Overview

In 1632 Anthony van Dyck was invited to England to work at the court of Charles I. There he painted many impressive portraits, including this depiction of Queen Henrietta Maria at age 24. The French–born queen exerted a strong influence on court fashion and protocol, introducing to England the fashions of the Continent; she is shown here dressed for the hunt in a satin riding costume with a delicate lace collar instead of the stiff Elizabethan ruff.

The queen's love of amusement is symbolized by the presence of the dwarf and monkey, both royal favorites. Jeffrey Hudson, a dwarf, had been presented to the Queen as a gift when he was eight years old and remained a faithful advisor until her death.

The portrait superbly demonstrates Van Dyck's working methods and the reasons for his phenomenal success. Henrietta probably posed only briefly for a sketch, so the painting itself had to be executed from a model or mannequin attired in the queen's costume. The artist shows a tall woman with an oval face, pointed chin, and long nose. According to sketches done from life, however, the queen was actually a petite person with a round head and small features. She thus has been greatly idealized in the portrait. The fluted column emphasizes her already exaggerated height, and the crown and cloth of gold signify her royalty.

Inscription

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Marks and Labels

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Provenance

Thomas Newport [c. 1655-1719, created 1st and last Baron Torrington in 1716], London, before 1716;[1] by inheritance to his third wife and widow, Anne, Lady Torrington [d. 1735, née Anne Pierrepont], Newport House, Twickenham, and London;[2] by inheritance to her sister-in-law, Mary, Countess of Bradford [1661- 1737, née Mary Wilbraham, widow of Richard Newport, 2nd earl of Bradford of the first creation], Weston Park, Shropshire;[3] by inheritance to her daughter, Diana, Countess of Mountrath [d. 1766, née Lady Diana Newport, wife of Algernon Coote, 6th earl of Mountrath], 20-21 Grosvenor Square, London;[4] by inheritance to Caroline, Baroness Milton [1718- 1775, née Lady Caroline Sackville, wife of Joseph Damer, later 1st earl of Dorchester], Milton Abbey, Dorset;[5] by inheritance to her son, George Damer, 2nd and last earl of Dorchester [1746-1808], Milton Abbey; by inheritance to his sister, Caroline Damer [1752-1829], Milton Abbey; by inheritance to her first cousin once-removed, John Dawson, 2nd earl of Portarlington [1781-1845], Milton Abbey; by inheritance to his nephew, Henry John Reuben Dawson-Damer, 3rd earl of Portarlington [1822-1889], Emo Park, Queens County, Ireland; by exchange 1881 to Thomas George Baring, 1st earl of Northbrook [1826-1904], Stratton Park, Hampshire; by inheritance to his son, Francis George Baring, 2nd earl of Northbrook [1850-1929], Stratton Park;[6] sold March 1927 to (Duveen Brothers, Inc., London, New York, and Paris);[7] sold May 1928 to William Randolph Hearst [1863-1951], San Simeon, California; on consignment 1938 with (M. Knoedler and Co., New York) by (Parish-Watson and Co., New York), for Hearst; returned 1939 to Hearst; (his sale, held at Gimbel's and Saks Fifth Avenue by Hammer Galleries, New York, 25 March 1941, no. 174-1);[8] consigned 1952 by Hearst's estate to (M. Knoedler and Co., New York); sold September 1952 to the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York;[9] gift 1952 to NGA.

