National Gallery of Art - THE COLLECTION
image of Death and the Miser Hieronymus Bosch (artist)
Netherlandish, c. 1450 - 1516
Death and the Miser, c. 1485/1490
oil on panel
overall: 93 x 31 cm (36 5/8 x 12 3/16 in.) framed: 105.9 x 43.5 x 5.4 cm (41 11/16 x 17 1/8 x 2 1/8 in.)
Samuel H. Kress Collection
1952.5.33
Not on View
From the Tour: Netherlandish Painting in the 1400s
Object 5 of 9

1924Friedländer, Max J. Die altniederländische Malerei 14 vols. 1924-1937. Berlin, 1937: 14:101. (English ed. Leiden, 1969. Translated by Heinz Norden. 14 vols. 1967-1976. Leiden, 1969: 5:91, 113, Suppl. 135, pl. 117.)
1932Glück, Gustav. Bruegels Gemälde. Vienna, 1932: 57, under no. 10. (Vienna, 1937: 50, under no. 10).
1935Baldass, Ludwig. "Ein Kreuzigungsaltar von Hieronymus Bosch." Jahrbuch der kunsthistorischen Sammlungen des allerhöchsten Kaiserhauses (Jahrbuch der kunsthistorischen Sammlungen in Wien) N.F. 9 (1935): 89.
1937De Tolnay, Charles. Hieronymus Bosch. Basel, 1937: 27, 90, no. 7, 127, pl. 20. (English ed. Translated by Michael Bullock and Henry Mins. New York, 1966: 25, 91, 347, no. 7, repro.)
1942M. Knoedler & Co. Flemish Primitives: An Exhibition. Exh. cat. New York 1942. New York, 1942: 68.
1942Brian, Doris. "The Masters of Gothic Flanders." Art News 41, no. 5 (April 15-30, 1942): 14, 18-19, 33, repros.
1943Baldass, Ludwig. Hieronymus Bosch. Vienna, 1943: 22-23, 30, 36, 68, 76-77, 236, figs. 29-30. (2nd ed. Vienna, 1959: 27, 64, 82, 229, fig. 22-23. 3rd ed. Berlin, 1968: 61-62, fig. 33, 34. Engl. ed. New York, 1960: 26-27, 75, 222, pl. 21-22, color pl. 21.)
1944Elst, Joseph van der. The Last Flowering of the Middle Ages. Garden City, New York, 1944: 103-104, pls. 90-91. (French ed. L'age d'or flamand. Paris, 1951: 199-200, color plate.)
1945Tervarent, Guy de. "The Origin of One of Jérôme Bosch’s Pictures." Translated by John Wrightsman and Dora Round. Message: Belgian Review 39 (January 1945): 44, fig. 1.
1946Combe, Jacques. Jérôme Bosch. Paris, 1946: 20-21, pl. 42. (Engl. ed. Jheronimus Bosch. Translated by Ethel Duncan. Paris, 1946: 20-21, pl. 42.)
1949Bax, Dirck. Ontcijfering van Jeroen Bosch. The Hague, 1949: 133, 239, 244, 248, 257-258, 261-263, 277, 283, fig. 58. (Engl. ed. Translated by Marie Antoinette Bax-Botha. Rotterdam, 1979: 313, 320-321, 328, 329, 340, 341, 343, 346, 364, 370, fig. 141.)
1952Frankfurter, Alfred. "Interpreting Masterpieces: Twenty-Four Paintings from the Kress Collection." Art News Annual No. 21, 1952 50, no. 7 (November 1951): 113-114, pl. 108.
1953Dorfles, Gillo. Bosch. Biblioteca Moderna Mondadori 360. Milan, 1953: 36, 75, 173, fig. 21.
1955Shapley, Fern Rusk. "The National Gallery of Art at Washington: Acquisitions 1945-1955." The Studio 150, no. 748 (July 1955): 3, 6, repro.
1955Popham, A. E. "An Unknown Drawing by Hieronymus Bosch." Actes du XVIIme Congrès International d'Histoire de l'Art, Amsterdam, 23-31 Juillet 1952. The Hague, 1955: 248.
