Overview

The Gare Saint–Lazare, in 1873 the largest and busiest train station in Paris, is unseen in this painting. Advances in industrial technology and train travel, intrinsic to most contemporary depictions of the site, remain in Manet's painting the almost invisible background for a genre depiction of a woman and child. Confined to a narrow space backed by the black bars of an iron fence and isolated by clouds of steam sent up from a train passing below, Manet's two models are enigmatic presences. The woman is Victorine Meurent, Manet's favorite model in the 1860s, and the child was the daughter of a fellow painter who allowed Manet to use his garden to create The Railway. The composition is a complex contrapuntal apposition of the two figures: one clad in a white dress trimmed with a blue bow and the other dressed in dark blue trimmed with white; one with hair bound by a narrow black ribbon and the other with flowing tresses under a black hat; and one a child standing and looking at anonymous trains and buildings in the background and the other a seated adult staring forward to confront viewers directly.

Manet submitted four works to the Paris Salon of 1874. Of the four, only two were accepted, The Railway and a watercolor. Reviewers were critical of the unfinished appearance of The Railway and that the rail station itself was not well–defined in the picture. Although Manet never chose to associate himself officially with the impressionist group, this painting’s scene of modern life, as well as its loose, abstract effects, show the influence of the younger artists on his work.

Inscription

lower right: Manet / 1873

Marks and Labels

null

Provenance

From the artist to Jean-Baptiste Faure [1830-1914], Paris; sold c. 1881 to (Durand-Ruel et Cie, Paris and New York); sold 1898 to Henry Osborne Havemeyer [1847-1907] and his wife, née Louisine Waldron Elder [1865-1929], New York; by inheritance to their son, Horace Havemeyer [1886-1956], New York; bequest 1956 to NGA.

Exhibition History

1874
Salon of 1874, Paris, no. 1260.
1884
Exposition des Oeuvres de Edouard Manet, Ecole Nationale des Beaux-Arts, Paris, 1884, no. 68, as Le chemin de fer.
1895
Exposition of Paintings by Edouard Manet, Durand-Ruel Galleries, New York, 1895, no. 25.
1913
Loan Exhibition: paintings by Edouard Manet, Durand-Ruel Galleries, New York, 26 November - 13 December 1913, no. 12 as _Gare St. Lazare_.
1933
A Century of Progress Exhibition of Paintings and Sculpture, The Art Institute of Chicago, 1933, no. 333, repro.
1935
Independent Painters of Nineteenth Century Paris, Museum of Fine Arts, Paris, 1935, no. 29, repro.
1936
A Survey of French Painting, Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, 1936, no. 6, repro.
1936
The Twentieth Anniversary Exhibition of the Cleveland Museum of Art: The Official Art Exhibit of the Great Lakes Exposition, Cleveland Museum of Art, 1936, no. 288, repro.
1938
The Precursors of Modern Art, Rochester Memorial Art Gallery, 1938, no. 16, repro.
1940
An Exhibition of Great Paintings in Aid of the Canadian Red Cross and of Small Pictures by Members of the Ontario Society of Artists, Art Gallery of Toronto, 1940, no. 95.
1940
Exhibition of Paintings for the Benefit of The American Friends of France: The Four Great Impressionists: Cezanne, Degas, Renoir, Manet, Durand-Ruel Galleries, New York, 1940, no. 15, repro.
1940
Masterpieces of Art. European & American Paintings 1500-1900, New York World's Fair, May-October 1940, no. 280, repro.
1951
Diamond Jubilee Exhibition, Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1951, no. 67, repro.
1982
Manet and Modern Paris, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 1982-1983, no. 10, repro.
1983
Manet, Grand Palais, Paris; The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1983, no. 133, repro.
1986
Impressionist and Post-Impressionist Masterpieces from the National Gallery of Art, Washington, State Hermitage Museum, Leningrad; State Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow, 1986, no. 14, repro.
1991
Loan for display with permanent collection, Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga, Lisbon, 1991.
1993
Splendid Legacy: The Havemeyer Collection, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1993, no. 356, pl. 29.
1994
Paris in 1874: The Year of Impressionism, National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo, 1994, no. 78, repro., as Le Chemin de fer.
1998
Manet, Monet, and the Gare Saint-Lazare, Musée d'Orsay, Paris; National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 1998, no. 21, fig. 1.
2003
Manet en el Prado, Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid, 2003-2004, no. 91, repro.
2008
The Railway: Art in the Age of Steam, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool; The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, 2008-2009, no. 57, repro.
2010
Bilder einer Metropole: Die Impressionisten in Paris [Images of a Capital - The Impressionists in Paris], Museum Folkwang, Essen, 2010-2011, no. 44, repro.
2011
Impressionist and Post-Impressionist Masterpieces from the National Gallery of Art, The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston; The National Art Center, Tokyo; Kyoto Municipal Museum of Art, 2011, no. 27, repro.
2012
Manet: Portraying Life, Toledo Museum of Art, Royal Academy of Art, London, 2012-2013, no. 53, repro.

