Overview

Matthias Grünewald's The Small Crucifixion is a masterful example of the artist's ability to translate his deep spiritual faith into pictorial form. Each individual, according to Grünewald, must reexperience within himself not only the boundless joy of Christ's triumphs but also the searing pains of his crucifixion.

In order to communicate this mystical belief, Grünewald resorted to a mixture of ghastly realism and coloristic expressiveness. Silhouetted against a greenish–blue sky and illuminated by an undefined light source, Christ's emaciated frame sags limply on the cross. His twisted feet and hands, crown of thorns, agonized expression, and ragged loincloth convey the terrible physical and emotional suffering he has endured. This abject mood is intensified by the anguished expressions and demonstrative gestures of John the Evangelist, the Virgin Mary, and the kneeling Mary Magdalene.

Grünewald's dissonant, eerie colors were also rooted in biblical fact. The murky sky, for instance, corresponds to Saint Luke's description of "a darkness over all the earth" at the time of the crucifixion. Grünewald, who himself witnessed a full eclipse in 1502, has re–created here the dark and rich tonalities associated with such natural phenomena.

Today, only 20 paintings by Grünewald are extant, and The Small Crucifixion is the only one in the United States.

Inscription

upper center on placard at top of cross: I.N.R.I

Marks and Labels

null

Provenance

Wilhelm V, duke of Bavaria [d. 1597], Munich. Maximilian I, duke of Bavaria [d. 1651], Munich.[1] Private collection, western Germany, possibly Westfalia.[2] Dr. Friedrich Schöne, Essen and Stettin (now Szczecin), by 1922; purchased 27 September 1927 by Franz Wilhelm Koenigs [1881-1941], Haarlem;[3] sold 1953 by his heirs to the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York; gift 1961 to NGA.

Exhibition History

1928
Grünewald-Ausstellung, Staatliches Museum, Kupferstichkabinett, Berlin, December 1928-1929.
1929
Ausstellung alter Malerei aus Privatbesitz, Kunstmuseum, Düsseldorf, 1929, no. 27.
1935
Lent by Franz Koenigs to the Wallraf-Richartz-Museum, Cologne, for six months in 1935.
1936
Lent by Franz Koenigs to the Kaiser-Friedrich-Museum, Berlin, 1936.
1938
Meesterwerken uit vier Eeuwen 1400-1800, Museum Boymans, Rotterdam, 1938, no. 31.
1940
Deposited by Franz Koenigs and heirs with the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, from appx. 1940 to 1953, with the exception of 1952 when the painting was lent to the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.
1961
Art Treasures for America: An Anthology of Paintings & Sculpture in the Samuel H. Kress Collection, National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1961-1962, no. 75, 77, repro.