1955Philip, Lotte Brand. Hieronymus Bosch (about 1450-1516) . New York, 1955: 18 no. 14, 19, color repro.
1956Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington. New York, 1956: 38, color repro.
1957Shapley, Fern Rusk. Comparisons in Art: A Companion to the National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC. London, 1957: no. 53.
1958Middeleeuwse Kunst der Noordelijke Nederlanden. Exh. cat. Rijksmuseum, 1958. Amsterdam, 1958: 138-139, under no. 180.
1958Tervarent, Guy de. Attributs et symboles dans l'art profane 1450-1600. 2 vols. Geneva, 1958-1964. Traveaux d'humanisme et Renaissance 29. Geneva, 1958: 1:34.
1959Linfert, Carl. Hieronymus Bosch: The Paintings, Complete Edition. Translated by Joan Spencer. Garden City, New York, 1959: 10, 113, pl. 26.
1959Paintings and Sculpture from the Samuel H. Kress Collection. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1959: 280, repro.
1960Broadley Hugh T. Flemish Painting in the National Gallery of Art (Booklet no. 5 in Ten Schools of Painting in the National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC). Washington, 1960: 8, 30-31, color repro.
1960The National Gallery of Art and Its Collections. Foreword by Perry B. Cott and notes by Otto Stelzer. National Gallery of Art, Washington (undated, 1960s): 6.
1961Eisler, Colin. New England Museums. Primitifs Flamands. Corpus. Brussels, 1961: 48.
1961Seymour, Charles. Art Treasures for America: An Anthology of Paintings & Sculpture in the Samuel H. Kress Collection. London, 1961: 78-79, 208, color fig. 70-71.
1962Adhémar, Hélène. Le Musée National du Louvre, Paris: Primitifs Flamands, Corpus. 2 vols. Brussels, 1962: 1:25, 29.
1962Cairns, Huntington, and John Walker, eds., Treasures from the National Gallery of Art, New York, 1962: 60, color repro.
1962Winkler, Friedrich. Review of Primitifs Flamands, Corpus: New England Museums by Colin Eisler. Kunstchronik 15 (1962): 321.
1963Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. New York, 1963 (reprinted 1964 in French, German, and Spanish): 126-127, repro.
1965Summary Catalogue of European Paintings and Sculpture. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1965: 17.
1966Cairns, Huntington, and John Walker, eds. A Pageant of Painting from the National Gallery of Art. 2 vols. New York, 1966: 1:98-99, color repro.
1966Lemmens, Gerard, and Ed Taverne. "Hieronymus Bosch: Naar aanleiding van de expositie in' s-Hertogenbosch." Simiolus 2, no. 2 (1966-1967): 88.
1966Cinotti, Mia. L'opera completa di Bosch. 1st ed. Classici dell'arte. Milan, 1966: 92, no. 15, 93, fig. 15. (French ed. Tout l'oeuvre peint de Jérôme Bosch. Translated by Simone Darses. Les Classiques De L'Art. Paris, 1967: 92, no. 15, 93, fig. 15.).
1967Jheronimus Bosch. Exh. cat. Noordbrabants Museum,'s-Hertogenbosch, Eindhoven, 1967: 167-168, under no. 51.
1968Cuttler, Charles D. Northern Painting, from Pucelle to Bruegel: Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and Sixteenth Centuries. New York, 1968: 201-202, fig. 252.
1968European Paintings and Sculpture: Illustrations (Companion to the Summary Catalogue, 1965). Washington, 1968: 9, repro.
1968Boon, Karel. "Review of Hieronymus Bosch by Charles de Tolnay." The Burlington Magazine 110, no. 780 (March 1968): 157.
1969Cuttler, Charles. "Bosch and the Narrenschiff: A Problem in Relationships." Art Bulletin 51, no. 3 (September 1969): 275-276, fig 8.
1970Reuterswärd, Patrik. Hieronymus Bosch. Uppsala Studies in the History of Art, Figura nova series 7. Stockholm, 1970: 173-174, 216-217, 266-267 no. 19, fig. 35, 36.
1972Snyder, James E. Review of Musée du Louvre--Inventaire général des dessins des écoles du Nord: maîtres des anciens Pays-Bas nés avant 1550 by Frits Lugt. Art Bulletin 54, no. 1 (March 1972): 89.
