
1992"The Visions of Hieronymus Bosch." Scholastic Art 23, no. 2 (November 1992): 3, repro.
1992National Gallery of Art, Washington. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1992: 40, repro.
1992Semenzato, Camillo. Genio e botteghe: L'arte nell'Europa tra medio evo ed etá Moderna. Milan, 1992: 172, color repro.
1992Fiero, Gloria K. The Humanistic Tradition, vol. 3: On the Threshold of Modernity: The Renaissance and the Reformation. Dubuque, 1992: 3:76, fig. 18.9. (2nd ed., Madison, 1995: 3:81, fig. 18.9.)
1993Silver, Larry. Art in History. New York, 1993: 140-141, color fig. 4.16.
1993Light and Darkness in the Baroque (17th Century I). Toyko, 1993: 46, 146, fig. 2-15.
1995Kunioki, Katsu. Hoppō Runesansu. Sekai bijutsu daizenshū. Seiyō hen = New History of World Art 14. Tokyo, 1995: 137, 478, fig. 84.
1995Proctor, Robert N. "No Time for Heroes." The Sciences 35, no. 2 (March/April 1995): 23, color repro.
1996Ars Lignea: Zuresko elizak Euskal Herrian (Las iglesias de madera en el País Vasco). Exh. cat. Bilbao, Donostia, and Gasteiz 1997. Madrid, 1996: 81, color repro.
1996Vinken, PIerre and Lucy Schlüter. "Pieter Bruegels Nestrover en de mens die de dood tegenmoet treedt." Nederlands kunsthistorisch jaarboek 47 (1996): 60, 61, fig. 7.
1996Gibson, Walter S. "Bosch (van Aken, Hieronymus (Jheronimus)." Allgemeines Künstlerlexikon: die bildenden Künstler aller Zeiten und Völker. Munich and Leipzig, 1996: 13:161.
1997Schwartz, Gary. Hieronymus Bosch. First Impressions. New York, 1997: 24-25, 90, color repro.
1997Richler, Martha. National Gallery of Art, Washington: A World of Art. London, 1997: 41, color fig. 22.
1998McNamee, Maurice B. Vested Angels: Eucharistic Allusions in Early Netherlandish Paintings. Liturgia condenda 6. Leuven, 1998: 183-184, 187, 258, fig. 95.
1998Baumann, Priscilla. "Avarice." In Encyclopedia of Comparative Iconography: Themes Depicted in Works of Art. 2 vols. Edited by Helene E. Roberts. Chicago, 1998: 1:93.
1998Nygren, Edward J. “Money." In Encyclopedia of Comparative Iconography: Themes Depicted in Works of Art. Edited by Helene E. Roberts. 2 vols. Chicago, 1998: 2:620.
1999Raupp, Hans Joachim. "Visual Comments of the Mutability of Social Positions and Values in Netherlandish and German Art of the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries." In Showing Status: Representation of Social Positions in the Late Middle Ages. Edited by Wim Blockmans and Antheun Janse. Medieval Texts and Cultures of Northern Europe, 2. Turnhout, 1999: 287, 288 fig. 5.
2000Bosch. Translated by Alison Canosa. Madrid, 2000: 27, 30, 32, color repro.
2000Aurigemma, Maria Giulia. “Nosce te ipsum: La raffigurazione della morte nei paesi dell’area Germanica e Nederleandese.” In Humana fragilitas: I temi della morte in Europa tra Duecento e Settecneto. Edited by Alberto Tenenti. Clusone, 2000: 149-150, color fig. 99.
2000Vinken Pierre and Lucy Schlüter. "The Foreground of Bosch's Death and the Miser." Oud Holland 114, no. 2/4 (2000): 69-78, fig. 1.
2001Koldeweij, Jos, Bernard Vermet, with Barbera van Kooij, ed. Hieronymus Bosch: New Insights Into His Life and Work. Exh. cat. Rotterdam 2001. Ghent, 2001: 84, 120, 121-122, 125, 131, 207. as "Death and the Userer."