Bibliography

1675
Sandrart, Joachim von. L'academia Todesca della architectura, scultura & pittura: oder, Teutsche Academie der edlen Bau-, Bild-, und Mahlerey-Künste. Zweyten Theil. Nürnberg, 1675: 236.
1884
Niedermayer, Friedrich. "Mathias Grünewald." Repertorium für Kunstwissenschaft 7 (1884): 249-251.
1894
Reber, Franz von. Geschichte der Malerei vom Anfang des 14. bis zum Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts. Munich, 1894: 247.
1907
Schmid, Heinrich Alfred. "Grünewald, Matthias." In Thieme, Ulrich, and Felix Becker, eds. Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler, von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart . 37 vols. Leipzig, 1907-1950: 15(1922):137.
1909
Schmid, Heinrich Alfred. "Die Chronologie der Werke Grünewalds." Repertorium für Kunstwissenschaft 32 (1909): 413.
1911
Schmid, Heinrich Alfred. Die Gemälde und Zeichnungen von Matthias Grünewald. Strasbourg, 1911: 226-228.
1913
Josten, H. H. Matthias Grünewald. Bielefeld and Leipzig, 1913: 66-68, fig. 66-67.
1920
Mayer, August L. Matthias Grünewald. Munich, 1920: 11, 42-43, 82, no. 20, fig. 6
1922
Friedländer, Max J. "Grünewalds einst beim Bayernherzog bewahrte Kreuzigung." Jahrbuch der Preussischen Kunstsammlungen 43 (1922): 60-62, repro.
1922
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1923
Hagen, Oskar. Matthias Grünewald. Munich, 1923: 80-81, 89-91, 234-235, no. 2a, figs. 20a-20c.
1924
Feurstein, Heinrich. "Zur Deutung des Bildgehaltes bei Grünewald." In Buchner, Ernst and Karl Feuchtmayr, eds. Oberdeutsche Kunst der Spätgotik und Reformationszeit. Augsburg, 1924: 144, n. 3.
1925
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1926
Kloss, Ernst. "Ein verschollenes Bild Grünewalds." Zeitschrift für bildende Kunst 60 no. 12 (N.F. 36) 286.
1927
Hausenberg, Margarethe. Matthias Grünewald im Wandel der deutschen Kunstanschauung. Leipzig, 1927: 19, 39-44.
1929
Scharf, Alfred. "Alte Malerei aus Rheinisch-Westfälischem Privatbesitz: Die Jubiläumsausstellung des Kunstvereins für die Rheinlande und Westfalen in Düsseldorf." Der Cicerone 21 no. 13 (1929): 370, repro.
1930
Feurstein, Heinrich. Matthias Grünewald. Bonn, 1930: 73, 114-118, fig. 45.
1932
Feulner, Adolf. "Ein Zinnkruzifix nach Grünewald." Städel-Jahrbuch 7-8 (1932): 172.
1933
Meyenberg, Clemens. "Ein echter 'Grünewald'?" St. Meinrads Raben: Zeitschrift der Stiftsschule Einsiedeln 22 (1933): 104-107.
1935
Deusch, Werner R. Deutsche Malerei des sechzehnten Jahrhunderts. Berlin, 1935: 26, pl. 38. (English ed. New York, 1973: 28, pl. 38).
1935
Falke, Otto von, ed. "Rundschau - Köln: Wallraf-Richartz-Museum." Pantheon 16 (November 1935): 380.
1935
Knapp, Fritz. Grünewald, Bielefeld and Leipzig, 1935: 39, 41, 46, no. IX, repro.
1936
Burkhard, Arthur. Matthias Grünewald, Personality and Accomplishment. Cambridge, Mass., 1936: 10-11, 49-52, pl. 50.
1936
Fraenger, Wilhelm. Matthias Grünewald in seinen Werken: ein physiognomischer Versuch. Berlin, 1936: 11-12, repro.
1936
Troche, E. G. "Rundschau: Berlin - Deutsche Zeichnungen aus der Sammlung Koenigs-Haarlem." Pantheon 18 (September 1936): 306.
1938
Zülch, Walter Karl. Der historische Grünewald. Mathis Gothardt-Neithardt. Munich, 1938: 123-131, 324-326, no. 9, figs. 63-67a.
1939
Hürlimann, Martin, and Werner R. Deusch. Grünewald: Das Werk des Meisters Mathis Gothardt Neithardt. Berlin and Zürich, 1939: no. 49, repro.
1940
Pinder, Wilhelm. Die deutsche Kunst der Dürerzeit. Leipzig, 1940: 268.
1943
Panofsky, Erwiln. Albrecht Dürer. 2 vols. Princeton, 1943: 1:146; 2:fig. 197.
1948
Schoenberger, Guido. The Drawings of Mathis Gothart Nithart called Gruenewald. New York, 1948: 25-26, under no. 2, 45, under A4, fig. A6.