Bibliography

1874
Journal Amusant no. 927 (6 June 1874):
1874
L'Illustration 63 (23 May 1874): 341
1876
Claretie, Jules. L'Art et les artistes française contemporains. Paris, 1876: 259-260
1883
"Mistaken Impressions." Punch (May 1883): 208.
1884
Bazire, Edmond. Manet. Paris, 1884: 84
1884
Gonse, Louis. "Manet." Gazette des Beaux-Arts 2e period (February 1884): 146.
1884
Péladan, Joséphin. Le procédé de Manet." L'Artiste I (1884):115.
1884
Péladan. "Le Procédé de Manet." L'Artiste I (February 1884): 115
1892
Castagnary. Salons (1857-1879). 2 vols. Paris, 1892: 118.
1897
Proust, Antonin. "Edouard Manet. Souvenirs." La Revue blanche (February- May 1897): 179
1902
Duret, Theodore. Histoire d'Édouard Manet et de son oeuvre. Paris, 1902:no. 152, repro.
1908
Duret, Theodore. "Eduoard Manet et les impressionistes." InHistoire de paysage en France. Benoit, Françoi, et.. al. Paris, 1908: 308-309.
1908
Duret, Theordore. "Edouard Manet et les impressionnistes." In Histoire du paysage en France. Paris, 1908: 308-309.
1908
Masters in Art: Edouard Manet. Boston, 1908: 27, 40-41, repro.
1910
Duret, Théodore. Manet and the French Impressionists. Translated by J.E. Crawford Flitch. London and Philadelphia, 1910: 69-70, 76, 233, no. 152.
1912
Hourticq, Louis, Jean Laran and Georges Le Bas. French Artists of Our Day: Edouard Manet. Philadelphia, 1912: 65-66, repro.
1913
Proust, Antonin. Edouard Manet. Paris, 1913: 73, repro.
1919
Duret, Theodore. Historie de Edouard Manet et de son oeuvre. Paris, 1919: 112-115, 136-138, 141-142, 167, 256.
1923
Waldmann, Emil. Edouard Manet. Berlin, 1923: 78, repro.
1925
Blanche, Jacques-Emile. Manet. New York, 1925: 30, 46-52.
1926
Moreau-Nélaton, Etienne. Manet reconté par lui-même. 2 vols. Paris, 1926: II:11-13, 36-37, 114.
1927
Jamot, Paul. "Manet, 'Le fifre' et Victorine Meurend." La Revue de l'art ancien et moderne LI, no. 282 (January 1927): 36
1930
Tabarant, A. "Les Manet de la Collection Havemeyers." (La Renaissance (Feruary 1930: 72.
1932
Colin, Paul. Edouard Manet. Paris, 1932: 40-41, 74, repro.
1932
Huyghe, Rene. "Manet, peintre." L'Amour de l'art 13, no. 5 (May 1932): 184.
1932
Jamot, Paul, and Georges Wildenstein. Manet. 2 vols. Paris, 1932: 1:37, 91-93, 121, 146-147, no. 231.
1933
Bulliet, C.J. Art Masterpieces of a Century of Progress, Fine Arts Exhibition at the Art Institute of Chicago. 2 vols. Chicago, 1933: no. 115, repro.
1933
Century of Progress International Exposition (1933-1934 Chicago). The Official Guide Book of the Fair, Chicago, 1933: 111, repro.
1933
Rich, Daniel Catton. "The Exhibition of French Art "Art Institute" of Chicago." Formes 33 (1933): 382
1937
Lewisohn, Samuel. Painters and Personality: A Collector's View of Modern Art. New York, 1937:238, repro.
1940
Frankfurter, Alfred M. "The Four Great Impressionists." Art News XXXVIII, no. 25 (23 March 1940): 6-7, 17, repro.
1941
Jedlicka, Gotthard. Edouard Manet. Zurich, 1941: 299
1945
