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Overview

In this panel Bosch shows us the last moments in the life of a miser, just before his eternal fate is decided. A little monster peeping out from under the bed–curtains tempts the miser with a bag of gold, while an angel kneeling at the right encourages him to acknowledge the crucifix in the window. Death, holding an arrow, enters at the left.

Oppositions of good and evil occur throughout the painting. A lantern containing the fire of Hell, carried by the demon atop the bed canopy, balances the cross which emits a single ray of divine light. The figure in the middle ground, perhaps representing the miser earlier in his life, is shown as hypocritical; with one hand he puts coins into the strongbox where they are collected by a rat–faced demon, and with the other he fingers a rosary, attempting to serve God and Mammon at the same time. A demon emerging from underneath the chest holds up a paper sealed with red wax — perhaps a letter of indulgence or a document that refers to the miser's mercenary activities.

This type of deathbed scene derives from an early printed book, the Ars Moriendi or "Art of Dying," which enjoyed great popularity in the second half of the fifteenth century. The panel may have been the left wing of an altarpiece; the other panels — now missing — would have clarified the meaning of some aspects of the scene, such as the discarded and broken armor and weapons in the foreground.

Provenance

Private collection, England, possibly in or near Arundel, Sussex, around 1826.[1] (unnamed dealer, Highgate Village, London), c. 1926.[2] (Raven, Massey, and Lester, London), by 1926. (Asscher and Welker, London), by 1931.[3] Baron Joseph van der Elst, Brussels, Biot, France, and numerous diplomatic posts, by 1932 or slightly later.[4] sold 1951 though (Messrs. E.D. Lowy and Franz Mayer) to the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York; gift 1952 by exchange to NGA.

Exhibition History
1942
Flemish Primitives. An Exhibition Organized by the Belgian Government, M. Knoedler & Co., Inc., New York, 1942, no. 68, as Allegory of Avarice.
2001
Hieronymus Bosch, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, Rotterdam, 2001, unnumbered catalogue, ill. 21d, as Death and the Usurer.
Bibliography
1924
Friedländer, Max J. Die altniederländische Malerei 14 vols. 1924-1937. Berlin, 1937: 14:101. (English ed. Leiden, 1969. Translated by Heinz Norden. 14 vols. 1967-1976. Leiden, 1969: 5:91, 113, Suppl. 135, pl. 117.)
1932
Glück, Gustav. Bruegels Gemälde. Vienna, 1932: 57, under no. 10. (Vienna, 1937: 50, under no. 10).
1935
Baldass, Ludwig. "Ein Kreuzigungsaltar von Hieronymus Bosch." Jahrbuch der kunsthistorischen Sammlungen des allerhöchsten Kaiserhauses (Jahrbuch der kunsthistorischen Sammlungen in Wien) N.F. 9 (1935): 89.
1937
De Tolnay, Charles. Hieronymus Bosch. Basel, 1937: 27, 90, no. 7, 127, pl. 20. (English ed. Translated by Michael Bullock and Henry Mins. New York, 1966: 25, 91, 347, no. 7, repro.)
1942
Brian, Doris. "The Masters of Gothic Flanders." Art News 41, no. 5 (April 15-30, 1942): 14, 18-19, 33, repros.
1942
M. Knoedler & Co. Flemish Primitives: An Exhibition. Exh. cat. New York 1942. New York, 1942: 68.
1943
Baldass, Ludwig. Hieronymus Bosch. Vienna, 1943: 22-23, 30, 36, 68, 76-77, 236, figs. 29-30. (2nd ed. Vienna, 1959: 27, 64, 82, 229, fig. 22-23. 3rd ed. Berlin, 1968: 61-62, fig. 33, 34. Engl. ed. New York, 1960: 26-27, 75, 222, pl. 21-22, color pl. 21.)
1944
Elst, Joseph van der. The Last Flowering of the Middle Ages. Garden City, New York, 1944: 103-104, pls. 90-91. (French ed. L'age d'or flamand. Paris, 1951: 199-200, color plate.)
