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Miklós Boskovits (1935–2011), “Puccio di Simone, Allegretto Nuzi/Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints and Angels, and Saints Anthony Abbot and Venantius [entire triptych]/1354,” Italian Paintings of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries, NGA Online Editions, (accessed March 24, 2017).


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The creation of works of art during the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance was often a collaborative process. This triptych was painted by two artists: Puccio di Simone (Florentine, active c. 1330 - 1360), who painted the center and right-hand panels, and Allegretto Nuzi (Umbrian, active from c. 1340; died 1373), who painted the left-hand panel. The partnership of these two artists is a bit unusual, since they were not based in the same city. Allegretto was from Fabriano in the Marches region along the Adriatic coast. Puccio was regarded among the best artists in Florence—perhaps that is why he was called in to help with this altarpiece that was made for a church in Allegretto’s hometown. The church was dedicated to Saint Anthony Abbot, who appears here twice, in the left-hand wing and again as one of the four saints gathered with the angels at the throne of the Virgin and Child.

It is not difficult to see the difference in style between the two painters. Allegretto’s Anthony is serious—even the colors are sober. Puccio, on the other hand, has a sunnier palette. Notice how Mary who, per tradition, points to her son as the way of salvation, also seems to be chucking his plump, little chin.

Learn more about artistic collaborations during this period from other works in the National Gallery of Art. Huge commissions—like Duccio’s Maestà altarpiece in Siena’s cathedral (see The Calling of the Apostles Peter and Andrew and The Nativity with the Prophets Isaiah and Ezekiel)—absolutely required the participation of workshop assistants. Collaborations between independent masters was also fairly common, especially within families. Brothers-in-law Simone Martini (Sienese, active from 1315; died 1344) and Lippo Memmi (Sienese, active 1317/1347) worked together and so did the brothers Jacopo, Andrea, and Nardo di Cione (Florentine, active from c. 1340; died 1365/1366).


This triptych is in some respects unusual, even unique, in fourteenth-century painting in central Italy. First, it is unusual for an altarpiece of this kind to be characterized by such a disparity both in the distribution and in the proportions of the figures: numerous and small in the center, large in the laterals—even larger in scale than the Madonna enthroned in the main panel. Second, another very rare feature is that one of the saints, Anthony Abbot, appears twice, once in the central panel and again in the left lateral.[1] Third, and uniquely, a practically identical version (only slightly larger in size) exists in the Duomo of Macerata, though with a provenance from the church of Sant’Antonio Abate in that town.[2] It is dated 1369, and the fact that, at an interval of fifteen years, both triptychs were commissioned and their iconographic program established by a member of the Antonine order named Giovanni (Johannes) makes it likely that both were executed for the same patron.[3]

The composition at the center, with tiered angels and saints flanking the enthroned Madonna, was probably based on a model developed in a portable triptych from the shop of Bernardo Daddi (active by 1320, died probably 1348) or perhaps by the hand of Puccio di Simone himself.[4] Mary holds in her arms the naked child, who is draped from the hips downward in a precious gold-embroidered cloth [fig. 1]. With an apparently playful gesture, she points her index finger at him.[5] The Christ child is wearing a necklace with a small branch of coral as a pendant.[6] With his left hand he grasps a small bird,[7] while with the other hand he holds onto the hem of his mother’s mantle. The Madonna and child are flanked on either side by nine angels, probably alluding to the nine choirs of angels.[8] The raised throne is approached by two steps, flanked in the foreground by four saints. To the left we see Saint Catherine of Alexandria (unusually wearing the imperial crown and with a palm branch in her right hand, while her other hand is supported on the toothed wheel, instrument of her martyrdom)[9] and Saint Benedict.[10] On the other side, closest to the throne, is Saint Anthony Abbot, patron saint of the Order of Hospitallers of Saint Anthony, better known as the Antonines, dressed in the dark brown tunic and beige mantle of his order. The saint supports himself on the T-shaped handle of his staff, while at his feet a small black pig, his usual attribute, can be glimpsed.[11] The female saint standing next to him can be recognized as Saint Elizabeth of Hungary, another exemplary figure of Christian charity, who gathers up her dress in front to support a posy of brightly colored flowers.[12] Above the Madonna, Christ Crucified appears in the quatrefoil medallion of the gable.[13] In the left lateral, Saint Anthony Abbot appears once again. He is accompanied by his usual attributes. Directing his gaze at the Virgin and Child, he raises his left hand in a gesture of homage and service,[14] while with his other hand he holds the T-shaped staff. The half-figure Angel of the Annunciation appears in the trefoil medallion in the gable above his head. In the right lateral the martyr Saint Venantius is represented as a young knight dressed in a precious gold-embroidered brocaded tunic.[15] He supports a standard in his right hand. The half-figure of the Virgin Annunciate appears in the trefoil medallion above his head.

