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Provenance

Said to have belonged to Comtesse Batowska (city unknown). Charles J. Wertheimer [d. 1911], London. (Duveen, New York); purchased 28 October 1911 by Peter A. B. Widener, Elkins Park, Pennsylvania, probably as Italian sixteenth century (Benvenuto Cellini); inheritance from the Estate of Peter A. B. Widener by gift through power of appointment of Joseph E. Widener, Elkins Park, 1942.

Bibliography
1935
Inventory of the Objects d'Art at Lynnewood Hall, Elkins Park, Pennsylvania, The Estate of the Late P.A.B. Widener. Philadelphia, 1935: 46-47.
1942
Works of Art from the Widener Collection. Foreword by David Finley and John Walker. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1942: 11, as Italian 16th Century (Style of Benvenuto Cellini).
1956
Steingräber, Erich. Alter Schmuck. Munich, 1956: 114, fig. 192. English ed. 1957: 113, fig. 192.
1975
Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington. New York, 1975: 36, color repro.
1979
Hackenbroch, Yvonne. Renaissance Jewellery. London and Munich, 1979: 237-238, no. 637, color pl. 29.
1981
Newman, Harold. An Illustrated Dictionary of Jewellery. London, 1981: 287, color pl. 11.
1983
Wilson, Carolyn C. Renaissance Small Bronze Sculpture and Associated Decorative Arts at the National Gallery of Art. Washington, 1983: 165-166.
1993
Distelberger, Rudolf, Alison Luchs, Philippe Verdier, and Timonthy H. Wilson. Western Decorative Arts, Part I: Medieval, Renaissance, and Historicizing Styles including Metalwork, Enamels, and Ceramics. The Collections of the National Gallery of Art Systematic Catalogue. Washington, D.C., 1993: 303-305, color repro. 303.
Technical Summary

The necklace has table-cut stones with rectangular box settings; the settings of the smaller stones are soldered on. There has been some enamel loss. The large chain links are composed of two parts mounted over one another. The sphinx is screwed to the back grid frame and to the console, which is attached to the grid. The parts of the surface which are not enameled are either punch tooled or lined. Modern screws are used.