1972Filedt Kok, Jan Piet. "Underdrawing and Drawing in the Work of Hieronymus Bosch: A Provisional Survey in Connection with the Painting by Him in Rotterdam." Similous 6, no. 3/4 (1972-1973): 151-153, fig. 16.
1973Gibson, Walter S. Hieronymus Bosch. New York, 1973: 43, 46-47, fig. 31, color fig. 32.
1973Sybesma, Jetske A. "Hieronymus Bosch: An Investigation of His Underdrawings." Ph.D. diss., Bryn Mawr College (1973): vii, 71, 73-78, 81, 83, 84, 87, 89, 90, 183, 184, 192, 196, 275-276, 305; Sec. 3:2 nt. 9; pls. 1-5.
1974Rhode Island School of Design. Europe in Torment, 1450-1550. Exh. cat. Providence 1974. Providence, 1974: 76.
1975Rowlands, John. Bosch. London, 1975: 8, 15, color pl. 16.
1975Fraenger, Wilhelm. Hieronymus Bosch. Dresden, 1975: 250, 296-297, 515, fig. 93-95, as Sterbestube.
1975European Paintings: An Illustrated Summary Catalogue (National Gallery of Art). Washington, 1975: 36-37, no. 1112, repro.
1977Eisler, Colin. Paintings from the Samuel H. Kress Collection: European Schools Excluding Italian. Oxford, 1977: 66-69, figs. 60-61, text figs. 11A-C, color repro detail.
1977Silver, Larry. "Power and Pelf: A New-Found Old Man by Massys." Simiolus 9 (1977): 87-88, fig. 24.
1977Pope-Hennessy, John. "Completing the Account." Review of Colin Eisler, Paintings from the Samuel H. Kress Collection, London 1977. Times Literary Supplement no. 3,927 (17 June 1977).
1978Takashina, Shuji. L'oeuvre complet de Hieronymus Bosch. In Japanese. Tokyo, 1978: 246-247, no. 7, pls. 18-19.
1978Chailley, Jacques. "Jérôme Bosch et ses symboles. Essai de décryptage." Académie royal de Belgique. Classe des Beaux-Arts. 2nd series. Mémoires 15 Fasc. 1 (1978). Brussels, 1978: 106-108.
1979Watson, Ross. The National Gallery of Art, Washington. New York, 1979: 54, pl. 37.
1979Martin, Gregory. Hieronymus Bosch. New York, 1979: no. 7, color repro.
1980Unverfehrt, Gerd. Hieronymus Bosch: Die Rezeption seiner Kunst im frühen 16. Jahrhundert. Berlin, 1980: 26, 36, 44-45, 54, 78-79, 223.
1981Meijer, Bert W. "Titian Sketches on Canvas and Panel." Master Drawings 19, no. 3 (Autumn 1981): 284.
1982Morganstern, Anne M. "The Pawns in Bosch's Death and the Miser." Studies in the History of Art 12 (1982): 33-41, figs. 1, 2, 4, 5.
1982Graziani, René. "Bosch's Wanderer and a Poverty Commonplace from Juvenal." Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 45 (1982): 212.
1983Gibson, Walter S. Hieronymus Bosch: An Annotated Bibliography. Reference Publications in Art History. Boston, 1983: 47, 53, 54, 80, 184, 188, 189, 200
1984Morganstern, Anne. "The Rest of Bosch's Ship of Fools." Art Bulletin 66, no. 2 (June 1984): 295-302, figs. 4, 12.
1984Raupp, Hans Joachim. Untersuchungen zu Künstlerbildnis und Künstlerdarstellung in den Niederlanden im 17. Jahrhundert. Hildesheim and New York, 1984:
1984Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington. Rev. ed. New York, 1984: 166, no. 184, color repro.
1984Editors of Time-Life Books. Ghosts. The Enchanted World. Alexandria, Va., 1984.
1985European Paintings: An Illustrated Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1985: 55, repro.
1985Snyder, James. Northern Renaissance Art: Painting, Sculpture, the Graphic Arts from 1350-1575. New York, 1985: 205, 201 color pl. 36.