It is not known at whose suggestion this triptych, on its appearance in a London sale catalog of July 25, 1916, was cited as “A Triptych​ . . . ​attributed to Allegretto Nuzi da Fabriano.” Presumably, Bernard Berenson had occasion to see it before the sale and to connect it with the catalog of works he had begun to assemble under the name of this Marchigian master some years earlier.[16] It cannot be excluded, however, that the painting entered the Russell collection already with this attribution in the course of the nineteenth century, given its provenance from a church (and then from a collection) in Allegretto’s hometown. In fact, even if the original provenance of the altarpiece from the church of Sant’Antonio Abate in Fabriano is undocumented, it can be regarded as virtually certain. It is suggested first and foremost by the double presence of the patron saint of the Antonine order, and also by the circumstance that another work by Allegretto, dating to the year before the triptych discussed here, is also known to have a provenance from the church of Sant’Antonio fuori Porta Pisana.[17] In any case, the attribution of the triptych to Allegretto was supported with complete conviction by Berenson (1922, 1930), followed by Osvald Sirén (1924), Luigi Serra (1925, 1927–1928, 1929), Bruno Molajoli (1928), Roger Fry (1931), Lionello Venturi (1931, 1933), Umberto Gnoli (1935), Luigi Coletti (1946), Ugo Galetti and Ettore Camesasca (1951), and Pietro Toesca (1951). Robert Lehman (1928), on the other hand, accepted the attribution with some reservations.[18]

The doubts can be traced back to Raimond van Marle, who in 1924 detected in the triptych the presence of elements of Daddesque culture that he found incompatible with the attribution to Allegretto.[19] Richard Offner (1927), Helen Comstock (1928), and Mario Salmi (1930) endorsed van Marle’s doubts.[20] Some years later, Offner recognized that the work is the result of two hands: that of Allegretto, who painted only the left lateral, and that of an anonymous Florentine follower of Daddi whom Offner dubbed the “Master of the Fabriano Altarpiece” and who, he argued, was responsible for the rest of the altarpiece. These conclusions, reported for the first time in the catalog of the National Gallery of Art (NGA 1941) and then explained in detail by Offner himself (1947), were gradually accepted in all the more recent literature on the painting.[21] After more than a decade, Roberto Longhi (1959) succeeded in identifying the anonymous Florentine painter with Puccio di Simone.[22] Offner did not accept the proposal,[23] and the name of the Master of the Fabriano Altarpiece continued to survive for several years in the art historical literature. Since the mid-1970s, however, the triptych in the National Gallery of Art has been generally, and correctly, recognized as the joint work of Puccio (central and right panels) and Allegretto (left panel).

The execution of an altarpiece by two different artists can hardly have been a rarity in the practice of fourteenth-century painters: one of the most famous examples of such a collaboration is that of Simone Martini (Sienese, active from 1315; died 1344) and Lippo Memmi (Sienese, active 1317/1347) in the triptych dated 1333 now in the Uffizi, Florence, signed by both artists.[24] What is more rare is the execution of a painting by two unrelated painters of different origin and formation, such as Puccio from Florence and Allegretto from Fabriano. They could have gotten to know each other during Allegretto’s documented residence in Florence in 1346, but the style of the earlier works by this painter suggests that while in Florence he probably frequented the shops of Maso di Banco and the young Orcagna (Andrea di Cione) and not that of Bernardo Daddi, who was the mentor of Puccio in those years.[25] It is probable that the Marchigian artist remained in contact with the Florentine scene also around 1350, when perhaps he returned to work there after the devastating outbreak of the Black Death in 1348. Nor can it be excluded that it might have been at the request of the Antonine canons of Fabriano, and not by personal choice, that he sought the collaboration of a Florentine painter for the works that the order had commissioned from him in his hometown.[26]