1945
Tervarent, Guy de. "The Origin of One of Jérôme Bosch’s Pictures." Translated by John Wrightsman and Dora Round. Message: Belgian Review 39 (January 1945): 44, fig. 1.
1946
Combe, Jacques. Jérôme Bosch. Paris, 1946: 20-21, pl. 42. (Engl. ed. Jheronimus Bosch. Translated by Ethel Duncan. Paris, 1946: 20-21, pl. 42.)
1949
Bax, Dirck. Ontcijfering van Jeroen Bosch. The Hague, 1949: 133, 239, 244, 248, 257-258, 261-263, 277, 283, fig. 58. (Engl. ed. Translated by Marie Antoinette Bax-Botha. Rotterdam, 1979: 313, 320-321, 328, 329, 340, 341, 343, 346, 364, 370, fig. 141.)
1952
Frankfurter, Alfred. "Interpreting Masterpieces: Twenty-Four Paintings from the Kress Collection." Art News Annual No. 21, 1952 50, no. 7 (November 1951): 113-114, pl. 108.
1953
Dorfles, Gillo. Bosch. Biblioteca Moderna Mondadori 360. Milan, 1953: 36, 75, 173, fig. 21.
1955
Philip, Lotte Brand. Hieronymus Bosch (about 1450-1516) . New York, 1955: 18 no. 14, 19, color repro.
1955
Popham, A. E. "An Unknown Drawing by Hieronymus Bosch." Actes du XVIIme Congrès International d'Histoire de l'Art, Amsterdam, 23-31 Juillet 1952. The Hague, 1955: 248.
1955
Shapley, Fern Rusk. "The National Gallery of Art at Washington: Acquisitions 1945-1955." The Studio 150, no. 748 (July 1955): 3, 6, repro.
1956
Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington. New York, 1956: 38, color repro.
1957
Shapley, Fern Rusk. Comparisons in Art: A Companion to the National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC. London, 1957: no. 53.
1958
Middeleeuwse Kunst der Noordelijke Nederlanden. Exh. cat. Rijksmuseum, 1958. Amsterdam, 1958: 138-139, under no. 180.
1958
Tervarent, Guy de. Attributs et symboles dans l'art profane 1450-1600. 2 vols. Geneva, 1958-1964. Traveaux d'humanisme et Renaissance 29. Geneva, 1958: 1:34.
1959
Linfert, Carl. Hieronymus Bosch: The Paintings, Complete Edition. Translated by Joan Spencer. Garden City, New York, 1959: 10, 113, pl. 26.
1959
Paintings and Sculpture from the Samuel H. Kress Collection. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1959: 280, repro.
1960
Broadley Hugh T. Flemish Painting in the National Gallery of Art (Booklet no. 5 in Ten Schools of Painting in the National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC). Washington, 1960: 8, 30-31, color repro.
1960
The National Gallery of Art and Its Collections. Foreword by Perry B. Cott and notes by Otto Stelzer. National Gallery of Art, Washington (undated, 1960s): 6.
1961
Eisler, Colin. New England Museums. Primitifs Flamands. Corpus. Brussels, 1961: 48.
1961
Seymour, Charles. Art Treasures for America: An Anthology of Paintings & Sculpture in the Samuel H. Kress Collection. London, 1961: 78-79, 208, color fig. 70-71.
1962
Adhémar, Hélène. Le Musée National du Louvre, Paris: Primitifs Flamands, Corpus. 2 vols. Brussels, 1962: 1:25, 29.
1962
Cairns, Huntington, and John Walker, eds., Treasures from the National Gallery of Art, New York, 1962: 60, color repro.
1962
Winkler, Friedrich. Review of Primitifs Flamands, Corpus: New England Museums by Colin Eisler. Kunstchronik 15 (1962): 321.
1963
Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. New York, 1963 (reprinted 1964 in French, German, and Spanish): 126-127, repro.
1965
Summary Catalogue of European Paintings and Sculpture. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1965: 17.
1966
Cairns, Huntington, and John Walker, eds. A Pageant of Painting from the National Gallery of Art. 2 vols. New York, 1966: 1:98-99, color repro.