1986Hand, John Oliver and Martha Wolff. Early Netherlandish Painting. The Collections of the National Gallery of Art Systematic Catalogue. Washington, 1986: 17-22, repro. 16.
1986Mittler, Gene A. Art in Focus. Peoria, 1986: 236-237, fig. 13.11. (4th ed. New York, 2000: 411 fig. 18.13.)
1987Vandenbroeck, Paul. Jeronimus Bosch: Tussen volksleven en stadscultuur. Berchem, 1987: 96-97.
1987Marijnissen, Rorger H. et al. Hiëronymus Bosch, het volledig oeuvre. Haarlem, 1987: 320-327, color repros. (Dutch ed. Antwerp, 1987; Dutch ed. Amsterdam, 1989; French ed. 1987; English ed. Antwerp, 1987; English ed. "Expanded with a Supplement." Translated by Ted Alkins and E.J.L. Bacon. Brussels, 2007: 320-327, viii, xiv-xv, xxxiii, color repros.)
1991Covey, Herbert C. Images of Older People in Western Art and Society. New York, 1991: 155-157, fig. 41.
1992"The Visions of Hieronymus Bosch." Scholastic Art 23, no. 2 (November 1992): 3, repro.
1992National Gallery of Art, Washington. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1992: 40, repro.
1992Semenzato, Camillo. Genio e botteghe: L'arte nell'Europa tra medio evo ed etá Moderna. Milan, 1992: 172, color repro.
1992Fiero, Gloria K. The Humanistic Tradition, vol. 3: On the Threshold of Modernity: The Renaissance and the Reformation. Dubuque, 1992: 3:76, fig. 18.9. (2nd ed., Madison, 1995: 3:81, fig. 18.9.)
1993Light and Darkness in the Baroque (17th Century I). Toyko, 1993: 46, 146, fig. 2-15.
1993Silver, Larry. Art in History. New York, 1993: 140-141, color fig. 4.16.
1995Kunioki, Katsu. Hoppō Runesansu. Sekai bijutsu daizenshū. Seiyō hen = New History of World Art 14. Tokyo, 1995: 137, 478, fig. 84.
1995Proctor, Robert N. "No Time for Heroes." The Sciences 35, no. 2 (March/April 1995): 23, color repro.
1996Gibson, Walter S. "Bosch (van Aken, Hieronymus (Jheronimus)." Allgemeines Künstlerlexikon: die bildenden Künstler aller Zeiten und Völker. Munich and Leipzig, 1996: 13:161.
1996Ars Lignea: Zuresko elizak Euskal Herrian (Las iglesias de madera en el País Vasco). Exh. cat. Bilbao, Donostia, and Gasteiz 1997. Madrid, 1996: 81, color repro.
1996Vinken, PIerre and Lucy Schlüter. "Pieter Bruegels Nestrover en de mens die de dood tegenmoet treedt." Nederlands kunsthistorisch jaarboek 47 (1996): 60, 61, fig. 7.
1997Schwartz, Gary. Hieronymus Bosch. First Impressions. New York, 1997: 24-25, 90, color repro.
1997Richler, Martha. National Gallery of Art, Washington: A World of Art. London, 1997: 41, color fig. 22.
1998McNamee, Maurice B. Vested Angels: Eucharistic Allusions in Early Netherlandish Paintings. Liturgia condenda 6. Leuven, 1998: 183-184, 187, 258, fig. 95.
1998Nygren, Edward J. “Money." In Encyclopedia of Comparative Iconography: Themes Depicted in Works of Art. Edited by Helene E. Roberts. 2 vols. Chicago, 1998: 2:620.
1998Baumann, Priscilla. "Avarice." In Encyclopedia of Comparative Iconography: Themes Depicted in Works of Art. 2 vols. Edited by Helene E. Roberts. Chicago, 1998: 1:93.
1999Raupp, Hans Joachim. "Visual Comments of the Mutability of Social Positions and Values in Netherlandish and German Art of the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries." In Showing Status: Representation of Social Positions in the Late Middle Ages. Edited by Wim Blockmans and Antheun Janse. Medieval Texts and Cultures of Northern Europe, 2. Turnhout, 1999: 287, 288 fig. 5.