Though its style and other data suggest that Puccio should be given credit for the overall planning of the triptych, the parts executed by the two masters can be clearly distinguished. The ornamentation of the two lateral panels—a decorative frieze delimiting the gold ground; a series of miniature lunettes around the arches, within each of which an elegant foliated motif is inserted;[27] and the decoration of the carpet that covers the floor—is identical and repeats types of decoration found in other, presumably earlier works by Puccio di Simone.[28] The central panel proposes a composition of tiered angels and saints flanking the Madonna that is unusual in paintings on a monumental scale but recurs in Puccio’s smaller panels clearly destined for private devotion. The severe and solemn figure of Saint Anthony Abbot in the left lateral [fig. 2], seen in half-profile while he raises his left hand with a nonchalant gesture of locutio, forms part of the figurative repertoire of Puccio di Simone.[29] Yet the hermit saint seems more noble in feature and more youthful in appearance than similar figures painted by Puccio, while his unwrinkled face and the fixed gaze of his almond eyes immediately betray the identity of the master who painted him: Allegretto. Allegretto, in fact, would repeat the image of the saint in a very similar way in later works, such as the lateral of a triptych in the Pinacoteca Civica in Fabriano.[30]

A very different humanity is evident in the image of Saint Venantius [fig. 3], a somewhat effeminate youth with a soft complexion, snub nose, and sharp little eyes, whose long blond locks fall over the shoulders of his sumptuous court dress.[31] With a slight smile playing on his thin lips, he complacently surveys the saints gathered around the Virgin’s throne; they too have personalities, each with individual features: etiolated and reserved female saints, their gestures expressing timidity; self-assured monks with thick, silky beards and minutely described and shadowed faces; and angels who move and dart glances with the alert grace of college girls, completely filling the available space on both sides of the throne. The naturalistic tendency that distinguishes Puccio’s style in this phase has sometimes been related to the presence in Florence of another great non-­Florentine painter, Giovanni da Milano,[32] but more likely it depends rather on other artistic developments that began to appear in Florence even earlier than the midcentury. I refer in particular to the activity, undoubtedly important (even if still difficult to quantify), of Stefano di Ricco [33] and of the Master of San Lucchese,[34] pioneers of that minute vision to which Puccio would accede after the death of Bernardo Daddi and that would characterize his output during the last decade of his life.[35] The panel now in the Pinacoteca of Fabriano and the triptych discussed here testify that in the years c. 1353–1354 Puccio had resolutely embarked on the path of pictorial realism. He is to be considered not a follower of Giovanni da Milano or of Giottino but their fellow traveler, or even perhaps their predecessor.

Miklós Boskovits (1935–2011)

March 21, 2016


left panel, on Saint Anthony's halo: .S[AN]C[TU]S.ANTONIVS.D[E].VIENA; middle panel, on the Madonna's halo: .S[AN]C[T]A.MARIA.MATER.DEI.; middle panel, on the Child's halo: IIS . XRO . M;[1] middle panel, along the base: [MCCC]LIIII.QUESTA TA[VOLA HA F]ATTA F[A]RE. FRATE GIOVANNI DA [...] (1354, this picture was commissioned by Fra Giovanni); right panel, on Saint Venantius's halo: .S[AN]C[TU]S . VENANCIVS . M[A]RTIRI (Saint Venantius Martyr)

Inscription Notes

[1] Fern Rusk Shapley, Catalogue of the Italian Paintings, 2 vols., Washington, DC, 1979: 1:383, read HS.XRO. [LUX] M[VNDI]. Presumably the first letters were intended to be IHS, the frequently used traditional abbreviation of the name of Jesus, formed, at least partially, of the letters of the Greek version of the name: ΙΗΣΟΥΣ. The second group of letters is again an incorrect transcription of the letters of the word Christus in Greek: ΧΡΙСΤΟС; see Hans Feldbusch, “Christusmonogramm,” in Reallexikon zur deutschen Kunstgeschichte, edited by Otto Schmitt and Zentralinstitut für Kunstgeschichte München, 10 vols., Stuttgart, 1937-2003: 3(1954):707-720. The meaning of the final letter M, which might be an abbreviation of various words, is difficult to interpret.


