Pieter Saenredam specialized in the painting of church interiors characterized by a luminous and detailed treatment of the architecture that carries the elegance of abstract design. In this portrayal of the fifteenth-century Cathedral of Saint John, an inscription on the choir stall in the lower left corner identifies the subject and dates the picture 1646. Saenredam seems to provide an accurate rendering of the spacious and light-filled interior; yet the relationship of this image to the actual site is quite complicated.
In 1629 ’s-Hertogenbosch had been recaptured by the rebel forces of the United Provinces; as a result, the cathedral became a site of Protestant worship and was stripped of all objects associated with Catholic liturgy, including the stained-glass windows. On July 1, 1632, Saenredam visited the church and made four drawings of its interior. One of these shows the whitewashed vaulted ceiling, the elaborate black-and-white baroque altar with statues of the Virgin and Child with Saint John, a curtain where the altarpiece used to be, and the memorial tablets to the Habsburg rulers Philip II and Albert of Austria above the altar. A second drawing depicts the baroque tomb of Gisbertus Masius, a former bishop of ’s-Hertogenbosch, with a life-size effigy of Masius kneeling in front of an altar.
Saenredam did not create this painting until 1646, and in it he altered the reality of the church’s appearance at the time. Not only did he slightly change the proportions of columns and arches to enhance the soaring quality of the Gothic architecture, but he also inserted Abraham Bloemaert’s 1612 painting of the Adoration of the Shepherds on the high altar, a work that actually graced a nearby convent. Priests leaving for exile in the southern Netherlands had carted away the cathedral’s original altarpiece, God with Christ and The Virgin as Intercessors, 1615, also by Bloemaert. Saenredam included the kneeling sculpture of Bishop Masius on the left hand side of the painting, which likely was created at the request of a Catholic patron. Through all of these changes Saenredam resurrected the cathedral as a place of Catholic worship at a time when it had become a Protestant church.
In this depiction of the Sint Janskathedraal (Cathedral of Saint John),
The Sint Janskathedraal is also known as the Sint Janskerk.
The Sint Janskathedraal is the largest Gothic cathedral in the Netherlands. When Saenredam painted this image in 1646 he conceived it in such a way as to include the full scope of the late-fifteenth-century choir. From this low vantage point just inside the crossing, the pilasters that rise without interruption from their bases to the light-filled, vaulted ceiling give the space a dynamic, vertical thrust. As the central ribs of the pilasters arch out to form the ribs that support the vault, their color changes from light ocher to delicate pink. Saenredam has placed the keystone of the vault at the very top of the painting in a way that pulls together the richly ornate architectural elements. Despite the apparent reality of the scene, however, the relationship of this image to the actual site is quite complicated. Saenredam has shifted certain forms for compositional reasons. The two arches in the arcade on the right, for example, are rounded rather than pointed, an adjustment undoubtedly made because pointed arches would have appeared quite distorted in this perspectival arrangement.
It seems unlikely, as some have argued, that these changes were made for religious considerations. See E. Jane Connell, “The Romanization of the Gothic Arch in Some Paintings by Pieter Saenredam: Catholic and Protestant Implications,” Rutgers Art Review 1 (January 1980): 30.
The origins of the story actually predate the execution of the painting by seventeen years and are intimately connected with one of the most important military exploits during the reign of Prince Frederik Hendrik: the siege of ’s-Hertogenbosch in 1629. With the capitulation of the city to the forces of the States General on September 14 of that year, Frederik Hendrik had achieved his greatest victory in the long struggle against the Spanish forces of the southern Netherlands. Efforts were immediately made to cleanse this Catholic stronghold of papist influence. Catholic services were forbidden in the city, priests were forced to leave, and the churches were confiscated. Indeed, two days after he had entered ’s-Hertogenbosch, Frederik Hendrik, along with his wife, Amalia van Solms, attended a Reformed Church service in Sint Janskathedraal.