1949
Weixlgärtner, Arpad. Dürer und Grünewald. Ein Versuch, die beiden Künstler zusammen -- in ihren Besonderheiten, ihrem Gegenspiel, ihrer Zeitgebundenheit--zu verstehen. Göteborg, 1949: 28-29, 38-39, 42, 52-53, 58-59, 62-63, 72, 90-91, 152.
1949
Zülch, Walter Karl. Grünewald, Mathis Gothardt-Neithardt. Munich, 1949: 21-22, 61, no. 6, figs. 22-23.
1951
Belz, Wilhelm. "Grünewald-Kopie im Wetterau-Museum in Friedberg." Heimat im Bild (supplement to the Giessener Anzeiger) no. 1 (4 January 1951): 1-2, repro.
1953
"Das Klein-Kruzifix des Bayern-Herzogs." Die Weltkunst 23 no. 18 (23 September 1953): 4, repro.
1954
Tietze, Hans. Treasures of the Great National Galleries. New York, 1954: 117-118, 123, pl. 200.
1955
Anzelewsky, Fedja. "Albrecht Dürer und Mathias Gothardt Nithardt." In Edwin Redslob zum 70. Geburtstag. Berlin, 1955: 294.
1955
Dittmann, Lorenz. Die Farbe bei Grünewald. Munich, 1955: 120.
1955
"Famous Venetian, French and German Paintings for America: Acquisitions for the Washington, D.C. National Gallery." The Illustrated London News 227 (16 July, 1955): 115, repro.
1956
Frankfurter, Alfred. "Crystal Anniversary in the Capital." Art News 55, no. 1 (March 1956): 35, repro. 26, 27, color repro.
1956
"New Kress Gift at Washington." The Studio 151 (1956): 80, repro.
1956
_Paintings and Sculpture from the Kress Colllection Acquired by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation 1951-56. Introduction by John Walker, text by William E. Suida and Fern Rusk Shapley. National Gallery of Art. Washington, 1956: 98-103, no. 36, repros.
1956
Shapley, Fern Rusk. National Gallery of Art. Smithsonian Institution. Washington, D.C. Portfolio Number 5. Washington, 1956: no. 6, repro.
1956
Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington. New York, 1956: 9, repro.
1957
Shapley, Fern Rusk. Comparisons in Art: A Companion to the National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC. London, 1957 (reprinted 1959): pl. 24.
1957
Vogt, Adolf Max. Grünewald. Mathis Gothart Nithart, Meister gegenklassischer Malerei. Zürich and Stuttgart, 1957: 42-45, 158-159, no. 7, fig. 14.
1958
Pevsner, Nikolaus and Michael Meier. Grünewald. New York, 1958: 36, no. 59, repro.
1958
Ruhmer, Eberhard. Grünewald: The Paintings: Complete Edition with Two Essays by J.-K. Huysmans. London, 1958: 120-121, color pl. 60-61.
1958
Virch, Claus. "The Crucifixion by Hendrick Terbrugghen." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin series 2, 16 no. 8 (April 1958): 223, 224, repro.
1959
"Grünewald." Sele arte 43 (September-December 1959): 11, i, v, xi, xvi.
1959
_Paintings and Sculpture from the Samuel H. Kress Collection. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1959: 304, repro.
1960
Broadley Hugh T. German Painting in the National Gallery of Art (Booklet no. 9 in Ten Schools of Painting in the National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC). Washington, 1960: 8, 42, cover, color repro.
1960
_The National Gallery of Art and Its Collections. Foreword by Perry B. Cott and notes by Otto Stelzer. National Gallery of Art, Washington (undated, 1960s): 4, 8, 20, color repro.
1961
Seymour, Charles. Art Treasures for America: An Anthology of Paintings & Sculpture in the Samuel H. Kress Collection. London, 1961: 83-85, 211, fig. 75, color fig. 76, 77.
1962
Cairns, Huntington, and John Walker, eds., Treasures from the National Gallery of Art, New York, 1962: 68, color repro.
1962
Neugass, Fritz. "Die Auflösung der Sammlung Kress." Die Weltkunst 32 (1 January, 1962): 4.
1962
Weixlgärtner, Arpad. Grünewald. Vienna and Munich, 1962: 14, 21, 28-30, fig. 2.
1963