Probably commissioned for the high altar of the demolished church of Sant’Antonio Abate fuori Porta Pisana, Fabriano;[1] apparently by the early years of the nineteenth century it was no longer in this church, presumably having passed into a local private collection.[2] Joseph Russell Bailey [1840-1906], 1st Baron Glanusk, Glanusk Park, Breconshire, Wales; by inheritance to his son, Joseph Henry Russell Bailey [1864-1928], 2nd Baron Glanusk, Glanusk Park; sold in 1915.[3] (sale, Sotheby’s, London, 25 July 1916, no. 137, as by Allegretto Nuzi); purchased by Walter Dowdeswell[4] for (Duveen Brothers, Inc., London, New York, and Paris); Carl W. Hamilton [1886-1967], New York, in the early 1920s; (Duveen Brothers, Inc., London, New York, and Paris), by 1929;[5] sold 15 December 1936 to The A.W. Mellon Educational and Charitable Trust, Pittsburgh;[6] gift 1937 to NGA.

Exhibition History
Sesquicentennial Exhibition, Philadelphia, 1926.
Berenson, Bernard. "Prime opere di Allegretto Nuzi." Bollettino d’arte (1922): 296 (repro.), 297-309.
Marle, Raimond van. The Development of the Italian Schools of Painting. 19 vols. The Hague, 1923-1938: 3(1924):395; 5(1925):150.
Sirén, Osvald. "Three Early Florentine Trecento Pictures." The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs 45 (1924): 285.
Serra, Luigi. Le gallerie comunali delle Marche. Rome, 1925: 132.
Offner, Richard. Studies in Florentine Painting: The Fourteenth Century. New York, 1927: 143.
Serra, Luigi. "L’arte nelle Marche. La pittura gotica. La scuola fabrianese." Rassegna marchigiana 6 (1927-1928): 128, 129 (repro.), 130, 136, 138, 146.
Comstock, Helen. "The Bernardo Daddis in the United States." International Studio 38 (1928): 94.
Lehman, Robert. The Philip Lehman Collection, New York: Paintings. Paris, 1928: no. LXVII, repro.
Molajoli, Bruno. "La scuola pittorica fabrianese." Gentile da Fabriano: bollettino mensile per la quinta commemorazione centenaria a cura della Società Fabrianese per la Tutela del Patrimonio Artistico ed Archeologico 1 (1928): repro. 16.
Gnoli, Umberto. "Nuzi, Allegretto." In Enciclopedia italiana di scienze, lettere ed arti. Edited by Istituto Giovanni Treccani. 36 vols. Milan, 1929-1939: 25(1935):86.
Serra, Luigi. L’arte nelle Marche. Vol. 1 (of 2), Dalle origini cristiane alla fine del gotico. Pesaro, 1929: 280-281, 286, 287, 288, 293, fig. 462.
Berenson, Bernard. Studies in Medieval Painting. New Haven, 1930: 63-73, fig. 51.
Salmi, Mario. "Review of L’arte nelle Marche dalle origini cristiane alla fine del Gotico by Luigi Serra." Rivista d’arte 12 (1930): 303, 308.
Fry, Roger. "Mr Berenson on Medieval Painting." The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs 58, no. 338 (1931): 245.
Venturi, Lionello. Pitture italiane in America. Milan, 1931: no. 87, repro.
Venturi, Lionello. Italian Paintings in America. Translated by Countess Vanden Heuvel and Charles Marriott. 3 vols. New York and Milan, 1933: 1:no. 107, repro.
Coletti, Luigi. I Primitivi. 3 vols. Novara, 1941-1947: 2(1946):xlix.
Duveen Brothers. Duveen Pictures in Public Collections of America. New York, 1941: no. 21, as by Alegretto Nuzi.
Preliminary Catalogue of Paintings and Sculpture. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1941: 128, 142, no. 6, as by Allegretto Nuzi and Master of the Fabriano Altarpiece.
Book of Illustrations. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1942: 239, repro. 159, as by Allegretto Nuzi and Master of the Fabriano Altarpiece.
Friedmann, Herbert. The Symbolic Goldfinch. Its History and Significance in European Devotional Art. Washington, DC, 1946: 26, 120, 159, pl. 112.
Offner, Richard. A Critical and Historical Corpus of Florentine Painting. The Fourteenth Century. Sec. III, Vol. V: Master of San Martino alla Palma; Assistant of Daddi; Master of the Fabriano Altarpiece. New York, 1947: 141, 144, 145, 148, 149, 150, 179–184, pls. XXXVII(1–3).
