Commissioned for the Chapel of San José in Toledo by Martín Ramírez, a namesake of the saint and donor of the chapel, Saint Martin and the Beggar was part of one of the artist's most successful ensembles.
The saint, who lived during the reign of Constantine the Great, was a member of the imperial cavalry stationed near Amiens, in Gaul. Coming upon a shivering beggar near the city gates on a cold winter day, the young soldier divided his cloak with his sword and shared it with him. Tradition has it that Christ later appeared to Martin in a dream, saying, "What thou hast done for that poor man, thou hast done for me."
El Greco portrayed the fourth-century saint as a young nobleman, clad in elegant gold-damascened armor, astride a white Arabian horse. Seen from a low vantage point, the figures seem monumental, looming over the landscape with its distant view of Toledo and the river Tagus. The saint's relatively naturalistic proportions contrast with the attenuated form of the nearly nude beggar. The obvious distortion of the beggar's form suggests that he is not of this world and hints at the later revelation of his true identity in Martin's dream.
lower right in cursive Greek: doménikos theotokópoulos e'poíei (Domenicos Theotocopoulis made this)
Marks and Labels
Commissioned 9 November 1597 by the Capilla de San José [Chapel of Saint Joseph], Toledo; sold 1906 by the directors of the chapel to (Boussod Valadon, Paris); sold in same year to Peter A. B. Widener [1834-1915], Elkins Park, PA; inheritance from Estate of Peter A. B. Widener by gift through power of appointment of Joseph E. Widener [1860-1943], Elkins Park, PA.
- Loan Exhibition of Paintings by El Greco and Goya, M. Knoedler & Co., Inc., New York, 1915, 38, no. 37.
- El Greco of Toledo, The Toledo [Ohio] Museum of Art; Prado, Madrid; National Gallery of Art, Washington; Dallas Museum of Fine Arts, 1982-1983, 168, 241, no. 30, pl. 17.
- El Greco: The Illumination and Quickening of the Spirit, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; The National Gallery, London, 2003-2004, no. 38, repro.
- El Greco to Velázquez: Art during the Reign of Philip III, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; Nasher Museum of Art at Duke University, Durham, 2008, no. 1, repro.
- Picasso et les Maîtres, Galeries nationales du Grand Palais, Paris; National Gallery, London, 2008-2009, unnumbered catalogue, repro. (shown only in Paris).
- Amador de los Rios, José. Toledo pintoresco o descripción de sus más célebres monumentos. Madrid, 1845: 186.
- Parro, Sisto Ramón. Toledo en la mano o descripción histórico-artística de la magnífica catedral y de los demás célebres monumentos. 2 vols. Toledo, 1857: 2:320.
- Palazuelos, El Vizconde de. Toledo: guía artísticopráctica. Toledo, 1890: 958.
- Lafond, Paul. "La Chapelle San José de Tolède et ses peintrures du Greco." Gazette des Beaux-Arts 36 (1906): 388, repro. 387.
- Thieme, Ulrich, and Felix Becker, eds. Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart. 37 vols. Leipzig, 1907-1950: 33(1939):6.
- Cossío, Manuel B. El Greco. Madrid, 1908: 304-308, 340, 588, no. 242, pl. 46 (also 1972 rev. ed., ed. Natalia Cossío Jímenez. Barcelona, 1972: 174-175, 385-386, no. 282, fig. 53).
- Calvert, Albert F., and C. Gasquoine Hartley. El Greco. London, 1909: 122-123, pl. 94.
- Mayer, August L. El Greco. Munich, 1911: 40, 81.
- Berenson, Bernard, and William Roberts. Pictures in the Collection of P.A.B. Widener at Lynnewood Hall, Elkins Park, Pennsylvania: Early Italian and Spanish Schools. Philadelphia, 1916: unpaginated, repro.
- Paintings in the Collection of Joseph Widener at Lynnewood Hall. Intro. by Wilhelm R. Valentiner. Elkins Park, Pennsylvania, 1923: unpaginated, repro.
- Mayer, August L. Dominico Theotocopuli, El Greco. Munich, 1926: 48, no. 297.
- Rutter, Frank. El Greco. New York, 1930: 51, 62, 97, no. 77.
- Mayer, August L. El Greco. Berlin, 99, 103-104.
- Paintings in the Collection of Joseph Widener at Lynnewood Hall. Intro. by Wilhelm R. Valentiner. Elkins Park, Pennsylvania, 1931: 30, repro.
- Tietze, Hans. Meisterwerke europäischer Malerei in Amerika. Vienna, 1935: 6, repro. (English ed., Masterpieces of European Painting in America. New York, 1939: 6, repro.).
- Legendre, Maurice, and Alfred Hartmann. Domenikos Theotokopoulos Called El Greco. Paris, 1937: 459, repro.
- Goldscheider, Ludwig. El Greco. London, 1938: pl. 116.
- Widener, Peter A.B. Without Drums. New York, 1940: 59-60.
- Gudiol y Ricart, José. Spanish Painting. Exh. cat., Toledo [Ohio] Museum of Art. Toledo, 1941: 66, fig. 42.
- Works of Art from the Widener Collection. Foreword by David Finley and John Walker. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1942: 5.
- Cook 1945, 66-70, fig. 2.
- Paintings and Sculpture from the Widener Collection. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1948 (reprinted 1959): 30, no. 621, repro.
- Paintings and Sculpture from the Widener Collection. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1948 (reprinted 1959): 30, repro.
