Overview

No overview.

Inscription

on the lion's head in cursive Greek: dth

Marks and Labels

null

Provenance

Commissioned 9 November 1597 by the Capilla de San José [Chapel of Saint Joseph], Toledo. Sold 1906 by the directors of the chapel, in Paris to (Boussod Valadon, Paris); sold in same year to Peter A. B. Widener [1834-1915], Elkins Park, PA;[1] inheritance from Estate of Peter A. B. Widener by gift through power of appointment of Joseph E. Widener [1860-1943], Elkins Park, PA.[2]

Exhibition History

1915
Loan Exhibition of Paintings by El Greco and Goya, M. Knoedler & Co., Inc., New York, 1915, 38, no. 36.
1976
Zapadnoevropeiskaia i Amerikanskaia zhivopis is muzeev ssha [West European and American Painting from the Museums of USA], State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad; State Pushkin Museum, Moscow; State Museums, Kiev and Minsk, 1976, unpaginated and unnumbered.
1982
El Greco of Toledo, The Toledo [Ohio] Museum of Art; Prado, Madrid; National Gallery of Art, Washington; Dallas Museum of Fine Arts, 1982-1983, 167, 241-242, 260, no. 31, pls. 49, 50.
1986
El Greco Exhibition, The National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo; Nara Prefectural Museum of Art; Aichi Art Gallery, Nagoya, 1986-1987, 195, no. 25, pl. 25.
2003
El Greco: The Illumination and Quickening of the Spirit, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; The National Gallery, London, 2003-2004, no. 39, repro., as The Virgin and Child with Saints Martina (or Thecla?) and Agnes (shown only in New York).