For a brief synopsis of the events from this period see Peter-Jan van der Heijden and Henry Molhuysen, Kroniek van ’s-Hertogenbosch: acht eeuwen stadsgeschiedenis (’s-Hertogenbosch, 1981), 50–61.
As part of the articles of capitulation, the northern forces did not hinder the clergy from taking with them objects from the churches. The bishop of ’s-Hertogenbosch, Michael Ophove (Ophovius), recorded in his diary how the clergy removed most of the precious objects from the treasury, which were packed and transported in carts, provided, interestingly enough, by the Prince of Orange. Among the sculptures taken for safekeeping was the miracle image of Onze Lieve Vrouw van Den Bosch (Our Virgin Mary of Den Bosch), the most sacred icon in the church, one that had made Sint Janskathedraal a mecca for pilgrims since the fourteenth century. Even the large altarpiece, Bloemaert’s God with Christ and The Virgin as Intercessors, 1615, was removed from the high altar and transported to the southern Netherlands.
This painting, executed by Bloemaert in 1615 and installed in the high altar in 1620, was returned to Sint Janskerk in 1845. After the destruction of the high altar in 1869, the painting was removed to the baptismal chapel. See H. van Bavel, “Het Bossche altaar in Heeswijk,” Berne 33 (April 15, 1980): 33 and Marcel G.Roethlisberger, Abraham Bloemaert and His Sons: Paintings and Prints, 2 vols. (Doornspijk, 1993), 1:210.
Given the political situation, it seems unlikely that Saenredam had ever traveled to ’s-Hertogenbosch prior to Frederik Hendrik’s successful siege in 1629, thus he never would have actually visited the cathedral when it was a Catholic shrine. When he did arrive at the end of June 1632, not all remnants of the Catholic past had been removed from the cathedral; the apse, however, obscured from the sight of worshipers by an enormous choir screen, was no longer used for services.
For an excellent summary of the situation in the cathedral at the time of the capitulation see Ivan Gaskell, “Pieter Jansz. Saenredam and the Great Church of ’s-Hertogenbosch,” Wolfenbütteler Forschungen 46 (1990): 249–261. Gaskell (page 256) also discusses the ongoing “purification” of the church through the gradual removal of sculptures that continued until 1649.
Although there is little doubt that this drawing served as a preliminary study for the painting, which is dated fourteen years later in 1646, it is remarkable that Saenredam has reconstituted the interior as though it were still a Catholic cathedral. Candles and flowers have been returned to the altar, and a small gilt crucifix occupies the altar niche. Saenredam has filled the high altar not with a curtain but with Bloemaert’s The Adoration of the Shepherds
Despite the information given in Catalogue Raisonné of the Works by Pieter Jansz. Saenredam (Utrecht, 1961), 142, this altarpiece was not made by Bloemaert for the high altar in Sint Janskerk. Rather, in 1612 Bloemaert painted The Adoration of the Shepherds for the Franciscan convent of the Poor Clares in ’s-Hertogenbosch. (Bloemaert’s younger sister had joined the convent of the Poor Clares in 1606.) The painting was in ’s-Hertogenbosch in 1632, when it could have been seen by Saenredam. Although The Adoration of the Shepherds was much smaller than God with Christ and The Virgin as Intercessors (which was actually Bloemaert’s largest painting), Saenredam must have deemed it suitable for the purposes of this work, since he may have never seen God with Christ and The Virgin as Intercessors. It is also possible that an altarpiece from the convent was chosen because Saenredam’s patron knew of the Infanta Isabella’s close associations with the Poor Clares (she was raised by them in Madrid). Bloemaert’s The Adoration of the Shepherds altarpiece has survived and is now in Paris at the Louvre (inv. no. 1052). See fig. 2. Saenredam’s depiction of it is mostly accurate, although he has omitted some figures, and he may well have based his image on a print made after the painting (in reverse) by Boëtius Bolswert in 1618 (for a reproduction of this print, see A. M. Koldeweij, In Buscoducis 1450–1629: Kunst uit de Bourgondische tijd te ’s-Hertogenbosch de cultuur van late Middeleeuwen en renaissance [Maarssen, 1990], 312).