2001Van Gelder, Lawrence. "This Week: Mysterious Master." New York Times (August 27, 2001).
2001Riding, Alan. "A Mystery Man Who Created Monsters." New York Times (September 23, 2001): 30.
2002Belting, Hans. Hieronymus Bosch, Garden of Earthly Delights. Translated by Ishbel Flett. Munich, 2002: 64-65, 67, color repro.
2003Colenbrander, Herman T. “Avare vixisti: Death and the Miser by Hieronymous Bosch--Drawings, Underdrawings, Painting, and Meaning.” In Jérôme Bosch et son entorage, et autres études, edited by Hélène Verougstraete et Roger van Schoute. Le dessin sous-jacent et la technologie dans la peinture, Colloque 14, Bruges and Rotterdam, 13-15 september 2001. Leuven, 2003: 22-32.
2003Metzger, Catherine A. "Death and the Miser: Alterations and Implications." In Jérôme Bosch et son entorage, et autres études, edited by Hélène Verougstraete and Roger van Schoute. Le dessin sous-jacent et la technologie dans la peinture, Colloque 14, Bruges and Rotterdam, 13-15 september 2001. Leuven, 2003: 39-43, color figs. 1-6.
2003Vandenbroeck, Paul. Jeronimus Bosch: de verlossing van de wereld. Ghent and Amsterdam, 2003: 104-107, 331, repro.
2004Hand, John Oliver. National Gallery of Art: Master Paintings from the Collection. Washington and New York, 2004: 118-119, no. 90, color repro.
2005Snyder, James. Northern Renaissance Art: Painting, Sculpture, the Graphic Arts from 1350 to 1575. Revised by Larry Silver and Henry Luttikhuizen. Upper Saddle River, 2005: 397-398, col. fig. 16.3.
2009König, Eberhard. “Deathbed Scene.” In The Hours of Catherine of Cleves: Devotion, Demons and Daily Life in the Fifteenth Century. Edited by Rob Dückers and Ruud Priem. Exh. cat. Nijmegen and New York, 2009. Antwerp, 2009: 274, under no. 66.
2010Vermet, Bernard. "Baldass was Right: The Chronology of the Paintings of Jheronimus Bosch.” In Jheronimus Bosch: His Sources. Jheronimus Bosch Conference, 2nd: May 22-25, 2007, Jheronimus Bosch Art Center. ‘s-Hertogenbosch, 2010: 308.
2010Landau, Blandine. “Sins of the Flesh and Human Folly: A Study of The Ship of Fools by Jheronimus Bosch. In Jheronimus Bosch: His Sources. Jheronimus Bosch Conference: 2nd, May 22-25, 2007, Jheronimus Bosch Art Center. ‘s-Hertogenbosch, 2010: 221.
2010Caspers, Charlotte. “A Historical Reconstruction of The Pedlar by Jersonimus Bosch.” In Jheronimus Bosch: His Sources. Jheronimus Bosch Conference, 2nd: May 22-25, 2007, Jheronimus Bosch Art Center. ‘s-Hertogenbosch, 2010: 54-55, 69 nt. 23 and nt. 26, 153, color repros.
2010Heesen, Dick. De geheime boodschap van Jeroen Bosch. 's-Hertogenbosch, 2010: 217, color fig. 193.
2010Yona Pinson. “A Moralized Semi-Secular Triptych by Jeronimus Bosch.” In Jheronimus Bosch: His Sources. Jheronimus Bosch Conference, 2nd: May 22-25, 2007, Jheronimus Bosch Art Center. ‘s-Hertogenbosch, 2010: 270-273, 274 nt. 2, 276 nt. 23, 277 nt. 27, color repros.