Bibliography

1845
Amador de los Rios, José. Toledo pintoresco o descripción de sus más célebres monumentos. Madrid, 1845: 186.
1857
Parro, Sisto Ramón. Toledo en la mano o descripción histórico-artísica de la magnífica catedral y de los demás célebres monumentos. 2 vols. Toledo, 1857: 2:320.
1890
Palazuelos, El Vizconde de. Toledo: guía artísticopráctica. Toledo, 1890: 958.
1906
Lafond, Paul. "La Chapelle San José de Tolède et ses peintures du Greco." Gazette des Beaux-Arts 36 (1906): 388-389, repro. 389.
1907
Thieme, Ulrich, and Felix Becker, eds. Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart. 37 vols. Leipzig, 1907-1950: 33(1939):6.
1908
Cossío, Manuel B. El Greco. Madrid, 1908: 303, 588, no. 241, pl. 45 (also rev. ed., ed. Natalia Cossío Jímenez. Barcelona, 1972: 172, 174, 340, n. 9, fig. 50).
1911
Mayer, August L. El Greco. Munich, 1911: 40.
1916
Berenson, Bernard, and William Roberts. Pictures in the Collection of P.A.B. Widener at Lynnewood Hall, Elkins Park, Pennsylvania: Early Italian and Spanish Schools. Philadelphia, 1916: unpaginated, repro.
1923
Paintings in the Collection of Joseph Widener at Lynnewood Hall. Intro. by Wilhelm R. Valentiner. Elkins Park, Pennsylvania, 1923: unpaginated, repro., as The Virgin with Saint Inés and Saint Tecla.
1926
Mayer, August L. Dominico Theotocopuli, El Greco. Munich, 1926: 8, no. 35, pl. 33.
1931
Paintings in the Collection of Joseph Widener at Lynnewood Hall. Intro. by Wilhelm R. Valentiner. Elkins Park, Pennsylvania, 1931: 32, repro., as The Virgin with Santa Inés and Santa Tecla.
1931
Mayer, August L. El Greco. Berlin, 1931: 83, 99.
1935
Tietze, Hans. Meisterwerke europäischer Malerei in Amerika. Vienna, 1935: 7, repro. (English ed., Masterpieces of European Painting in America. New York, 1939: 7, repro.).
1938
Goldscheider, Ludwig. El Greco. London, 1938: pl. 116 (also 1949 rev. ed.: pl. 110).
1940
Widener, Peter A.B. Without Drums. New York, 1940: 59-60.
1942
Works of Art from the Widener Collection. Foreword by David Finley and John Walker. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1942: 5, as The Virgin with Santa Inés and Santa Tecla.
1944
Cairns, Huntington, and John Walker, eds., Masterpieces of Painting from the National Gallery of Art. New York, 1944: 76, color repro., as The Virgin with Santa Inés and Santa Tecla.
1945
Cook 1945, 66, fig. 1.
1946
Favorite Paintings from the National Gallery of Art Washington, D.C.. New York, 1946: 21-24, color repro., as The Virgin with Saint Inés and Saint Tecla.
1948
Paintings and Sculpture from the Widener Collection. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1948 (reprinted 1959): 31, repro., as The Virgin with Saint Inés and Saint Tecla.
1950
Camón Aznar, José. Dominico Greco. 2 vols. Madrid, 1950: 2:692-697, 1369, no. 227, figs. 530-531 (also 1970 rev. ed., 2:704-708, 1351, no. 236, figs. 582, 584-585).
1956
Guinard, Paul. El Greco. Translated by James Emmons. Cleveland, 1956: 26.
1956
Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington. New York, 1956: 32, color repro., as THe Virgin with Saint Ines and Saint Tecla.
1957
Soehner, Halldor. "Ein Hauptwerk Grecos: die Kapelle San José in Toledo." Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte 9 (1957): 215-222, fig. 26.
1958
Gaya Nuño, Juan Anotonio. La pintura española fuera de España; historia y catàlogo. Madrid, 1958: 199, no. 1338, color pl. 6.
1958
Soehner, Halldor. "Greco in Spanien." Münchner Jahrbuch der bildenden Kunst 8 (1957): 167; Münchener Jahrbuch der bildenden Kunst 9/10 (1958/1959): 190, under nos. 56-57.
1960
Evans, Grose. Spanish Painting in the National Gallery of Art. Washington, D.C., 1960 (Booklet Number Ten in Ten Schools of Painting in the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.): 16, color repro., as The Virgin with Saint Inés and Saint Tecla.
1961
Soehner, Halldor. Una obra maestra de El Greco: la Capilla de San José de Toledo. Translated by M. a de los Angeles Vázquez de Parga. Madrid, 1961: 30-32, pls, 20-24.
1962
Wethey, Harold E. El Greco and His School. 2 vols. Princeton, 1962: 1:47, fig. 115; 2:12-13, no. 17 (also Spanish ed. Madrid, 1967: 1:63, pl. 99, 2:28, no. 17).
1963
Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.. New York, 1963 (reprinted 1964 in French, German, and Spanish): 162, no. 622, color repro. 163.
1965
Summary Catalogue of European Paintings and Sculpture. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1965: 62, as The Virgin with Saint Inès and Saint Tecla.
1966
Cairns, Huntington, and John Walker, eds. A Pageant of Painting from the National Gallery of Art. 2 vols. New York, 1966: 1:198, color repro., as The Virgin with Saint Inès and Saint Tecla.
1968
European Paintings and Sculpture, Illustrations. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1968: 54, repro., as The Virgin with Saint Inès and Saint Tecla.
1969
Manzini, Gianna, and Tiziana Frati. L'opera completa del Greco. Milan, 1969: no. 105-D, color pls. 17, 18.
1973
Gudiol y Ricart, José. Domenikos Theotokopoulos, El Greco. Translated by Kenneth Lyons. New York, 1973: 175-176, 348, no. 134, color fig. 160.
1975
European Paintings: An Illustrated Summary Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1975: 162, repro., as The Virgin with Saint Inés and Saint Tecla.
1975
Lafuente Ferrari, Enrique, and José Manuel Pita Andrade. El Greco: The Expressionism of His Final Years. Translated by Robert E. Wolf. New York, 1975: 158, no. 57, color pls. 15-17.
1984
Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington. Rev. ed. New York, 1984: 238, no. 306, color repro.
1985
European Paintings: An Illustrated Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1985: 187, repro.
1990
Brown, Jonathan, and Richard G. Mann. Spanish Paintings of the Fifteenth through Nineteenth Centuries. The Collections of the National Gallery of Art Systematic Catalogue. Washington, D.C., 1990: 51-56, color repro. 53.
1990
El Greco of Crete: Exhibition on the Occasion of the 450th Anniversary of his Birth. Exh. cat. Iraklion, 1990: 238, fig. 2, 371.
1993
Griswold, Susanna P. "Two Paintings by El Greco: Saint Martin and the Beggar." Studies in the History of Art 41 (1993): 133, 140, 142-143, 147, repro. no. 5.
1998
Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane. "Virgin/Virginity." In Encyclopedia of Comparative Iconography: Themes Depicted in Works of Art. Edited by Helene E. Roberts. 2 vols. Chicago, 1998: 2:906.
2004
Hand, John Oliver. National Gallery of Art: Master Paintings from the Collection. Washington and New York, 2004: 113, no. 87, color repro.
2011
Hall, Marcia. The Sacred Image in the Age of Art: Titian, Tintoretto, Barocci, El Greco, Caravaggio. New Haven, 2011: 237-238, color repro.

Conservation Notes

In structure and condition this painting is almost identical to its companion piece, Saint Martin and the Beggar (1942.9.25). The support is a single piece of twill-weave linen with an unusual diamond-weave pattern, lined to a plain-weave fabric. The tacking edges have been removed, but the original format was retained. The wooden strip attached to the bottom is a later addition. The gypsum ground and the two layers of reddish-brown imprimatura do not hide the weave texture. The artist utilized a variety of techniques, from wet-on-wet to scumbling. Exceptionally thick impasto can be noted on the face of Saint Martina and on the draperies of the virgin martyrs and angels. X-radiographs reveal an important change in the head of Saint Martina. A profile view of her head is visible immediately to the right of the upturned countenance in the completed painting. The features of the two faces are the same, but they are projected from different points of view. Originally, Martina's head was upright and her gaze directly focused on Agnes. The painting was taken off a panel stretcher (perhaps original) and relined in 1942.

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