1966
Cinotti, Mia. L'opera completa di Bosch. 1st ed. Classici dell'arte. Milan, 1966: 92, no. 15, 93, fig. 15. (French ed. Tout l'oeuvre peint de Jérôme Bosch. Translated by Simone Darses. Les Classiques De L'Art. Paris, 1967: 92, no. 15, 93, fig. 15.).
1966
Lemmens, Gerard, and Ed Taverne. "Hieronymus Bosch: Naar aanleiding van de expositie in' s-Hertogenbosch." Simiolus 2, no. 2 (1966-1967): 88.
1967
Jheronimus Bosch. Exh. cat. Noordbrabants Museum,'s-Hertogenbosch, Eindhoven, 1967: 167-168, under no. 51.
1968
Boon, Karel. "Review of Hieronymus Bosch by Charles de Tolnay." The Burlington Magazine 110, no. 780 (March 1968): 157.
1968
Cuttler, Charles D. Northern Painting, from Pucelle to Bruegel: Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and Sixteenth Centuries. New York, 1968: 201-202, fig. 252.
1968
European Paintings and Sculpture: Illustrations (Companion to the Summary Catalogue, 1965). Washington, 1968: 9, repro.
1969
Cuttler, Charles. "Bosch and the Narrenschiff: A Problem in Relationships." Art Bulletin 51, no. 3 (September 1969): 275-276, fig 8.
1970
Reuterswärd, Patrik. Hieronymus Bosch. Uppsala Studies in the History of Art, Figura nova series 7. Stockholm, 1970: 173-174, 216-217, 266-267 no. 19, fig. 35, 36.
1972
Filedt Kok, Jan Piet. "Underdrawing and Drawing in the Work of Hieronymus Bosch: A Provisional Survey in Connection with the Painting by Him in Rotterdam." Similous 6, no. 3/4 (1972-1973): 151-153, fig. 16.
1972
Snyder, James E. Review of Musée du Louvre--Inventaire général des dessins des écoles du Nord: maîtres des anciens Pays-Bas nés avant 1550 by Frits Lugt. Art Bulletin 54, no. 1 (March 1972): 89.
1973
Gibson, Walter S. Hieronymus Bosch. New York, 1973: 43, 46-47, fig. 31, color fig. 32.
1973
Sybesma, Jetske A. "Hieronymus Bosch: An Investigation of His Underdrawings." Ph.D. diss., Bryn Mawr College (1973): vii, 71, 73-78, 81, 83, 84, 87, 89, 90, 183, 184, 192, 196, 275-276, 305; Sec. 3:2 nt. 9; pls. 1-5.
1974
Rhode Island School of Design. Europe in Torment, 1450-1550. Exh. cat. Providence 1974. Providence, 1974: 76.
1975
European Paintings: An Illustrated Summary Catalogue (National Gallery of Art). Washington, 1975: 36-37, no. 1112, repro.
1975
Fraenger, Wilhelm. Hieronymus Bosch. Dresden, 1975: 250, 296-297, 515, fig. 93-95, as Sterbestube.
1975
Rowlands, John. Bosch. London, 1975: 8, 15, color pl. 16.
1977
Eisler, Colin. Paintings from the Samuel H. Kress Collection: European Schools Excluding Italian. Oxford, 1977: 66-69, figs. 60-61, text figs. 11A-C, color repro detail.
1977
Pope-Hennessy, John. "Completing the Account." Review of Colin Eisler, Paintings from the Samuel H. Kress Collection, London 1977. Times Literary Supplement no. 3,927 (17 June 1977).
1977
Silver, Larry. "Power and Pelf: A New-Found Old Man by Massys." Simiolus 9 (1977): 87-88, fig. 24.
1978
Chailley, Jacques. "Jérôme Bosch et ses symboles. Essai de décryptage." Académie royal de Belgique. Classe des Beaux-Arts. 2nd series. Mémoires 15 Fasc. 1 (1978). Brussels, 1978: 106-108.
1978
Takashina, Shuji. L'oeuvre complet de Hieronymus Bosch. In Japanese. Tokyo, 1978: 246-247, no. 7, pls. 18-19.
1979
Martin, Gregory. Hieronymus Bosch. New York, 1979: no. 7, color repro.