Saenredam’s extraordinary painting, made so long after his visit to ’s-Hertogenbosch, is remarkable in a number of ways. To begin with, it is difficult to see how the artist managed to convey the architectural details of the church so accurately on the basis of his drawing of the high altar. Although Saenredam often painted scenes long after he had made his preliminary studies, his painting of the choir of Sint Janskathedraal includes more of the church than does his drawing.
For discussions of Saenredam’s working procedure see Walter A. Liedtke, “Saenredam’s Space,” Oud-Holland 86 (1971), and Rob Ruurs, Saenredam: The Art of Perspective, Oculi—Studies in the Arts of the Low Countries, vol. 1 (Amsterdam and Philadelphia, 1987).
A photographic or digital image analysis method which captures the absorption/emission characteristics of reflected infrared radiation. The absorption of infrared wavelengths varies for different pigments, so the resultant image can help distinguish the pigments that have been used in the painting or underdrawing.
A drawing executed on a ground before paint is applied.
See J. R. J. van Asperen de Boer, “De ondertekening bij Pieter Saenredam: twee voorbeelden,” Bulletin van het Rijksmuseum 19 (1971): 25–31.
Particularly remarkable for a painting of 1646 is its emphasis on the Catholicism of the cathedral and the attention drawn to both Philip II of Spain and the Infanta Isabella. The only conclusion that can be drawn is that Saenredam was deliberately trying to re-create the character of Sint Janskathedraal as it looked before the overthrow of Spanish authority in ’s-Hertogenbosch, that is, prior to the events of 1629.
With the realization, of course, that Bloemaert’s altarpiece from the Convent of the Poor Clares had been substituted for God with Christ and The Virgin as Intercessors. See note 5, this entry.
It has been suggested that Saenredam went to ’s-Hertogenbosch to visit Jan Pietersz de Jonge (Johannes Junius), the son of the artist’s childhood guardian and a Calvinist preacher who had been sent from his native Assendelft to help steer the local populace away from the Catholic religion. It seems probable, however, that he had a different reason for making this trip. Junius was at that time the preacher in another of the local churches, Sint Pieterskerk, which Saenredam also depicted during his visit that summer. His work at Sint Pieterskerk did not begin until he had finished his campaign at Sint Janskathedraal, hence it is likely that the visit was primarily to examine the cathedral and only secondarily to visit Junius. Moreover, Saenredam’s painting of the Choir of the Sint Pieterskerk (private collection), which he executed in 1632, also emphasizes the Catholic heritage of the church rather than its then-Protestant character, a surprising focus given the emphasis of Junius’ ministry.
Saenredam made one drawing of the Sint Pieterskerk on July 9 and two drawings on July 13. For a discussion of these issues and illustrations of his views, see Gary Schwartz, Marten Jan Bok, and Loekie Schwartz, Pieter Saenredam: The Painter and His Time (New York, 1990), 85, 90–91, 96.
One can thus assume that Saenredam came to ’s-Hertogenbosch for the purpose of painting Sint Janskathedraal. This hypothesis is backed up by a surprising discovery from dendrochronological examination of the panel Saenredam used for his painting. The tree from which the panel was made was cut down around 1630.
The dendrochronological examination was undertaken by Dr. Peter Klein from the Universität Hamburg in 1986 (see letter of January 27, 1987, in NGA curatorial files).
Saenredam’s drawing of the high altar was but one of four imposing drawings he made of the interior of Sint Janskathedraal between June 30 and July 3, 1632.
Before Saenredam began with his views of the interior he made a groundplan of the cathedral on June 29, 1632. For an illustration of this drawing see Gary Schwartz, Marten Jan Bok, and Loekie Schwartz, Pieter Saenredam: The Painter and His Time (New York, 1990), 55.