Paintings and Sculpture from the Mellon Collection. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1949 (reprinted 1953 and 1958): 9, repro., as by Master of the Fabriano Altarpiece and Alegretto Nuzi.
Einstein, Lewis. Looking at Italian Pictures in the National Gallery of Art. Washington, 1951: 23 n. 1.
Galetti, Ugo, and Ettore Camesasca. Enciclopedia della pittura italiana. 3 vols. Milan, 1951: 3:1779.
Marabottini, Alessandro. "Allegretto Nuzi." Rivista d’arte 27 (1951-1952): 35-37, 47-48, fig. 6.
Meiss, Millard. Painting in Florence and Siena after the Black Death. Princeton, 1951: 53, 137 n. 20.
Toesca, Pietro. Il Trecento. Storia dell’arte italiana, 2. Turin, 1951: 677.
Kaftal, George. Saints in Italian Art. Vol. 1 (of 4), Iconography of the Saints in Tuscan Painting. Florence, 1952: 1001.
Shorr, Dorothy C. The Christ Child in Devotional Images in Italy During the XIV Century. New York, 1954: 112 n. 9, 168 n. 2.
Offner, Richard. A Critical and Historical Corpus of Florentine Painting. The Fourteenth Century. Sec. III, Vol. VIII: Workshop of Bernardo Daddi. New York, 1958: 4, 228.
Longhi, Roberto. "Qualità e industria in Taddeo Gaddi ed altri." Paragone 10, no. 111 (1959): 9-10.
Klesse, Brigitte. "Literatur zur Trecentomalerei in Florenz." Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte 25 (1962): 266.
Dal Poggetto, Paolo, ed. Arte in Valdelsa dal sec. XII al sec. XVIII. Exh. cat. Museo di Palazzo Pretorio, Certaldo. Florence, 1963: 28.
Longhi, Roberto. "Una ‘riconsiderazione’ dei primitivi italiani a Londra." Paragone 16 (1965): 13.
Marcucci, Luisa. Gallerie nazionali di Firenze. Vol. 2, I dipinti toscani del secolo XIV. Rome, 1965: 71.
Summary Catalogue of European Paintings and Sculpture. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1965: 85, as by Allegretto Nuzi and Master of the Fabriano Altarpiece.
Klesse, Brigitte. Seidenstoffe in der italienischen Malerei des 14. Jahrhunderts. Bern, 1967: 51, 135, 140, 142 (repro.), 222, 242, 335.
Aliberti Gaudioso, Filippa M., ed. Mostra di opere d’arte restaurate. Exh. cat. Palazzo Ducale, Urbino, 1968: 18.
Berenson, Bernard. Italian Pictures of the Renaissance. Central Italian and North Italian Schools. 3 vols. London, 1968: 2:304.
European Paintings and Sculpture, Illustrations. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1968: 74, repro., as by Allegretto Nuzi and Master of the Fabriano Altarpiece.
Molajoli, Bruno. Guida artistica di Fabriano. Fabriano, 1968: 64.
Vitalini Sacconi, Giuseppe. Pittura marchigiana: la scuola camerinese. Trieste, 1968: 219 n. 57.
Boskovits, Miklós. "Notes sur Giovanni da Milano." Revue de l’art 11 (1971): 58 n. 2.
Pittura nel Maceratese dal Duecento al tardo gotico. Exh. cat. Chiesa di S. Paolo, Macerata, 1971: 62.
"Allegretto Nuzi" and "Puccio di Simone." In Dizionario Enciclopedico Bolaffi dei pittori e degli Incisori italiani: dall’XI al XX secolo. Edited by Alberto Bolaffi and Umberto Allemandi. 11 vols. Turin, 1972-1976: 1(1972):80; 9(1975):260.
Fredericksen, Burton B., and Federico Zeri. Census of Pre-Nineteenth Century Italian Paintings in North American Public Collections. Cambridge, Mass., 1972: 4, 128, 316, 370, 453, 645.
Boskovits, Miklòs. Pittura umbra e marchigiana fra Medioevo e Rinascimento: studi nella Galleria Nazionale di Perugia. Florence, 1973: 39 n. 97.
Davies, Martin. "Italian School." In European Paintings in the Collection of the Worcester Art Museum. Vol. 1, Text. Edited by Worcester Art Museum. Worcester, MA, 1974: 389.
Boskovits, Miklós. Pittura fiorentina alla vigilia del Rinascimento, 1370-1400. Florence, 1975: 197-198 nn. 71-72.
Donnini, Giampiero. "On Some Unknown Masterpieces by Nuzi." The Burlington Magazine 117 (1975): 536 n. 11.