1979
Watson, Ross. The National Gallery of Art, Washington. New York, 1979: 54, pl. 37.
1980
Unverfehrt, Gerd. Hieronymus Bosch: Die Rezeption seiner Kunst im frühen 16. Jahrhundert. Berlin, 1980: 26, 36, 44-45, 54, 78-79, 223.
1981
Meijer, Bert W. "Titian Sketches on Canvas and Panel." Master Drawings 19, no. 3 (Autumn 1981): 284.
1982
Graziani, René. "Bosch's Wanderer and a Poverty Commonplace from Juvenal." Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 45 (1982): 212.
1982
Morganstern, Anne M. "The Pawns in Bosch's Death and the Miser." Studies in the History of Art 12 (1982): 33-41, figs. 1, 2, 4, 5.
1983
Gibson, Walter S. Hieronymus Bosch: An Annotated Bibliography. Reference Publications in Art History. Boston, 1983: 47, 53, 54, 80, 184, 188, 189, 200
1984
Editors of Time-Life Books. Ghosts. The Enchanted World. Alexandria, Va., 1984.
1984
Morganstern, Anne. "The Rest of Bosch's Ship of Fools." Art Bulletin 66, no. 2 (June 1984): 295-302, figs. 4, 12.
1984
Raupp, Hans Joachim. Untersuchungen zu Künstlerbildnis und Künstlerdarstellung in den Niederlanden im 17. Jahrhundert. Hildesheim and New York, 1984:
1984
Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington. Rev. ed. New York, 1984: 166, no. 184, color repro.
1985
European Paintings: An Illustrated Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1985: 55, repro.
1985
Snyder, James. Northern Renaissance Art: Painting, Sculpture, the Graphic Arts from 1350-1575. New York, 1985: 205, 201 color pl. 36.
1986
Hand, John Oliver and Martha Wolff. Early Netherlandish Painting. The Collections of the National Gallery of Art Systematic Catalogue. Washington, 1986: 17-22, repro. 16.
1986
Mittler, Gene A. Art in Focus. Peoria, 1986: 236-237, fig. 13.11. (4th ed. New York, 2000: 411 fig. 18.13.)
1987
Marijnissen, Rorger H. et al. Hiëronymus Bosch, het volledig oeuvre. Haarlem, 1987: 320-327, color repros. (Dutch ed. Antwerp, 1987; Dutch ed. Amsterdam, 1989; French ed. 1987; English ed. Antwerp, 1987; English ed. "Expanded with a Supplement." Translated by Ted Alkins and E.J.L. Bacon. Brussels, 2007: 320-327, viii, xiv-xv, xxxiii, color repros.)
1987
Vandenbroeck, Paul. Jeronimus Bosch: Tussen volksleven en stadscultuur. Berchem, 1987: 96-97.
1991
Covey, Herbert C. Images of Older People in Western Art and Society. New York, 1991: 155-157, fig. 41.
1992
Fiero, Gloria K. The Humanistic Tradition, vol. 3: On the Threshold of Modernity: The Renaissance and the Reformation. Dubuque, 1992: 3:76, fig. 18.9. (2nd ed., Madison, 1995: 3:81, fig. 18.9.)
1992
National Gallery of Art, Washington. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1992: 40, repro.
1992
Semenzato, Camillo. Genio e botteghe: L'arte nell'Europa tra medio evo ed etá Moderna. Milan, 1992: 172, color repro.
1992
"The Visions of Hieronymus Bosch." Scholastic Art 23, no. 2 (November 1992): 3, repro.
1993
Light and Darkness in the Baroque (17th Century I). Toyko, 1993: 46, 146, fig. 2-15.
1993
Silver, Larry. Art in History. New York, 1993: 140-141, color fig. 4.16.
1995
Kunioki, Katsu. Hoppō Runesansu. Sekai bijutsu daizenshū. Seiyō hen = New History of World Art 14. Tokyo, 1995: 137, 478, fig. 84.
1995
Proctor, Robert N. "No Time for Heroes." The Sciences 35, no. 2 (March/April 1995): 23, color repro.