The choir screen, constructed by the sculptor Coenraad van Norenborch, was removed from the church in 1866. It is presently in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
The high altar was built between 1617 and 1620 by the Antwerp sculptor Hans van Mildert. Between 1617 and 1622 the organ case was built by François Symons from Leiden and decorated by Georg Schysler from the Tyrol. The organ was not functional, however, until 1634, after Saenredam’s visit. See Jan van Oudheusden, De Sint Jan van ’s-Hertogenbosch (Zwolle, 1985), 91–94; and Willem Bergé in A. M. Koldeweij, In Buscoducis 1450–1629: Kunst uit de Bourgondische tijd te ’s-Hertogenbosch de cultuur van late Middeleeuwen en renaissance (Maarssen, 1990), 439–463.
Saenredam made two drawings of the choir screen, one from the nave and one from the choir. Although he did not make a separate drawing of the organ, it is visible in the drawing of the choir screen seen from the choir. For illustrations of these drawings see Gary Schwartz, Marten Jan Bok, and Loekie Schwartz Pieter Saenredam: The Painter and His Time (New York, 1990), 86 and 87.
Although no documents exist that identify Saenredam’s patron, it may well have been a very powerful organization within the church structure known as the Illustere Lieve Vrouwe Broederschap (Illustrious Brotherhood of the Virgin Mary). This brotherhood, founded in the early fourteenth century, had begun in the sixteenth century to add a number of honorary, nonreligious members, called Zwanenbroeders (“Swan brothers,” since they were supposed to supply a swan each year for a banquet). Among them was Willem of Orange, who joined in 1566. All subsequent Princes of Orange were members ex officio, therefore Frederik Hendrik was also a member of this body. It may well be for this reason that Frederik Hendrik was so considerate of Catholic interests after his victory in 1629, at a time when the Reformed Church was doing all it could to purge ’s-Hertogenbosch of papist influence. In any event, special dispensation was given to the brotherhood, and it was the only Catholic organization in the city that was not forced to disband after the capitulation.
The nuns, however, were allowed to remain in their convents for the rest of their lives. See Ivan Gaskell, “Pieter Jansz. Saenredam and the Great Church of ’s-Hertogenbosch,” Wolfenbütteler Forschungen 46 (1990): 253.
Before Saenredam visited ’s-Hertogenbosch he seems to have worked closely with Catholics in Haarlem who wanted to perpetuate the memory of bishops who served at the Church of Saint Bavo when it was a Catholic cathedral.
For a discussion of this interesting issue see Gary Schwartz, Marten Jan Bok, and Loekie Schwartz, Pieter Saenredam: The Painter and His Time (New York, 1990), 64, 65, 67, 71, 74.
See G. C. M. van Dijck, De Bossche optimaten. Geschiedenis van de Illustere Lieve Vrouwebroederschap te ’s-Hertogenbosch, 1318–1973 (Tilburg, 1973), 317–381; Ton Kappelhof, De Illustere Lieve Vrouwe Broederschap van ’s-Hertogenbosch (’s-Hertogenbosch, 1985).
For a further discussion of these issues see Gary Schwartz, Marten Jan Bok, and Loekie Schwartz, Pieter Saenredam: The Painter and His Time (New York, 1990), 204–206.
No record of this painting has been found in seventeenth-century archives, hence it is not yet possible to trace its early provenance. Just how the painting ended up in a small provincial church in southern France before it entered the art market in 1937 suggests a fascinating story that it is hoped some day will come to light.
For a probable scenario, see Provenance Note 1.
Arthur K. Wheelock Jr.
April 24, 2014
lower left on choir stall: Ao.1646 / pieter Saenredam dit geschildert / de sintjans kerck in shartogenbosch; center on right escutcheon behind altar: AL.BERTO AVSTRIA CO / 1621 / PATRI PATRIAE / SILVA-DVCIS / DICAT CONSECRAT.; on left escutcheon behind altar: 1598
Marks and Labels
Possibly Pierre Daguerre, Bayonne and Amsterdam, in the early eighteenth century; possibly by inheritance to his daughter, Marie-Anne Daguerre Harader, Itxassou, near Bayonne, mid-18th century; parish church, Itxassou; (D.A. Hoogendijk, Amsterdam), by 1937. J.A.G. Sandberg, Wassenaar; (Wildenstein & Co., New York); sold February 1954 to the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York; gift 1961 to NGA.