Lanckoronska, Maria. Matthäus Gotthart Neithart: Sinngehalt und Historischer Untergrund der Gemälde. Darmstadt, 1963: 60, 64-69, fig. 38.
1963
Sitzmann, Karl. "Grünewald, Matthias." In Encyclopedia of World Art. 16 vols. New York, Toronto, and London, 1959-1983. Vol. 7, 1963: col. 183.
1963
Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. New York, 1963 (reprinted 1964 in French, German, and Spanish): -115, color repro. (Published in French and German in 1964.)
1965
Cooke, Hereward Lester. Galeria Nacional de Washington. Translated by Maria Teresa de la Cruz. Madrid, 1965: 222-226, repros.
1965
_Summary Catalogue of European Paintings and Sculpture. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1965: 63
1965
Winzinger, Franz. "Grünewald Mathis Gothart mit Beinamen Neithart oder Nithart, genannt." In Kindlers Malerei Lexikon, edited by Germain Bazin, et al. 6 vols. Zürich, 1964-1971. Zürich, 1965: 2:790, 802, no. 18, repro. 800.
1966
Benesch, Otto. German Painting. From Dürer to Holbein, transl. H.S.B. Harrison. Geneva, 1966: 84, 86.
1966
Cairns, Huntington, and John Walker, eds. A Pageant of Painting from the National Gallery of Art. 2 vols. New York, 1966: 1:108-109, color repro.
1966
Friend, David. The Creative Way to Paint. New York, 1966: 97, fig. 133.
1966
Sedgwick, John P. Discovering Modern Art: The Intelligent Layman's Guide to Painting from Impressionism to Pop. New York, 1966: pl. 20.
1967
Galavaris, George. "Grünewald, Matthias (Matthias Gothart Nithart)." In New Catholic Encyclopedia. 16 vols. New York, 1967: 6:818-819, repro.
1967
Huysmans, Joris-Karl. Trois primitifs: les Grünewald du musée de Colmar; le Maître de Flémalle et la Florentine du musée de Francfort-sur-le-Main. Images et Idées series. Paris, 1966: 104, no. 14, repro. (After the original text of 1905, e. A. Messein.)
1968
Christensen, Erwin O. A Guide to Art Museums in the United States. New York, 1968: 130, fig. 281.
1968
Cuttler, Charles D. Northern Painting, from Pucelle to Bruegel: Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and Sixteenth Centuries. New York, 1968: 361-362, fig. 470.
1968
_European Paintings and Sculpture: Illustrations (Companion to the Summary Catalogue, 1965). Washington, 1968: 55, no. 1379, repro.
1968
Galvan, Jose Maria Moreno, ed. Galleria Nazionale di Washington. Madrid, 1968: 21, 36, color fig. 29.
1968
Gandolf, Giampaolo et al. National Gallery of Art, Washington. Great Museums of the World. New York, 1968: 13, 98, 100, 101 color repro.
1968
Lauts, Jan. Grünewald: Kreuztragung und Kreuzigung. Bildhefte der Staatlichen Kunsthalle Karlsruhe, no. 4. Karlsruhe, 1968: 33-34, color fig. 13.
1969
Behling, Lottlisa. Matthias Grünewald. Königstein im Taunus, 1969: 9-10, 31, color repro.
1969
Osten, Gert von der and Horst Vey. Painting and Sculpture in Germany and the Netherlands 1500 to 1600. Harmondsworth, 1969: 94.
1970
Cooke, Hereward Lester. The National Gallery of Art in Washington. Munich and Ahrbeck/Hanover, 1970: 86-87, color fig. 40.
1970
Easton, Stewart C. The Western Heritage, From the Earliest Times to the Present. 3rd ed. New York, 1970: repro.
1970
Ruhmer, Eberhard. Grünewald Drawings. London, 1970: 12, 93, under no. 29.
1971
Daniel, Howard. Encyclopedia of Themes and Subjects in Painting: Mythological, Biblical, Historical, Literary, Allegorical, and Topical. New York, 1971: 67, repro.
1971
Lüdecke, Heinz. Grünewald. Maler und Werk series. Dresden, 1971: 5-6, 25, fig. 2.
1971
Talbot, Charles W., ed. Dürer in America: His Graphic Work. Exh. cat. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1971: 136, under no. 35, fig. 36a.
1971
Walker, John. "The National Gallery of Art, Washington: The Founding Benefactors." The Connoisseur 178, no. 718 (December 1971): 239, repro.