1996
Ars Lignea: Zuresko elizak Euskal Herrian (Las iglesias de madera en el País Vasco). Exh. cat. Bilbao, Donostia, and Gasteiz 1997. Madrid, 1996: 81, color repro.
1996
Gibson, Walter S. "Bosch (van Aken, Hieronymus (Jheronimus)." Allgemeines Künstlerlexikon: die bildenden Künstler aller Zeiten und Völker. Munich and Leipzig, 1996: 13:161.
1996
Vinken, PIerre and Lucy Schlüter. "Pieter Bruegels Nestrover en de mens die de dood tegenmoet treedt." Nederlands kunsthistorisch jaarboek 47 (1996): 60, 61, fig. 7.
1997
Richler, Martha. National Gallery of Art, Washington: A World of Art. London, 1997: 41, color fig. 22.
1997
Schwartz, Gary. Hieronymus Bosch. First Impressions. New York, 1997: 24-25, 90, color repro.
1998
Baumann, Priscilla. "Avarice." In Encyclopedia of Comparative Iconography: Themes Depicted in Works of Art. 2 vols. Edited by Helene E. Roberts. Chicago, 1998: 1:93.
1998
McNamee, Maurice B. Vested Angels: Eucharistic Allusions in Early Netherlandish Paintings. Liturgia condenda 6. Leuven, 1998: 183-184, 187, 258, fig. 95.
1998
Nygren, Edward J. “Money." In Encyclopedia of Comparative Iconography: Themes Depicted in Works of Art. Edited by Helene E. Roberts. 2 vols. Chicago, 1998: 2:620.
1999
Raupp, Hans Joachim. "Visual Comments of the Mutability of Social Positions and Values in Netherlandish and German Art of the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries." In Showing Status: Representation of Social Positions in the Late Middle Ages. Edited by Wim Blockmans and Antheun Janse. Medieval Texts and Cultures of Northern Europe, 2. Turnhout, 1999: 287, 288 fig. 5.
2000
Aurigemma, Maria Giulia. “Nosce te ipsum: La raffigurazione della morte nei paesi dell’area Germanica e Nederleandese.” In Humana fragilitas: I temi della morte in Europa tra Duecento e Settecneto. Edited by Alberto Tenenti. Clusone, 2000: 149-150, color fig. 99.
2000
Bosch. Translated by Alison Canosa. Madrid, 2000: 27, 30, 32, color repro.
2000
Vinken Pierre and Lucy Schlüter. "The Foreground of Bosch's Death and the Miser." Oud Holland 114, no. 2/4 (2000): 69-78, fig. 1.
2001
Koldeweij, Jos, Bernard Vermet, with Barbera van Kooij, ed. Hieronymus Bosch: New Insights Into His Life and Work. Exh. cat. Rotterdam 2001. Ghent, 2001: 84, 120, 121-122, 125, 131, 207. as "Death and the Userer."
2001
Riding, Alan. "A Mystery Man Who Created Monsters." New York Times (September 23, 2001): 30.
2001
Van Gelder, Lawrence. "This Week: Mysterious Master." New York Times (August 27, 2001).
2002
Belting, Hans. Hieronymus Bosch, Garden of Earthly Delights. Translated by Ishbel Flett. Munich, 2002: 64-65, 67, color repro.
2003
Colenbrander, Herman T. “Avare vixisti: Death and the Miser by Hieronymous Bosch--Drawings, Underdrawings, Painting, and Meaning.” In Jérôme Bosch et son entorage, et autres études, edited by Hélène Verougstraete et Roger van Schoute. Le dessin sous-jacent et la technologie dans la peinture, Colloque 14, Bruges and Rotterdam, 13-15 september 2001. Leuven, 2003: 22-32.
2003
Metzger, Catherine A. "Death and the Miser: Alterations and Implications." In Jérôme Bosch et son entorage, et autres études, edited by Hélène Verougstraete and Roger van Schoute. Le dessin sous-jacent et la technologie dans la peinture, Colloque 14, Bruges and Rotterdam, 13-15 september 2001. Leuven, 2003: 39-43, color figs. 1-6.