2000Vinken Pierre and Lucy Schlüter. "The Foreground of Bosch's Death and the Miser." Oud Holland 114, no. 2/4 (2000): 69-78, fig. 1.
2000Aurigemma, Maria Giulia. “Nosce te ipsum: La raffigurazione della morte nei paesi dell’area Germanica e Nederleandese.” In Humana fragilitas: I temi della morte in Europa tra Duecento e Settecneto. Edited by Alberto Tenenti. Clusone, 2000: 149-150, color fig. 99.
2000Bosch. Translated by Alison Canosa. Madrid, 2000: 27, 30, 32, color repro.
2001Riding, Alan. "A Mystery Man Who Created Monsters." New York Times (September 23, 2001): 30.
2001Koldeweij, Jos, Bernard Vermet, with Barbera van Kooij, ed. Hieronymus Bosch: New Insights Into His Life and Work. Exh. cat. Rotterdam 2001. Ghent, 2001: 84, 120, 121-122, 125, 131, 207. as "Death and the Userer."
2001Van Gelder, Lawrence. "This Week: Mysterious Master." New York Times (August 27, 2001).
2002Belting, Hans. Hieronymus Bosch, Garden of Earthly Delights. Translated by Ishbel Flett. Munich, 2002: 64-65, 67, color repro.
2003Colenbrander, Herman T. “Avare vixisti: Death and the Miser by Hieronymous Bosch--Drawings, Underdrawings, Painting, and Meaning.” In Jérôme Bosch et son entorage, et autres études, edited by Hélène Verougstraete et Roger van Schoute. Le dessin sous-jacent et la technologie dans la peinture, Colloque 14, Bruges and Rotterdam, 13-15 september 2001. Leuven, 2003: 22-32.
2003Vandenbroeck, Paul. Jeronimus Bosch: de verlossing van de wereld. Ghent and Amsterdam, 2003: 104-107, 331, repro.
2003Metzger, Catherine A. "Death and the Miser: Alterations and Implications." In Jérôme Bosch et son entorage, et autres études, edited by Hélène Verougstraete and Roger van Schoute. Le dessin sous-jacent et la technologie dans la peinture, Colloque 14, Bruges and Rotterdam, 13-15 september 2001. Leuven, 2003: 39-43, color figs. 1-6.
2004Hand, John Oliver. National Gallery of Art: Master Paintings from the Collection. Washington and New York, 2004: 118-119, no. 90, color repro.
2005Snyder, James. Northern Renaissance Art: Painting, Sculpture, the Graphic Arts from 1350 to 1575. Revised by Larry Silver and Henry Luttikhuizen. Upper Saddle River, 2005: 397-398, col. fig. 16.3.
2009König, Eberhard. “Deathbed Scene.” In The Hours of Catherine of Cleves: Devotion, Demons and Daily Life in the Fifteenth Century. Edited by Rob Dückers and Ruud Priem. Exh. cat. Nijmegen and New York, 2009. Antwerp, 2009: 274, under no. 66.
2010Landau, Blandine. “Sins of the Flesh and Human Folly: A Study of The Ship of Fools by Jheronimus Bosch. In Jheronimus Bosch: His Sources. Jheronimus Bosch Conference: 2nd, May 22-25, 2007, Jheronimus Bosch Art Center. ‘s-Hertogenbosch, 2010: 221.
2010Heesen, Dick. De geheime boodschap van Jeroen Bosch. 's-Hertogenbosch, 2010: 217, color fig. 193.
2010Yona Pinson. “A Moralized Semi-Secular Triptych by Jeronimus Bosch.” In Jheronimus Bosch: His Sources. Jheronimus Bosch Conference, 2nd: May 22-25, 2007, Jheronimus Bosch Art Center. ‘s-Hertogenbosch, 2010: 270-273, 274 nt. 2, 276 nt. 23, 277 nt. 27, color repros.
2010Vermet, Bernard. "Baldass was Right: The Chronology of the Paintings of Jheronimus Bosch.” In Jheronimus Bosch: His Sources. Jheronimus Bosch Conference, 2nd: May 22-25, 2007, Jheronimus Bosch Art Center. ‘s-Hertogenbosch, 2010: 308.