1973
Geissler, Heinrich and Bernhard Saran, et al. Mathis Gothart Nithart, Grünewald: Der Isenheimer Altar. Stuttgart, 1973: 23, 218-219.
1973
Troescher, Georg. "Die Entstehung des Hochaltars der Antoniter-Praeceptorei zu Isenheim." Giessener Beiträge zur Kunstgeschichte 2 (1973): 84-89, fig. 19.
1974
Blum, Henri. "Le Problème des Signatures de Grünewald." In Grünewald et son oeuvre. Actes de la Table Ronde par le Centre Nat'l. de la Recherche, Strasbourg et Colmar, du 18-21 octobre 1974: 97, n. 11, 99-100, 101, fig. 11.
1974
Borries, Johann Eckart von. "Bemerkungen zu der Karlsruher Grünewald-Zeichnung." Grünewald et son oeuvre. In Actes de La Table Ronde par le Centre national de Recherche Scientif, Strasbourg et Colmar du 18-21 Oct. 1974. Strasbourg, 1974: 192-194, fig. 4.
1974
Glueck, Grace. "Cleveland Buys a Rare Painting." New York Times (September 17, 1974): 41.
1974
Ruhmer, Eberhard. "Grünewalds Ausstrahlung im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert." In Grünewald et son oeuvre. Actes de la Table Ronde par le Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, à Strasbourg et Colmar, du 18-21 octobre 1974. Strasbourg, 1974: 182-184.
1974
Saran, Bernhard and Felix Schmeidler, "Grünewalds `Klein-Kruzifix' und die Sonnenfinsternis vom 1. Oktober 1502." Maltechnik, 80 (May 1974): 210-220, repro.
1974
Sterling, Charles. "Grünewald vers 1500-1505." Grünewald et son oeuvre. (Actes de la Table ronde organisée par le Centre national de la recherche scientifique à Strasbourg et Colmar, du 18 au 21 octobre 1974: 130, 142, 144.
1975
Cinotti, Mia, ed. The National Gallery of Art of Washington and Its Paintings. Great Galleries of the World. Edinburgh, 1975: unpaginated, no. 93, repro.
1975
_European Paintings: An Illustrated Summary Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1975: 166, repro. 167.
1975
Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington. New York, 1975: 106, 144-145, no. 152, color repro.
1976
Bodino, Maristella and Franco De Poli. Grünewald. Milan, 1976: 34, repro., 92-93, repro.
1976
Huysmans, Joris-Karl. Grünewald. Translated from French by Robert Baldick. Oxford and New York, 1976: 14, pl. 7.
1976
Rieckenberg, Hans Jürgen. Matthias Grünewald. Herrsching, 1976: 10, 76, no. 9, pl. 12.
1977
Eisler, Colin. Paintings from the Samuel H. Kress Collection: European Schools Excluding Italian. Oxford, 1977: 19-23, figs. 20, 21, color repro.
1977
Pope-Hennessy, John. "Completing the Account." Review of Colin Eisler, Paintings from the Samuel H. Kress Collection, London 1977. Times Literary Supplement no. 3927 (17 June 1977).
1977
Vetter, Ewald M. "Wer war Matthias Grünewald?" Pantheon 35 (1977): 189.
1979
Watson, Ross. The National Gallery of Art, Washington. New York, 1979: 54-55, pl. 37.
1980
Diemer, Peter. "Wilhelm V. als Mäzen." Um Glauben und Reich. Kurfürst Maximilian I. Wittelsbach und Bayern. Exh. cat. Residenz. Munich, 1980: 2, pt 2:76, under no. 112.
1980
Goldberg, Gisela. "Zur Ausprägung der Dürer-Renaissance in München." Münchner Jahrbuch der bildenden Kunst 31 (1980): 140, 160-161, note 139.
1980
Wold, Milo Arlington, et al. An Introdcution to Music and Art in the Western World. 6th ed. Dubuque, 1980: 125, color pl 11. (10th ed. Madison, 1996: 143, color pl. 29.)
1981
Winzinger, Franz. "Zu Dürers Kaiserbildnissen." Pantheon 39, no. 3 (Jul/Aug/Sep 1981): 206-207, fig. 6.
1982
Abrams, Richard I. and Warner A. Hutchinson. An Illustrated Life of Jesus, From the National Gallery of Art Collection. Nashville, 1982: 118-119, color repro.
1982