2003
Vandenbroeck, Paul. Jeronimus Bosch: de verlossing van de wereld. Ghent and Amsterdam, 2003: 104-107, 331, repro.
2004
Hand, John Oliver. National Gallery of Art: Master Paintings from the Collection. Washington and New York, 2004: 118-119, no. 90, color repro.
2005
Snyder, James. Northern Renaissance Art: Painting, Sculpture, the Graphic Arts from 1350 to 1575. Revised by Larry Silver and Henry Luttikhuizen. Upper Saddle River, 2005: 397-398, col. fig. 16.3.
2009
König, Eberhard. “Deathbed Scene.” In The Hours of Catherine of Cleves: Devotion, Demons and Daily Life in the Fifteenth Century. Edited by Rob Dückers and Ruud Priem. Exh. cat. Nijmegen and New York, 2009. Antwerp, 2009: 274, under no. 66.
2010
Caspers, Charlotte. “A Historical Reconstruction of The Pedlar by Jersonimus Bosch.” In Jheronimus Bosch: His Sources. Jheronimus Bosch Conference, 2nd: May 22-25, 2007, Jheronimus Bosch Art Center. ‘s-Hertogenbosch, 2010: 54-55, 69 nt. 23 and nt. 26, 153, color repros.
2010
Heesen, Dick. De geheime boodschap van Jeroen Bosch. 's-Hertogenbosch, 2010: 217, color fig. 193.
2010
Landau, Blandine. “Sins of the Flesh and Human Folly: A Study of The Ship of Fools by Jheronimus Bosch. In Jheronimus Bosch: His Sources. Jheronimus Bosch Conference: 2nd, May 22-25, 2007, Jheronimus Bosch Art Center. ‘s-Hertogenbosch, 2010: 221.
2010
Vermet, Bernard. "Baldass was Right: The Chronology of the Paintings of Jheronimus Bosch.” In Jheronimus Bosch: His Sources. Jheronimus Bosch Conference, 2nd: May 22-25, 2007, Jheronimus Bosch Art Center. ‘s-Hertogenbosch, 2010: 308.
2010
Yona Pinson. “A Moralized Semi-Secular Triptych by Jeronimus Bosch.” In Jheronimus Bosch: His Sources. Jheronimus Bosch Conference, 2nd: May 22-25, 2007, Jheronimus Bosch Art Center. ‘s-Hertogenbosch, 2010: 270-273, 274 nt. 2, 276 nt. 23, 277 nt. 27, color repros.
2011
Freeman, Charles. Holy Bones, Holy Dust: How Relics Shaped the History of Medieval Europe. New Haven, 2011: x, fig. 17.
2012
Büttner, Nils. Hieronymus Bosch. C.H. Beck Wissen. Munich, 2012: 72, 79, 110, fig. 27.
2012
Jacobs, Lynn F. Opening Doors: The Netherlandish Triptych Reinterpreted. University Park, Pa., 2012: 190, fig. 82.
2012
Jheronimus Bosch Art Center. Ruimte voor Jheroniumus Bosch . Edited by Willeke Cornelissen-van de Steeg, et al. 's-Hertogenbosch, 2012: 211, color repro.
2012
Rembert, Virginia Pitts. Hieronymus Bosch and the Lisbon Temptation: A View from the Third Millennium. New York, 2012: 6, color repro.
2012
Will, Chris. Between Heaven & Hell. Translated by Ruth Koenig. Reprint. Amsterdam, 2012: 80-81, color repro.
2014
Colenbrander, Herman. "Jeronimus Bosch and Diego de Guevara: The "Third" Haywain." In Jeronimus Bosch: His Patrons and his Public. Jheronimus Bosch Conference, 3rd. September 6-18, 2012, Jheronimus Bosch Art Center. 's-Hertogenbosch, 2014: 83, 88, 89, 95, 96, color repros.
2014
Hitchins, Stephen Graham. Art as History, History as Art: Jheronimus Bosch and Pieter Bruegel the Elder,--Assembling Knowledge, Not Setting Puzzles. Nijmegen Art Historical Studies 22. Turnhout, 2014: 29, 51, 62, 68 nt. 53, 315, color fig. 45.