Exhibition History

1865
International Exhibition of Arts and Manufactures, Dublin, 1865, no. 32 (under Paintings).
1878
Exhibition of Works by the Old Masters. Winter Exhibition, Royal Academy of Arts, London, 1878, no. 166.
1887
Exhibition of the Works of Sir Anthony Van Dyck, Grosvenor Gallery, London, 1887, no. 35.
1927
Loan Exhibition of Flemish and Belgian Art, Burlington House, London, 1927, no. 146, repro.
1929
Eighth Loan Exhibition of Old Masters. Paintings by Anthony Van Dyck, Detroit Institute of Arts, 1929, no. 42, repro.
1938
Masters of Portraiture Lent by Several Collectors, The Century Club, New York, 1938, no. 10, repro.
1939
Masterworks of Five Centuries, Golden Gate International Exposition, San Francisco, 1939, no. 92, repro.
1940
Loan Exhibition of Allied Art for Allied Aid, M. Knoedler & Co., New York, 1940, no. 3.
1950
Diamond Jubilee Exhibition. Masterpieces of Painting, Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1950-1951, no. 31, repro.
1980
Bilder von Menschen in der Kunst des Abendlandes, Staatliche Museen Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin, 1980, no. 9, repro.
1990
Anthony van Dyck, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 1990-1991, no. 67, color repro.
1994
A Gift to America: Masterpieces of European Painting from the Samuel H. Kress Collection, four venues, 1994-1995, no. 13, repro. (shown only at first two venues: North Carolina Museum of Art, Raleigh, and Museum of Fine Arts, Houston).
1999
Van Dyck 1599-1641, Koninklijke Museum voor Schone Kunsten, Antwerp; Royal Academy of Arts, London, 1999, no. 67, repro.
1999
Velázquez, Rubens y Van Dyck: Pintores Cortesanos del Siglo XVII, Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid, 1999-2000, no. 10, repro.
2001
Great British Paintings from American Collections: Holbein to Hockney, Yale Center for British Art, New Haven; The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens, San Marino, 2001-2002, no. 3, repro.
2007
Rule Britannia! Art, Royalty & Power in the Age of Jamestown, Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond, 2007, no. 12, repro.
2008
Hearst the Collector, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 2008-2009, no. 132, repro.

Bibliography

1930
Valentiner, Wilhelm R., ed. Unknown Masterpieces in Public and Private Collections. London, 1930: n.p., pl. 47.
1956
Paintings and Sculpture from the Kress Colllection Acquired by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation 1951-56. Introduction by John Walker, text by William E. Suida and Fern Rusk Shapley. National Gallery of Art. Washington, 1956: 70-73, no. 241, repro., as Queen Henrietta Maria with Her Dwarf.
1956
Walker, John. "The Nation's Newest Old Masters." The National Geographic Magazine 110, no. 5 (November 1956): 619, 622, repro. 656.
1959
Paintings and Sculpture from the Samuel H. Kress Collection. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1959: 295, repro., as Queen Henrietta Maria with Her Dwarf.
1960
Broadley Hugh T. Flemish Painting in the National Gallery of Art (Booklet no. 5 in Ten Schools of Painting in the National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC). Washington, 1960: 9, 38-39, color repro.
1961
Seymour 1961 (Kress), 149, color repro. pl. 139, repro. pl. 140
1965
Summary Catalogue of European Paintings and Sculpture. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1965: 48, as Queen Henrietta Maria with Her Dwarf.
1975
European Paintings: An Illustrated Summary Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1975: 122, repro., as Queen Henrietta Maria with Her Dwarf.
1977
Eisler, Colin. Paintings from the Samuel H. Kress Collection: European Schools Excluding Italian. Oxford, 1977: 116-118, figs. 106, 107, color repro., as Queen Henrietta Maria with Her Dwarf.
1977
Pope-Hennessy, John. "Completing the Account." Review of Colin Eisler, Paintings from the Samuel H. Kress Collection, London 1977. Times Literary Supplement no. 3927 (17 June 1977).
1984
Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington. Rev. ed. New York, 1984: 254, no. 339, color repro., as Queen Henrietta Maria with Her Dwarf.
1985
European Paintings: An Illustrated Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1985: 147, repro., as Queen Henrietta Maria with Her Dwarf.
1992
National Gallery of Art, Washington. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1992: 53, repro.
1994
Rogers, Malcolm. "Van Dyck's Portrait of Lord George Stuart, Seigneur d'Aubigny, and Some Related Works." Studies in the History of Art 46 (1994): 263.
1998
Van der Stighelen. Van Dyck. België, 1998: 109. fig. IV.1, repros.
2004
Barnes, Susan J. Van Dyck: A Complete Catalogue of the Paintings. New Haven, 2004: IV.119
2004
Hand, John Oliver. National Gallery of Art: Master Paintings from the Collection. Washington and New York, 2004: 218-219, no. 174, color repro
2005
Fahy, Everett, ed. The Wrightsman Pictures. New Haven, 2005: 126-127, under cat 35, fig. 2.
2005
Wheelock, Arthur K., Jr. Flemish Paintings of the Seventeenth Century. The Collections of the National Gallery of Art Systematic Catalogue. Washington, D.C., 2005: 84-90, color repro.

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