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Provenance

Probably Robert Lindsay Eichholtz [1833-1912], Lancaster; his stepdaughter, Susan L. Ziegler; sold December 1920 to Thomas B. Clarke [1848-1931], New York;[1] his estate; sold as part of the Clarke collection 29 January 1936, through (M. Knoedler & Co., New York), to The A.W. Mellon Educational and Charitable Trust, Pittsburgh; gift 1947 to NGA.

Exhibition History
1921
Exhibition of Paintings by Early American Portrait Painters, The Union League Club, New York, November 1921, no. 11, as Mrs. Phoebe Freeman.
1928
A Loan Exhibition of Paintings by Early American Portrait Painters, The Century Association, New York, 1928, no. 10.
1928
Portraits by Early American Artists of the Seventeenth, Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries, Collected by Thomas B. Clarke, Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1928-1931, unnumbered and unpaginated catalogue, as Mrs. Phoebe Freeman.
1959
Jacob Eichholtz, Historical Society of York County, York, Pennsylvania, 1959, no. 36 (organized by Pennsylvania State Museum, Harrisburg).
1969
Jacob Eichholtz, 1776-1842, Pennsylvania Painter, A Retrospective Exhibition, Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadalphia, 1969, no. 19, pl. 6.
2003
The Worlds of Jacob Eichholtz, Portrait Painter of the Early Republic, shown at one of three simultaneous venues: The Heritage Center of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 2003, unnumbered catalogue, repro.
Bibliography
1928
Portraits by Early American Artists of the Seventeenth, Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries, Collected by Thomas B. Clarke. Exh. cat. Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1928, unnumbered, as Mrs. Pheobe Freeman.
1928
Sherman, Frederick Fairchild. "Portraits and Miniatures by Copley, Dunlap, Eichholtz, and Robert Street." Art in America 16 (April 1928): 126.
1932
Sherman 1932, 106.
1958
Beal, Rebecca J. "Further Review of the Work of Jacob Eichholtz." Dauphin County Historical Review 6 (December 1958): 28.
1960
Milley, John Calvin. "Jacob Eichholtz, 1776-1842." Master's thesis, University of Delaware, 1960: no. 292, 91.
1969
Beal, Rebecca J. Jacob Eichholtz, 1776-1842. Philadelphia, 1969: no. 292, 91.
1970
American Paintings and Sculpture: An Illustrated Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1970: 56, repro.
1980
American Paintings: An Illustrated Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1980: 153, repro.
1992
American Paintings: An Illustrated Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1992: 174, repro.
1996
Kelly, Franklin, with Nicolai Cikovsky, Jr., Deborah Chotner, and John Davis. American Paintings of the Nineteenth Century, Part I. The Collections of the National Gallery of Art Systematic Catalogue. Washington, D.C., 1996: 216, color repro. 215.
Technical Summary

The support is a medium-weight, plain-weave fabric that has been lined. The ground consists of a reddish pink layer beneath a light gray layer. Paint was applied in thin, opaque layers with little texture. Minor areas of inpainting are apparent in the bottom left and top right corners of the painting. The entire background appears to have been overpainted, as can be seen in the area surrounding the sitter's hair, where the brown has been applied over the original paint layer. The painting was relined in 1959 at which time discolored varnish was removed from the face and d├ęcolletage. The varnish has become slightly discolored.