- Camón Aznar, José. Dominico Greco. 2 vols. Madrid, 2:698-703, 1382, no. 522, figs. 533, 538 (also 1970 rev. ed., 2:708-720, 1367, no. 523, figs. 587-589).
- Cairns, Huntington, and John Walker, eds., Great Paintings from the National Gallery of Art. New York, 1952: 78, color repro.
- Guinard, Paul. El Greco. Translated by James Emmons. Cleveland, 1956: 26.
- Shapley, Fern Rusk. Comparisons in Art: A Companion to the National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC. London, 1957 (reprinted 1959): pl. 36, 138
- Soehner, Halldor. "Ein Hauptwerk Grecos: die Kapelle San José in Toledo." Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte 9 (1957): 212-215, figs. 19, 22-23.
- Gaya Nuño, Juan Anotonio. La pintura española fuera de España; historia y catàlogo. Madrid, 1958: 199, no. 1337, fig 108.
- Soehner, Halldor. "Greco in Spanien" Münchner Jahrbuch der bildenden Kunst 8 (1957); 162-164, 167, fig. 39; Münchner Jahrbuch der bildenden Kunst 9/10 (1958/1959): 190, under nos. 56-57.
- Soehner, Halldor. Una obra maestra de El Greco: la Capilla de San José de Toledo. Translated by M. a de los Angeles Vázquez de Parga. Madrid, 1961: 29-30, pl. 15-16.
- Wethey, Harold E. El Greco and His School. 2 vols. Princeton, 1962: 1:47, figs. 116-118; 2:13, no. 18 (also Spanish ed. Madrid, 1967: 1:63, pls. 100-102; 2:28, no. 18).
- Summary Catalogue of European Paintings and Sculpture. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1965: 62
- Cairns, Huntington, and John Walker, eds. A Pageant of Painting from the National Gallery of Art. 2 vols. New York, 1966: 1:200, color repro.
- European Paintings and Sculpture, Illustrations. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1968: 54, repro.
- Manzini, Gianna, and Tiziana Frati. L'opera completa del Greco. Milan, 1969: no. 105-C, color pl. 16.
- Gudiol y Ricart, José. Domenikos Theotokopoulos, El Greco. Translated by Kenneth Lyons. New York, 1973: 176, 349, no. 135, color fig. 162 (also 1983 ed.: 176, 349, no. 135, color fig. 162).
- European Paintings: An Illustrated Summary Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1975: 162, repro.
- Lafuente Ferrari, Enrique, and José Manuel Pita Andrade. El Greco: The Expressionism of His Final Years. Translated by Robert E. Wolf. New York, 1975: 158, no. 58, fig. 75.
- Davies, David. El Greco. London, 1976: 14, no. 22, color pl. 22.
- King, Marian. Adventures in Art: National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. New York, 1978: 38, pl. 17.
- Watson, Ross. The National Gallery of Art, Washington. New York, 1979: 60, pl. 43.
- Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington. Rev. ed. New York, 1984: 237, no. 301, color repro.
- European Paintings: An Illustrated Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1985: 187, repro.
- Brown, Jonathan, and Richard G. Mann. Spanish Paintings of the Fifteenth through Nineteenth Centuries. The Collections of the National Gallery of Art Systematic Catalogue. Washington, D.C., 1990: 47-51, repro. 49.
- El Greco of Crete: Exhibition on the Occasion of the 450th Anniversary of his Birth. Exh. cat. Iraklion, 1990: 238, fig. 1, 371.
- National Gallery of Art, Washington. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1992: 80, repro.
- Griswold, Susanna P. "Two Paintings by El Greco: Saint Martin and the Beggar." Studies in the History of Art 41 (1993): 133, 140-148, repro. no. 1.
- Tomlinson, Janis. From El Greco to Goya: Painting in Spain, 1561-1828, New York, 1997, no. 27, repro.
- Hand, John Oliver. National Gallery of Art: Master Paintings from the Collection. Washington and New York, 2004: 113, no. 86, color repro.
- Harris, Neil. Capital Culture: J. Carter Brown, the National Gallery of Art, and the Reinvention of the Museum Experience. Chicago, 2013: 381.
In structure and condition the painting is almost identical to its companion piece, Madonna and Child with Saint Martina and Saint Agnes (1942.9.26). The support is a single piece of linen with an unusual diamond-weave pattern. The tacking edges have been removed, but the original format was retained. The wooden strip attached to the bottom is a later addition. The gypsum ground and the two layers of reddish-brown imprimatura above it do not hide the weave texture. El Greco left the imprimatura exposed in several places: notably, to outline the head and shoulders of the beggar and the upraised leg of the horse.
Analysis of several cross sections by the NGA science and conservation departments reveals a complex layering of colors above the gesso and imprimatura. The artist utilized a variety of techniques, from wet-on-wet to scumbling. Impasto was used for Martin's collar and cuffs. X-radiographs reveal that the raised index finger of the saint's left hand originally was painted lower and that the neckstrap of the horse was placed higher. There are no major losses, except in the area of a one and one-half inch wide tear, located six inches from the bottom edge and twenty inches from the left edge. The painting was taken off a panel stretcher in 1942 and relined.
 The technical notes are based on Susanna Pauli, "Two Paintings by El Greco: Saint Martin and the Beggar. Analysis and Comparison" (forthcoming publication, conservation department papers, National Gallery of Art). I am grateful to her for allowing me to discuss some of her findings here.
Work of Art
Work of Art
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- March 1–June 1
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- March 5, 2012 at 2:00
March 7, 2012 at 4:00
- East Building, Auditorium
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- 60 minutes
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