European Paintings: An Illustrated Summary Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1975: 220, repro., as by Master of the Fabriano Altarpiece and Alegretto Nuzi.
Fremantle, Richard. Florentine Gothic Painters from Giotto to Masaccio: A Guide to Painting in and near Florence, 1300 to 1450. London, 1975: 92, fig. 181.
Shapley, Fern Rusk. Catalogue of the Italian Paintings. National Gallery of Art. 2 vols. Washington, 1979: 1:383-386; 2:pl. 276.
Donnini, Giampiero. "La pittura del XIII al XVIII secolo." In La città della carta: ambiente, società, cultura nella storia di Fabriano. Edited by Giancarlo Castagnoli. Fabriano, 1982: 393-394.
Volpe, Carlo. "Il lungo percorso del ‘dipingere dolcissimo e tanto unito.’" In Storia dell’arte italiana 2: dal Medioevo al Novecento. pt. 1, dal Medioevo al Quattrocento. Edited by Federico Zeri, Giulio Bollati and Paolo Fossati. Turin, 1983: 281 n. 30, 299.
Boskovits, Miklós. A Critical and Historical Corpus of Florentine Painting. The Fourteenth Century. Sec. III, Vol. 9: The Miniaturist Tendency. Florence, 1984: 78 n. 305.
Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington. Rev. ed. New York, 1984: 73, no. 17, color reproduction, as by Master of the Fabriano Altarpiece and Allegretto Nuzi
European Paintings: An Illustrated Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1985: 320, repro.
Biagi, Enza. "Puccio di Simone." In La Pittura in Italia. Il Duecento e il Trecento. Edited by Enrico Castelnuovo. 2 vols. Milan, 1986: 2:655.
Boskovits, Miklós, ed. Frühe italienische Malerei: Gemäldegalerie Berlin, Katalog der Gemälde. Translated by Erich Schleier. Berlin, 1988: 148, 149.
Dal Poggetto, Paolo, ed. Capolavori per Urbino: Nove dipinti già di collezione Cini, ceramiche Roveresche, e altri Acquisti dello Stato (1983-1988). Exh. cat. Palazzo Ducale, Urbino. Florence, 1988: 48.
Zampetti, Pietro. Pittura nelle Marche. Vol. 1 (of 4), Dalle origini al primo Rinascimento. Florence, 1988: 120.
Baiocco, Simone. "Puccio di Simone." In Dizionario della pittura e dei pittori. Edited by Enrico Castelnuovo and Bruno Toscano. 6 vols. Turin, 1989-1994: 4(1993):465.
Monnas, Lisa. "Silk Textiles in the Paintings of Bernardo Daddi, Andrea di Cione and their Followers." Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte 53 (1990): 53.
Freuler, Gaudenz, ed. Manifestatori delle cose miracolose: arte italiana del ’300 e ’400 da collezioni in Svizzera e nel Liechtenstein. Exh. cat. Villa Favorita, Fondazione Thyssen-Bornemisza, Lugano-Castagnola. Einsiedeln, 1991: 192.
Ghisalberti, Carla. "Allegretto Nuzi." In Enciclopedia dell’arte medievale. Edited by Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana. 12 vols. Rome, 1991-2002: 1(1991):400.
Skaug, Erling S. Punch Marks from Giotto to Fra Angelico: Attribution, Chronology, and Workshop Relationships in Tuscan Panel Painting with Particular Consideration to Florence, c. 1330-1430. 2 vols. Oslo, 1994: 1:136, 137; 2:punch chart 6.1.
De Benedictis, Cristina. "Firenze. Pittura. Sec. 14°." In Enciclopedia dell’arte medievale. Edited by Istituto della Enciclopedia italiana. 12 vols. Rome, 1991-2002: 6(1995):252.
Friedman, Joan Isobel, "Nuzi, Allegretto," and Richards, John, "Puccio di Simone." In The Dictionary of Art. Edited by Jane Turner. 34 vols. New York and London, 1996: 23:323; 25:691.
Fornari Schianchi, Lucia, ed. Galleria Nazionale di Parma. Vol. 1, Catalogo delle opere dall’antico al Cinquecento. Milan, 1997: 47.
Marcelli, Fabio. Pinacoteca Civica “Bruno Molajoli”. Fano, 1997: 26.
Bruderer Eichberg, Barbara. Les neufs choeurs angéliques: origine et évolution du thème dans l’art du Moyen Âge. Poitiers, 1998: 22, 59, fig. 133.
Frinta, Mojmír S. Punched Decoration on Late Medieval Panel and Miniature Painting. Prague, 1998: 205, 217, 223, 381, 427.