Malarme, Stephen. "Le jury de peinture pour 1874 et Manet." In L'oeuvres completes. Paris, 1945: 695+
1946
Rewald, John. The History of Impressionism. New York, 1946: 263, repro.
1947
Florisoone, Michel. Manet. Monoco, 1947: xiv, xvi, 115, 120, repro.
1947
Tabarant, A. Manet et ses oeuvres. Paris, 1947: 221-2, 244-5, 317, 491
1948
Bex, Maurice. Manet. Columbia series. New York, 1948: repro
1949
Blanche, Jacques-Emile. La Pêche aux souvenirs. Paris, 1949:142-143.
1954
Chan, Georges. "Les peintres impressionnistes et le chemin de fer." La Vie du rail no. 476 (1954):19+, repro.
1954
Hamilton, George Heard. Manet and His Critics. New Haven, 1954: 162, 176, 178-182, 187, 195, 208, 211, 265, repro.
1955
Bataille, Georges. Manet. Translated by Austryn Wainhouse and James Emmons. Lausanne, 1955: 12.
1955
Vaudoyer, J.-L. É. Manet. Paris, 1955, no. 36, repro.
1956
Frankfurter, Alfred. "Fifty-five years of U.S. Museums." Art News 56, no. 4 (Summer 1956): 50-51, repro.
1957
Comstock, Helen. "A Great Manet for the National Gallery." The Coinnoisseur 139, no. 561 (May 1957): 202-203, repro.
1958
Richardson, John. Edouard Manet: paintings and drawings. London, 1958: no. 43, repro.
1959
Evans, Grose. French Painting of the 19th Century in the National Gallery of Art. Washington, D.C., 1959 (Booklet Number Two in Ten Schools of Painting in the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.): 26, color repro.
1959
Frankfurter, Alfred M. "Midas on Parnassus." Art News Annual XXVIII (1959): 38, repro.
1961
Havemeyer, Louisine W. Sixteen to Sixty: Memoires of a Collector. New York, 1961:220, 236-240.
1962
Cairns, Huntington, and John Walker, eds., Treasures from the National Gallery of Art, New York, 1962: 158, color repro.
1963
Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. New York, 1963 (reprinted 1964 in French, German, and Spanish): 256, repro.
1965
Summary Catalogue of European Paintings and Sculpture. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1965: 81
1966
Cairns, Huntington, and John Walker, eds. A Pageant of Painting from the National Gallery of Art. 2 vols. New York, 1966: 2:426, color repro.
1966
Gimpel, René. Diary of an Art Dealer. Translated by John Rosenberg. New York, 1966: 121.
1966
Hamilton, George Heard. "Is Manet Still Modern?" Art News Annual XXXI (1966): 120-121, 160, 162, repro.
1966
Michener, James A. “Four Miracles—And A Masterpiece.” Reader’s Digest 89 (November 1966): 160, repro.
1968
Berhaut, Marie. Caillbotte l'Impressioniste. Lausanne, 1968:34-35
1968
European Paintings and Sculpture: Illustrations (Companion to the Summary Catalogue, 1965). Washington, 1968: 71, no. 1454, repro.
1968
Liebman, Kurt. Edouard Manet. Dresden, 1968: 67, repro.
1968
Schneider, Pierre. The World of Manet, 1832-1883. New York, 1968: 132-133, 136, 140, repro.
1969
Jaffé, Ludwig G. The World of Impressionism. Maplewood, N.J., 1969: 39, repro.
1970
Orienti, Sandra and Denis Rouart. Edouard Manet. Paris, 1970: no. 181, repro.