2010Caspers, Charlotte. “A Historical Reconstruction of The Pedlar by Jersonimus Bosch.” In Jheronimus Bosch: His Sources. Jheronimus Bosch Conference, 2nd: May 22-25, 2007, Jheronimus Bosch Art Center. ‘s-Hertogenbosch, 2010: 54-55, 69 nt. 23 and nt. 26, 153, color repros.
2011Freeman, Charles. Holy Bones, Holy Dust: How Relics Shaped the History of Medieval Europe. New Haven, 2011: x, fig. 17.
2012Büttner, Nils. Hieronymus Bosch. C.H. Beck Wissen. Munich, 2012: 72, 79, 110, fig. 27.
2012Rembert, Virginia Pitts. Hieronymus Bosch and the Lisbon Temptation: A View from the Third Millennium. New York, 2012: 6, color repro.
2012Jheronimus Bosch Art Center. Ruimte voor Jheroniumus Bosch . Edited by Willeke Cornelissen-van de Steeg, et al. 's-Hertogenbosch, 2012: 211, color repro.
2012Will, Chris. Between Heaven & Hell. Translated by Ruth Koenig. Reprint. Amsterdam, 2012: 80-81, color repro.
2014Hitchins, Stephen Graham. Art as History, History as Art: Jheronimus Bosch and Pieter Bruegel the Elder,--Assembling Knowledge, Not Setting Puzzles. Nijmegen Art Historical Studies 22. Turnhout, 2014: 29, 51, 62, 68 nt. 53, 315, color fig. 45.
2014Colenbrander, Herman. "Jeronimus Bosch and Diego de Guevara: The "Third" Haywain." In Jeronimus Bosch: His Patrons and his Public. Jheronimus Bosch Conference, 3rd. September 6-18, 2012, Jheronimus Bosch Art Center. 's-Hertogenbosch, 2014: 83, 88, 89, 95, 96, color repros.
2014Spronk, Ron. "Jeronimus Bosch and the Van Aken Family Workshop: Towards a Reassessment of Technique." In Jheronimus Bosch: His Patrons and his Public. Jheronimus Bosch Conference 3rd: September 6-18, 2012, Jheronimus Bosch Art Center. ‘s-Hertogenbosch, 2014: 392, 397 nt. 28.
2014Vinken, Pierre and Lucy Schlüter. "The Foreground of Bosch's Death and the Miser" and "Pieter Brugel's Birdnester and Man's Encounter with Death." Icons and Enigmas: Investigations in Art. Edited by Christopher Paparella and Heleen Vinken. Amsterdam, 2014: 77-93, 114-115, fig. 1, 7.
2016Fensom, Sarah E. "Dark Past." Review of the exhibition Vision of Genius ('s-Hertogenbosch, 2016). Art & Antiques 39, no. 4 (April 2016): 86.
2016Borchert, Till-Holger. Bosch in detail. Antwerp, 2016: 32-33, color repro.
2016Faton, Jeanne and Giulia Franceschini. "Bosch génial et visionnaire." L'Object d'art no. 522 (avril 2016): 42, 43, color repro.
2016Schwartz, Gary. Jheronimus: De wegen naar hemel en hel. Translated by Loekie Schwartz. Hilversum, 2016: 101, 102, 172, 173, 182, 185, 186, 187, 248, color repros.
2016Ilsink, Matthijs and Jos Kolderweij. Jheronimus Bosch: Visioenen van een genie. Exh. cat. 's-Hertogenbosch 2016. Brussels, 2016: 24-27 no. 12, color repros.
2016Siegal, Nina. "Upon Closer Review, Credit Goes to Bosch." New York Times 165, no. 57,130 (February 2, 2016): C1.
2016Tamis, Dorien. “Oude Kunst: Jheroniumus (Jeroen) Bosch: Wenken voor een deugdzaam leven / Jheronimus Bosch: Buitenissige fantasieën over hemel en hel.” Museumtijdschrift no. 1 (Jan/Feb 2016): 22, 24, color repro.

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