Kustodieva, Tatiana K. "Una Madonna dell’Umiltà dalla collezione dell’Ermitage." Paragone 49 (1998): 7, 8, fig. 7.
Fehlmann, Marc, and Gaudenz Freuler. Die Sammlung Adolf von Stürler: in memoriam Eduard Hüttinger (1926-1998). Schriftenreihe Kunstmuseum Bern Nr 7. Bern, 2001: 84-85.
Offner, Richard, Miklós Boskovits, Ada Labriola, and Martina Ingendaay Rodio. A Critical and Historical Corpus of Florentine Painting. The Fourteenth Century. Sec. III, Vol. V: Master of San Martino alla Palma; Assistant of Daddi; Master of the Fabriano Altarpiece. 2nd ed. Florence, 2001: 18 n. 43, 21, 339, 341, 342, 345, 346, 347, 348, 349, 357, 361, 370, 383, 391-402, 415, 455, 475, 483, 501, 521, 595.
Boskovits, Miklós, and Angelo Tartuferi, eds. Dipinti. Vol. 1, Dal Duecento a Giovanni da Milano. Catalogue of the Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence. 1st ed. Florence, 2003: 237.
Moretti, Fabrizio, ed. Da Ambrogio Lorenzetti a Sandro Botticelli. Exh. cat. Galleria Moretti, Florence, 2003: 38, 42-43.
Marcelli, Fabio. Allegretto di Nuzio: pittore fabrianese. Fabriano, 2004: 12-14 (repro.), 34, 36.
Strehlke, Carl Brandon. Italian Paintings, 1250-1450, in the John G. Johnson Collection and the Philadelphia Museum of Art. Philadelphia, 2004: 22.
Boskovits, Miklós, and Daniela Parenti, eds. Da Bernardo Daddi al Beato Angelico a Botticelli: dipinti fiorentini del Lindenau-Museum di Altenburg. Exh. cat. Museo di San Marco. Florence, 2005: 192.
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Tartuferi, Angelo, ed. Da Puccio di Simone a Giottino: restauri e conferme. Exh. cat. Galleria dell’Accademia, Florence, 2005: 17, 50, 52.
Boskovits, Miklós, and Johannes Tripps, eds. Maestri senesi e toscani nel Lindenau-Museum di Altenburg. Exh. cat. Santa Maria della Scala, Siena, 2008: 218.
Gregori, Mina. "Angeli e Diavoli: genesi e percorso di Giovanni da Milano." In Giovanni da Milano: capolavori del gotico fra Lombardia e Toscana. Edited by Daniela Parenti. Exh. cat. Galleria dell’Accademia, Florence, 2008: 37.
Tartuferi, Angelo, ed. L’eredità di Giotto: arte a Firenze 1340-1375. Exh. cat. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence, 2008: 128, 132.
Boskovits, Miklós, ed. The Alana Collection, Newark, Delaware, USA. Vol. 1 (of 2), Italian Paintings from the 13th to 15th Century. Florence, 2009: 1:12, 172, 175.
Tomei, Alessandro, ed. Giotto e il Trecento: il più Sovrano Maestro stato in dipintura. 2 vols. Exh. cat. Museo Centrale del Risorgimento, Rome. Milan, 2009: 2:226.
Technical Summary

The altarpiece is constructed of three panels, the central one of which is fabricated of at least two pieces of wood with vertical grain. The original thickness of the panels was reduced to 1.3–1.7 cm, and it has been cradled. These alterations may have been accomplished during an undocumented treatment that possibly occurred in the 1920s.[1] Part of the frame is original, but the ornamental painting of the gables is a later addition.[2] The painted surface is realized on a white gesso preparation applied over a layer of fabric, whereas the gilding is applied over an additional layer of red bole. Despite some worm tunneling and the slight concavity over the join of the planks in the central panel and some resulting paint losses, which have required integrations, the panels are generally in fine condition. There is extensive inpainting in the robe of Saint Anthony and scattered inpainting in the hands of Saint Venantius, in the Virgin’s cloak, and in some of the heads of the angels; however, the thick surface coating masks the true degree of inpainting. The gold and the punched decoration at the top of the left panel above the halo of Saint Anthony, as well as in part of the halo itself, are modern.