Alsop, Joseph. The Rare Art Traditions: The History of Art Collecting and Its Linked Phenomena Wherever These Have Appeared. Bollingen series 35, no. 27. New York, 1982: 75-76, fig. 22.
1982
Spivey, Robert A. and D. Moody Smith. Anatomy of the New Testament: A Guide to Its Structure and Meaning. New York, 1982: 81, repro.
1983
Lücking, Wolf. Mathis: Nachforschungen über Grünewald. Belrin, 1983: 148-151, figs. 92, 96.
1983
Wolff, Martha. German Art of the Late Middle Ages and Renaissance in the National Gallery of Art. Washington, 1983: unpaginated, repro.
1984
Müller, Christian. Grünewalds Werke in Karlsruhe. Karlsruhe, 1984: 31, repro. 33.
1984
Scholl, Sharon. Death and the Humanities. London and Toronto, 1984: fig. 26.
1984
Steinkraus, Warren E. Philosophy of Art. Rev. ed. Oswego, 1984: 99, repro.
1984
Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington. Rev. ed. New York, 1984: 144-145, color repro.
1985
_European Paintings: An Illustrated Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1985: 192, repro.
1985
Gregory, Clive, ed. "Grünewald." In The Great Artists: Their Lives, Works, and Inspiration. 96 vols. London 1985: 37:1163, repro.
1986
Mittler, Gene A. Art in Focus. Peoria, 1986: 55, 234-235, fig. 3.16, 13.9. (Rev. ed. New York, 2000: 408, fig. 18.11.)
1987
_Asahi bijutsukan Arts Magazine no. 6 (1987?): repro.
1990
Grimm, Claus and Bernd Konrad. Die Fürstenberg Sammlungen Donaueschingen: Altdeutsche und schweizerische Malerei des 15. und 16. Jahrhunderts. Munich, 1990: 252, under no. 73.
1991
_Circa 1492: Art in the Age of Exploration. Exh. cat. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 1991: 256-257, no. 152, color repro. 257 (the painting was not in the exhibition).
1991
Kopper, Philip. America's National Gallery of Art: A Gift to the Nation. New York, 1991: 185, 187, color repro.
1992
Fiero, Gloria K. The Humanistic Tradition, vol. 3: On the Threshold of Modernity: The Renaissance and the Reformation. Dubuque, 1992: 75, fig. 18.8. (2nd ed., Madison, 1995: 3:80, fig. 18.8.)
1992
López-Ortiz, Américo Pablo, ed. "Nuestra portada." Alma Mariana 4, no. 2 (March-April 1992): cover, t.p., repro.
1992
_National Gallery of Art, Washington. New York, 1992: 66-67, color repro.
1993
Hand, John Oliver, with the assistance of Sally E. Mansfield. German Paintings of the Fifteenth through Seventeenth Centuries. The Collections of the National Gallery of Art Systematic Catalogue. Washington, 1993: 71-81, color repro. 75.
1993
"National Gallery of Art, Washington." La muse: Bulletin of the Tokyo Fuki Art Museum4, no. 27 (1993): 21, 26, repro.
1995
Harris, Stephen L. The New Testament. A Student's Introduction. 2nd ed. Mountain View, 1995: 103, repro.
1995
Löcher, Kurt. Review of German Paintings of the Fifteenth through Seventeenth Centuries, by John Oliver Hand with the assistance of Sally E. Mansfield. Kunstchronik 43 no. 1 (January 1995): 16.
1995
_New History of World Art. Tokyo, 1995: 14:278, fig. 178.
1996
Lamm, Robert C. The Humanities in Western Culture: A Search for Human Values. 10th ed. 2 vols. Madison, 1996: 2:58, fig. 17.49.
1996
Woodard, Russell Main. Revelation--A Spiritual Study. Silver Spring, 1996: repro.
1997
Richler, Martha. National Gallery of Art, Washington: A World of Art. London, 1997: 55, color fig. 13 and 14.
1997
Weininger, Susan S. "Ivan Albright in Context." In Ivan Albright. Exh. cat. Art Institute of Chicago, 1997. New York, 1997: 60, fig. 9.
1998
Saltzman, Cynthia. Portrait of Dr. Gachet: The Story of a Van Gogh Masterpiece. New York, 1998: 192.
1998
Shefer, Elain. "Death." In Encyclopedia of Comparative Iconography, edited by Helene E. Roberts. 2 vols. Chicago, 1998: 1:227, 231.
1998
Wheeler, Marion. Her Face: Images of the Virgin Mary in Art. Cobb, Calif., 1998: fig. 90 and detail.