1970
Orienti, Sandra. The Complete Paintings of Manet. London, 1970: no. 180, repro.
1971
Nochlin, Linda. Realism. Baltimore, 1971: 162, 264, repro.
1972
Bazin, Germain. Edouard Manet. Milan, 1972: 9, 42
1972
Hanson, Anne Coffin. "Popular Imagery and the Work of Edouard Manet" in French Nineteenth Century Paintings and Literature, Ulrich Finke, ed. New York, 1972:135-138
1973
Fischel, Lilli. "Von der Bildform der französischen Impressionisten." Jahrbuch der Berliner Museen 15 (1973):94.
1973
Rewald, John. The History of Impressionism. New York, 1973: 326-7, 482, repro.
1974
Callen, Anthea. "Faure and Manet." Gazette des Beaux-Arts 83 (March 1974): 157-178.
1975
European Paintings: An Illustrated Summary Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1975: 210, repro.
1975
Lipton, Eunice. "Manet: A Radicalized Female Imagery." Artforum XIII, no. 1 (March 1975):20, 52, repro.
1975
Mauner, George. Manet: Peintre-Philosophe. University Park and London, 1975: 159
1975
Rouart, Denis and Daniel Wildenstein. Edouard Manet: catalogue raisonné. 2 vols. Lausanne, Paris, 1975: I: 6, 176-177, no. 207, repro.
1975
Weisberg, Gabriel P. "Aspects of Japanisme." Bulletin of the Cleveland Museum of Art 62 (April 1975):126-128, repro.
1976
Bellony-Rewald, Alice. The Lost World of the Impressionists. London, 1976:188, 191, 193, repro.
1976
Dorival, Bernard. "Ukiyo-e and European Painting." in Dialogue in Art: Japan and the West. ed. Chisaburo F. Yanada. Tokyo and New York, 1976: 36, repro.
1976
Richardson, John. Manet. Oxford, 1976:plate. 27.
1977
Hanson, Anne Coffin. Manet and the Modern Tradition. New Haven and London, 1977:77,190, repro. 120
1978
Cogniat, Raymond and Antoine Terrasse. Le impressionistes. Geneva, 1978: 127-128, repro.
1979
Walter, Rudolphe. "Saint Lazare l'impressioniste." L'Oeil 292 (November 1979): 48-55, repro.
1979
Watson, Ross. The National Gallery of Art, Washington. New York, 1979: 110, pl. 96.
1980
Kelder, Diane. The Great Book of French Impressionism. New York, 1980: 79, 127, 102, repro.
1981
Farwell, Beatrice. Manet and the Nude: A Study in Iconography in the Second Empire. Ph.D. diss., UCLA, 1973. New York, 1981: 160-163, repro.
1982
Isaacson, Joel. "Impressionism and Journalistic Illustration." Arts Magazine 56, no. 10 (June 1982): 107, repro.
1982
Tucker, Paul Hayes. Monet at Argenteuil. New Haven, 1982: 149, repro.
1983
Feaver, William. "What Makes Manet Modern?" Art News (December 1983) :55ff, repro.
1984
Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington. Rev. ed. New York, 1984: 454, no. 658, color repro.
1985
European Paintings: An Illustrated Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1985: 243, repro.
1986
Gay, Peter. Art and Act: On Causes in History - Manet, Gropius, Mondrian. New York, 1986:104-110, repro.
1986
The New Painting: Impressionism 1874-1886. Exh. cat. The Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco; National Gallery of Art, Washington. San Francisco, 1986: 20-21, repro.