- Pieter Jansz. Saenredam 1597-1665, Museum Boymans, Rotterdam; Museum Fodor, Amsterdam, 1937-1938, no. 13, repro.
- Dutch Painting in the Golden Age, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; Toledo Museum of Art; Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, 1954-1955, no. 74, repro.
- Pieter Jansz. Saenredam, Centraal Museum, Utrecht, 1961, no. 94, repro.
- Hannema, Dirk. Pieter Jansz. Saenredam, 1597-1665: schilderijen en tekeningen. Exh. cat. Museum Boymans, Rotterdam; Museum Fodor, Amsterdam. Rotterdam, 1937: no. 13.
- Swillens, P. T. A. "Pieter Saenredam. Eenige nadere bijzonderheden over zijn leven en werken." Historia 3 (1937): 329-335.
- Heppner, Arnold. "Saenredam's 'Nieuw Realisme' in de XVIIe eeuw naar aanleiding der tentoonstellingen te Rotterdam en Amsterdam." Maandblad voor beeldende kunsten 16 (1939): 113-119, repro.
- Michel, Edouard. Catalogue Raisonné des Peintures: Peintures Flamandes du XVe et du XVIe siècle. Éditions des Museés nationaux. Paris, 1953: 13.
- The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Dutch Painting, the Golden Age: an Exhibition of Dutch Pictures of the Seventeenth Century. Exh. cat. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; Toledo (Ohio) Museum of Art; Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto. Haarlem, 1954: no. 74.
- Paintings and Sculpture from the Kress Colllection Acquired by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation 1951-56. Introduction by John Walker, text by William E. Suida and Fern Rusk Shapley. National Gallery of Art. Washington, 1956: 160, no. 62, repro.
- National Gallery of Art. Paintings and Sculpture from the Samuel H. Kress Collection. Washington, 1959: 324, repro.
- Baird, Thomas P. Dutch Painting in the National Gallery of Art. Ten Schools of Painting in the National Gallery of Art 7. Washington, 1960: 24, color repro.
- Plietzsch, Eduard. Holländische und flämische Maler des XVII. Jahrhunderts. Leipzig, 1960: 122-123.
- Houtzager, Maria E., P. T. A. Swillens, and Iohannes Q. van Regteren Altena. Catalogue Raisonné of the Works by Pieter Jansz. Saenredam. Exh. cat. Centraal Museum, Utrecht, 1961: 140-143, no. 94, pl. 96.
- Cairns, Huntington, and John Walker, eds., Treasures from the National Gallery of Art. Translated. New York, 1962: 92, color repro.
- Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. New York, 1963 (reprinted 1964 in French, German, and Spanish): 312, repro.
- Summary Catalogue of European Paintings and Sculpture. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1965: 119.
- Cairns, Huntington, and John Walker, eds, A Pageant of Painting from the National Gallery of Art. 2 vols. New York, 1966: 1: 238, color repro.
- National Gallery of Art. European Paintings and Sculpture, Illustrations. Washington, 1968: 107, repro.
- Liedtke, Walter A. "Saenredam’s Space." Oud Holland 86 (1971): 139.
- Chiarenza, Carl. "Notes on Aesthetic Relationships Between Seventeenth-Century Dutch Painting and Nineteenth-Century Photography." In One hundred years of photographic history: essays in honor of Beaumont Newhall. Edited by Van Deren Coke. Albuquerque, 1975: 28.
- National Gallery of Art. European paintings: An Illustrated Summary Catalogue. Washington, 1975: 318, repro.
- Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington. New York, 1975: 298, no. 401, color repro.