1999
Busse, Jacques. "Grünewald, Mathias." In Dictionnaire critique et documentaire des peintres, sculpteurs dessinateurs et graveurs de tous les temps . . . (Bénézit). New ed. 14 vols. Paris, 1999: 6:500-501.
2004
Hand, John Oliver. National Gallery of Art: Master Paintings from the Collection. Washington and New York, 2004: 146-147, no. 113, color repro.
2005
Michelman, Dorothea S. "A German Treasure Trove: The National Gallery of Art." German Life (June/July 2005): 43.
2005
Sander, Jochen. Hans Holbein D.J. Tafelmaler in Basel 1515-1532. Munich, 2005: 143 nt. 61.
2006
Rosenberg, Pierre. Only in America: One Hundred Paintings in American Museums Unmatched in European Collections. Milan, 2006: 52-53, 231, 238, color fig.
2007
Gifford, E. Melanie Susanna P. Griswold, and Norma Uemura. "Matthias Grünewald's Small Crucifixion: Painting Practice and Personal Style." In La technique picturale de Grünewald et des ses contemporains, edited by Pantxika Béguerie-De Paepe and Michel Menu. Centre de recherche et de restauration des musées de France, Colloque international, 24-26 January 2006. Colmar, 2007: 73-80, color figs. 1-10d.
2007
Ravaud, Élisabeth and Elsa Lambert. "Les étapes d’élaboration du retable à travers l’imagerie scientifique." In Grünewald et le retable d'Issenheim: Regards sur un chef-d'oeuvre. Exh. cat. Musée d'Unterdenlinen 2007-2008, Colmar. Paris, 2007: 147, 242, color fig. 6. (The painting was not in the exhibition.)
2007
Reuter, Astrid, et al. Grünewald und seine Zeit. Exh. cat. Staatliche Kunsthalle Karlsruhe 2007-2008. Munich/Berlin, 2008: 15, 27, 216, 410, under no. 160, 412-413 under no. 261 fig. 160, color fig 161. (The painting was not in the exhibition.)
2007
Schubert, Michael. Der Isenheimer Altar: Geschichte, Deutung, Hintergrund. Stuttgart, 2007: 149, color repro.
2008
Roth, Michael et al. Matthias Grünewald: Zeichnungen und Gemälde. Exh. cat. Kupferstichkabinett, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, 2008. Berlin, 2008: 219-220, fig. 1. (The painting was not in the exhibition.)
2009
Hubach, Hanns. "Grünewald, Mathias." In Allgemeines Künstler-Lexicon: Die bildenden Künstler aller Zeiten und Völker. 75+ vols. Munich and Leipzig, 1992- . Munich and Leipzig, 2009: 63:389, 395.
2009
Vetter, Ewald M. Grünewald: Die Altäre in Frankfurt, Isenheim, Aschaffenburg und ihre Ikonographie. Weissenhorn, 2009: 201.
2012
Martin, François-René. “Grünewald et son art.” In Martin, François-René, Michel Menu and Sylvie Ramond, Grünewald. Paris, 2012: 15, 35, 63, 73, 75, 76, 177, 240, 244, 252, 255, 267, 279, 311, color fig. 28.

Technical Summary


[1] The wood was identified as linden by Peter Klein, examination report, 29 September 1987, in NGA curatorial files.
[2] Schoenberger 1922, 36, and Zülch 1938, 325, mention unpainted edges; Schoenberger states that a chalk ground extended over the unpainted edges.
[3] Schoenberger 1922, 35-36, describes the painting's condition.
[4] According to Zülch 1938, 325, the painting was treated twice before it was restored by Otto Klein in 1936. See also the memorandum recording a conversation between William P. Campbell and Otto Klein, 8 May 1970, in NGA curatorial files; and Saran and Schmeidler 1974, 212-213, based on an interview with Klein in 1965. The letters mg were accepted as autograph by Zülch 1938, 325, and many subsequent authors. Kress 1956, 100, suggested that the letters were from the seventeenth century and stood for "Mathis Grünewald." I am grateful to Laetitia Yeandle, curator of manuscripts, Folger Shakespeare Library, for her paleographic observations.

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