2014
Spronk, Ron. "Jeronimus Bosch and the Van Aken Family Workshop: Towards a Reassessment of Technique." In Jheronimus Bosch: His Patrons and his Public. Jheronimus Bosch Conference 3rd: September 6-18, 2012, Jheronimus Bosch Art Center. ‘s-Hertogenbosch, 2014: 392, 397 nt. 28.
2014
Vinken, Pierre and Lucy Schlüter. "The Foreground of Bosch's Death and the Miser" and "Pieter Brugel's Birdnester and Man's Encounter with Death." Icons and Enigmas: Investigations in Art. Edited by Christopher Paparella and Heleen Vinken. Amsterdam, 2014: 77-93, 114-115, fig. 1, 7.
2016
Borchert, Till-Holger. Bosch in detail. Antwerp, 2016: 32-33, color repro.
2016
Bosch Research and Conservation Project. Hieronymus Bosch, Painter and Draughtsman: Technical Studies. Brussels, 2016: 264, 267, 273, 276, 284, 285, 290- 295 no. 19c, 455, color figs. 19.4-5, RR53, 19.30, 1931, 19.32-33, 19.34.
2016
Faton, Jeanne and Giulia Franceschini. "Bosch génial et visionnaire." L'Object d'art no. 522 (avril 2016): 42, 43, color repro.
2016
Fensom, Sarah E. "Dark Past." Review of the exhibition Visions of a Genius ('s-Hertogenbosch, 2016). Art & Antiques 39, no. 4 (April 2016): 86.
2016
Ilsink, Matthijs and Jos Kolderweij. Jheronimus Bosch: Visioenen van een genie. Exh. cat. 's-Hertogenbosch 2016. Brussels, 2016: 24-27 no. 12, color repros.
2016
Schwartz, Gary. Jheronimus: De wegen naar hemel en hel. Translated by Loekie Schwartz. Hilversum, 2016: 101, 102, 172, 173, 182, 185, 186, 187, 248, color repros.
2016
Segnit, Nat. "Abandon All Hope: Hieronymus Bosch Comes Home." Review of the exhibition Visions of a Genius ('s-Hertogenbosch, 2016). Harper's 333, no. 1,995 (August 2016): 75-76, color repro.
2016
Siegal, Nina. "Upon Closer Review, Credit Goes to Bosch." New York Times 165, no. 57,130 (February 2, 2016): C1.
2016
Tamis, Dorien. “Oude Kunst: Jheroniumus (Jeroen) Bosch: Wenken voor een deugdzaam leven / Jheronimus Bosch: Buitenissige fantasieën over hemel en hel.” Museumtijdschrift no. 1 (Jan/Feb 2016): 22, 24, color repro.
2016
Uberquoi, Marie-Claire. “El genio en su cicuad natal.” Descubrier el arte 17, no. 207 (Mayo 2016): 42, color repro.
Technical Summary

The panel has been thinned to a veneer (maximum thickness 0.15) and laminated to another wooden panel, which has been cradled in turn; according to Eisler this was done around 1900.[1] The painting was restored in Belgium sometime prior to 1951.[2] The top left corner has been replaced with a triangular piece of veneer. Two vertical splits run the length of the painting, one 3.7 cm from the left edge and the other 4.0 cm from the right edge. There are small scratches and indentations throughout the support. The paint layer has been damaged. There are large areas of loss and subsequent restoration in the head and upper body of the figure of Death; in the approximate center of the painting, extending vertically through the lid of the chest, the left corner of the bed, and into the bed-curtain and arm of the demon; and at the right edge to the right of the corner of the bed and the standing figure in green. Moreover, extensive retouchings are scattered throughout the painting, including a narrow strip over the split at the right, extending downward from the bottom of the green robe into the low wall in the foreground. Some of the retouching has discolored.

[1] Eisler 1977, 66. [2] René Sneyers, Institut Royal du Patrimoine Artistique, Brussels, letter of 8 July 1968 to Eisler stating that the picture was restored by Albert Philippot without giving a date. Eisler 1977, 69, n. 2, cites de Tolnay 1966, 347, who says that the painting was cleaned and restored in 1937.