2011Freeman, Charles. Holy Bones, Holy Dust: How Relics Shaped the History of Medieval Europe. New Haven, 2011: x, fig. 17.
2012Rembert, Virginia Pitts. Hieronymus Bosch and the Lisbon Temptation: A View from the Third Millennium. New York, 2012: 6, color repro.
2012Jheronimus Bosch Art Center. Ruimte voor Jheroniumus Bosch . Edited by Willeke Cornelissen-van de Steeg, et al. 's-Hertogenbosch, 2012: 211, color repro.
2012Büttner, Nils. Hieronymus Bosch. C.H. Beck Wissen. Munich, 2012: 72, 79, 110, fig. 27.
2012Will, Chris. Between Heaven & Hell. Translated by Ruth Koenig. Reprint. Amsterdam, 2012: 80-81, color repro.
2014Vinken, Pierre and Lucy Schlüter. "The Foreground of Bosch's Death and the Miser" and "Pieter Brugel's Birdnester and Man's Encounter with Death." Icons and Enigmas: Investigations in Art. Edited by Christopher Paparella and Heleen Vinken. Amsterdam, 2014: 77-93, 114-115, fig. 1, 7.
2014Colenbrander, Herman. "Jeronimus Bosch and Diego de Guevara: The "Third" Haywain." In Jeronimus Bosch: His Patrons and his Public. Jheronimus Bosch Conference, 3rd. September 6-18, 2012, Jheronimus Bosch Art Center. 's-Hertogenbosch, 2014: 83, 88, 89, 95, 96, color repros.
2014Hitchins, Stephen Graham. Art as History, History as Art: Jheronimus Bosch and Pieter Bruegel the Elder,--Assembling Knowledge, Not Setting Puzzles. Nijmegen Art Historical Studies 22. Turnhout, 2014: 29, 51, 62, 68 nt. 53, 315, color fig. 45.
2014Spronk, Ron. "Jeronimus Bosch and the Van Aken Family Workshop: Towards a Reassessment of Technique." In Jheronimus Bosch: His Patrons and his Public. Jheronimus Bosch Conference 3rd: September 6-18, 2012, Jheronimus Bosch Art Center. ‘s-Hertogenbosch, 2014: 392, 397 nt. 28.
2016Bosch Research and Conservation Project. Hieronymus Bosch, Painter and Draughtsman: Technical Studies. Brussels, 2016: 264, 267, 273, 276, 284, 285, 290- 295 no. 19c, 455, color figs. 19.4-5, RR53, 19.30, 1931, 19.32-33, 19.34.
2016Tamis, Dorien. “Oude Kunst: Jheroniumus (Jeroen) Bosch: Wenken voor een deugdzaam leven / Jheronimus Bosch: Buitenissige fantasieën over hemel en hel.” Museumtijdschrift no. 1 (Jan/Feb 2016): 22, 24, color repro.
2016Siegal, Nina. "Upon Closer Review, Credit Goes to Bosch." New York Times 165, no. 57,130 (February 2, 2016): C1.
2016Schwartz, Gary. Jheronimus: De wegen naar hemel en hel. Translated by Loekie Schwartz. Hilversum, 2016: 101, 102, 172, 173, 182, 185, 186, 187, 248, color repros.
2016Ilsink, Matthijs and Jos Kolderweij. Jheronimus Bosch: Visioenen van een genie. Exh. cat. 's-Hertogenbosch 2016. Brussels, 2016: 24-27 no. 12, color repros.
2016Fensom, Sarah E. "Dark Past." Review of the exhibition Vision of Genius ('s-Hertogenbosch, 2016). Art & Antiques 39, no. 4 (April 2016): 86.
2016Borchert, Till-Holger. Bosch in detail. Antwerp, 2016: 32-33, color repro.
2016Faton, Jeanne and Giulia Franceschini. "Bosch génial et visionnaire." L'Object d'art no. 522 (avril 2016): 42, 43, color repro.

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