The artist's wife [d. 1827]; bequeathed to her eldest son, Catherine Hampden Hoppner; bequeathed to his brother, Richard Belgrave Hoppner [d. 1872]; (sale, Christie, Manson & Woods, London, 25 March 1893, no. 358, as The Hoppner Children); (Thos. Agnew & Sons, London); sold to (M. Knoedler & Co., New York); purchased 1893 by Peter A.B. Widener, Lynnewood Hall, Elkins Park, Pennsylvania; inheritance from Estate of Peter A.B. Widener by gift through power of appointment of Joseph E. Widener, Elkins Park; gift 1942 to NGA.
- Royal Academy of Arts, London, 1791, no. 151, as Portraits of Children.
- L'Art Rétrospectif, Palais de Versailles, 1881, no. 861.
- McKay, William and William Roberts. John Hoppner, R.A. London, 1909: 127-128, 316, 336, repro. opp. 130; Supplement, 1914.
- Roberts, William. Pictures in the Collection of P.A.B. Widener at Lynnewood Hall, Elkins Park, Pennsylvania: British and Modern French Schools, Philadelphia, 1915: unpaginated, repro.
- Paintings in the Collection of Joseph Widener at Lynnewood Hall. Intro. by Wilhelm R. Valentiner. Elkins Park, Pennsylvania, 1923: unpaginated, repro.
- Paintings in the Collection of Joseph Widener at Lynnewood Hall. Intro. by Wilhelm R. Valentiner. Elkins Park, Pennsylvania, 1931: 18, repro.
- Tietze, Hans. Meisterwerke europäischer Malerei in Amerika. Vienna, 1935: 233, repro. (English ed., Masterpieces of European Painting in America. New York, 1939: 233, repro.).
- Works of Art from the Widener Collection. Foreword by David Finley and John Walker. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1942: 5.
- Paintings and Sculpture from the Widener Collection. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1948 (reprinted 1959): 91, repro.
- Cooke, Hereward Lester. British Painting in the National Gallery of Art. Washington, D.C., 1960 (Booklet Number Eight in Ten Schools of Painting in the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.): 18, color repro.
- Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. New York, 1963 (reprinted 1964 in French, German, and Spanish): 320, repro.
- Summary Catalogue of European Paintings and Sculpture. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1965: 70.
- European Paintings and Sculpture, Illustrations. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1968: 61, repro.
- European Paintings: An Illustrated Summary Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1975: 178, repro.
- Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington. New York, 1975: no. 519, color repro.
- Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington. Rev. ed. New York, 1984: 365, no. 513, color repro.
- European Paintings: An Illustrated Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1985: 207, repro.
- Wilson, John Human. "The Life and Art of John Hoppner (1758-1810)." Ph.D. diss., Courtauld Institute of Art, University of London, 1991.
- Hayes, John. British Paintings of the Sixteenth through Nineteenth Centuries. The Collections of the National Gallery of Art Systematic Catalogue. Washington, D.C., 1992: 130-133, repro. 133.
The medium-coarse canvas is tightly twill woven; it has been lined, but the tacking margins survive intact. The ground is white, of moderate thickness. There is a fairly thin medium gray imprimatura. These two layers mask much of the weave of the fabric. The painting is executed in moderately thick opaque layers with no notable areas of impasto; thinner layers of more transparent glazes modify the foreground and background landscape and shadowed areas and details of the figures. There is a broad craquelure. The paint is abraded and damaged in the region of the sky and the figures, but areas of retouching are not apparent through the discolored varnish. The paint surface has been flattened slightly during lining. The moderately thick slightly toned natural resin varnish has discolored yellow to a significant degree.