1986
Weitzenhoffer, Frances. The Havemeyers: Impressionism Comes to America. New York, 1986:102, 129, 212, repro.
1987
Rand, Harry. Manet's Contemplation at the Gare Saint-Lazare. Berkeley, 1987:11
1987
Rand, Harry. "To the Gare Saint-Lazare." Arts 61, no. 5 (January 1987): 52 ff., repro.
1988
Hobbs, Richard, ed. Impressions of French Modernity. Manchester and New York, 1988: 51-53, repro.
1988
Reff, Theodore. "Manet and the Paris of His Time," in Kunst um 1800 und die Folgen: Werner Hofmann zu Ehren. Munich, 1988: 247+, repro.
1989
Distel, Anne. Les collectionneurs des impressionnistes. Amateurs et marchands. Paris, 1989:81, repro.
1991
Coman, Florence E., and Elizabeth P. Streicher. Joie de Vivre: French Paintings from the National Gallery of Art. New York, 1991:10.
1991
Cranshaw, Roger and Adrian Lewis. "Manet's 'Le Chemin de Fer; (1872-3): Producing the Art Historical Text." Issues (Journal of the Faculties of Architecture, Art and Design at Polytechnic of East London):2 (Winter 1991-1992):78+, repro.
1991
Darragon, Eric. Manet. Paris, 1991: 244-246, repro.
1991
Wilson-Bareau, Juliet, ed. Manet by Himself: Paintings, Pastels, Prints & Drawings. London, 1991: repro.
1992
Carr-Gomm, Sarah. Manet. London, 1992: 100, repro.
1992
Feist, Peter H. Malerei des Impressionismus 1860-1920. 2 vols. Cologne, 1992: 1:95, repro.
1992
National Gallery of Art, Washington. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1992: 192, repro.
1992
Stevenson, Lesley. Manet. New York, 1992: 155, repro.
1992
Weisberg, Gabriel P. Beyond Impressionism: The Naturalist Impulse. New York, 1992: 13, repro.
1993
Galligan, Gregory. "The Self Picture: Manet, the Mirror, and the Occupation of Realist Painting." Art Bulletin 80, no. 1 (March 1993): 153-154, repro.
1993
Manoeuvre, Laurent. Manet-Paris. Paris, 1993:56, repro.
1993
Perutz, Vivien. Edouard Manet. London, 1993: repro. plate 42.
1994
Gonse, Louis. "Manet." Gazette des Beaux-Arts 2e periode (February 1994): 146.
1994
Kranzfelder, Ivo. Edward Hopper 1882-1967: Vision der Wirklichkeit. Cologne, 1994: 67, repro.
1994
Lemaire, Gerard-Georges. Manet. Milan, 1994:repro. 25.
1994
Rubin, James H. Manet's Silence and the Poetics of Bouquets. Cambridge, 1994: 79, repro.
1995
Esterow, Milton. "Did You Ever See Anything More Beautiful?" Art News 94 (November 1995): 264.
1995
Meixner, Laura L. French Realist Painting and the Critique of American Society 1865-1900. Cambridge, 1995: 197, repro.
1996
Galassi, Peter. Henri Cartier-Bresson:The Early Work. New York, 1996:repro.
1996
Körner, Hans. Edouard Manet: Dandy, Flaneur, Maler. Munich, 1996: 157-158, 230, color fig. 127.
1996
Rathbone, Eliza E., et al. Impressionists on the Seine: A Celebration of Renoir's Luncheon of the Boating Party. Washington, 1996: 25, repro. 49.
1997
Kelder, Diane. The Great Book of French Impressionism. New York, 1997: no. 90, repro.
1997
Solana, Guillermo, ed. El Impresionismo: La visión original: Antologia de la critica de arte (1867-1895). Madrid, 1997: repro.
1998
Coignard, Jérôme. "L'impressionnisme à tout vapeur." L'Oeil 493 (February 1998): 37ff., repro.
1998
Lumpkin, Libby. The Bellagio Gallery of Fine Art: Impressionist and Modern Masters. Las Vegas, 1998: 35-37, repro.
1998
Manet, Monet, and the Gare Saint-Lazare. Exh. cat. Musée d'Orsay, Paris; National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1998: no. 21.
1998
Roters, Eberhard. Malerei des 19.Jahrhunderts: Theme und Motive. 2 vols. Cologne, 1998:I:208, repro.
1998
Zuffi, Stefano and Francesca Castira. La peinture moderne des impressionnistes aux avant-gardes. Paris, 1998:repro. 104.
1999
Brettell, Richard R. Monet to Moore: The Millennium Gift of the Sarah Lee Corporation. New Haven, 1999: 137, repro.
1999
De Seta, Cesare. Il secolo della borghesia. Turin, 1999:167-169, repro.
1999
Loughery, John. "Urban Drama." The Hudson Review 51, no. 4 (Winter 1999): 727-729.
1999
Lumpkin, Libby, ed. The Bellagio Gallery of Fine Art: European and American Masters. Las Vegas, 1999: 66, repro.
2000
Duve, Thierry de. Voici, 100 ans d'art contemporain. Exh. cat., Palais des beaux-arts, Brussels, 2000: 131+, repro.
2000
Fried, Michael. Le modernisme de Manet. Paris: 43, repro.
2000
Gallati, Barbara Dayer. "William Merritt Chase and the French Connection." Antiques (July 2000): 78, repro.
2000
Simpson, Marc. "'Offenbarungen für das Auge': Winslow Homers Milkmaids." Belvedere (2000):56-57.
2001
Southgate, M. Therese. The Art of JAMA II: Covers and Essays from The Journal of the American Medical Association. Chicago, 2001: 4-5, 206, color repro.
2004
Hand, John Oliver. National Gallery of Art: Master Paintings from the Collection. Washington and New York, 2004: 361-362, no. 297, color repro.
2006
Søndergaard, Sidsel Maria. Women in Impressionism: From Mythical Feminine to Modern Woman. Exh. cat. Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen. Milan, 2006: 163 fig. 127.
2011
Bell, Julian. "Manet: Sudden Sensuous Dazzle." Review of Manet: Inventeur du Moderne. Exh. Musée d'Orsay, Paris, 2011. New York Review of Books 58, no. 12 (July 14, 2011): 19.
2012
Jack, Belinda. The Woman Reader. New Haven, 2012: 251, fig. 50.
2012
Rosenberg, Karen. "The Week Ahead: Art." New York Times 162, no. 55,924 (October 14, 2012): AR-4, color repro.
2013
Bell, Julian. "At the Royal Academy." London Review of Books 35, no. 4 (21 February 2013): 28.
2013
Khan, Sarah. “Madame, Sie dürfen mich Eddy nennen.” Weltkunst 69 (February 2013): 62-63, color fig.
2013
Prodger, Michael. “Blank Faces.” Apollo 177, no. 607 (March 2013): 174, color repro.
2013
The Editors. "Vorschau: Manet's Gesichter." Weltkunst 68 (Januar 2013): 113, color repro.
2014
Duve, Thierry de. “The Invention of Non-Art: A History.” Artforum 52, no. 6 (February 2014): 198, 199, color fig.

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