- Eisler, Colin. Paintings from the Samuel H. Kress Collection: European Schools Excluding Italian. Oxford, 1977: 142-144, fig. 128, as Choir of St. John's Cathedral, 'S Hertogenbosch.
- Pope-Hennessy, John. "Completing the Account." Review of Colin Eisler, Paintings from the Samuel H. Kress Collection, London 1977. Times Literary Supplement no. 3,927 (17 June 1977).
- Bavel, H. van. "Het Bossche altaar in Heeswijk." Berne-Heeswijk 33 (1980): 37, repro.
- Connell, E. Jane. "The Romanization of the Gothic Arch in Some Paintings by Pieter Saenredam: Catholic and Protestant Implications." Rutgers Art Review 1 (January 1980): 30, fig. 11.
- Heijden, Peter-Jan van der, ed. Ach Lieve Tijd: 800 jaar Den Bosch en de Bosschenaren. Translated. Zwolle, 1983: 162, repro.
- Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington. Rev. ed. New York, 1984: 298, no. 395, color repro.
- Wheelock, Arthur K., Jr. Dutch Painting in the National Gallery of Art. Washington, D.C., 1984: 20-21, repro.
- Baudouin, Frans. "Rubens en de altaartuinen ‘van metaal’ te ‘s-Hertogenbosch, 1616–1617." In Rubens and His World. Festschrift Roger Adolf d’Hulst. Antwerp, 1985: 167-169, fig. 2.
- National Gallery of Art. European Paintings: An Illustrated Catalogue. Washington, 1985: 364, repro.
- Lawrence, Cynthia. "Rubens and the Ophovius monument: a new sculpture by Hans van Mildert." The Burlington Magazine 129, no. 1014 (September 1987): 586-587, fig. 19.
- Koldeweij, A. M. "Pieter Saenredam had al getekend wat Matthieu Brouerius de Nidek beschreef: het doxaal en de koorbanken in de Sint-Jan te ’s-Hertogenbosch." In Was getekend... tekenkunst door de eeuwen heen : liber amicorum prof. dr. E.K.J. Reznicek. Edited by J. G. C. A. Briels. Houten, 1988: 187, fig. 3.
- Ruurs, Rob. "Un tableau de Pieter Saenredam (1597–1665) au Louvre: Intérieur de l’église Saint-Bavon à Haarlem." La Revue du Louvre et des Musées de France 38 (1988): 39, fig. 2.
- Schwartz, Gary, and Marten Jan Bok. Pieter Saenredam: de schilder in zijn tijd. Translated by Loekie Schwartz. Maarssen and The Hague, 1989: 86, 130, 200, 204, 205 fig. 215, 206, 268, no. 94, 322 n. 25, 323 nn. 33 and 34..
- Schwartz, Gary, and Marten Jan Bok. Pieter Saenredam: The Painter and His Time. New York, 1989: 86, 130, 200, 204, 205 fig. 215, 206, 268, no. 94, 332 nn. 25, 33, and 34.
- Gaskell, Ivan. "Pieter Jansz. Saenredam and the Great Church of ’s-Hertogenbosch." Wolfenbütteler Forschungen46 (1990): 249-261, fig. 1.
- Koldeweij, A. M. In Buscoducis 1450–1629: Kunst uit de Bourgondische tijd te ‘s-Hertogenbosch de cultuur van late Middeleeuwen en Renaissance. Exh. cat. Noordbrabants Museum, ‘s-Hertogenbosch. Maarssen, 1990: 13, 15, repro., 33, 44, 50.
- National Gallery of Art. National Gallery of Art, Washington. New York, 1992: 128, color repro.
- Wheelock, Arthur K., Jr. Dutch Paintings of the Seventeenth Century. The Collections of the National Gallery of Art Systematic Catalogue. Washington, 1995: 353-359, color repro. 355.
- Wheelock, Arthur K., Jr. A Collector's Cabinet. Exh. cat. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1998: 68, no. 52.
- Savedoff, Barbara E. Transforming Images: How Photography Complicates the Picture. Ithaca, 2000: 17, repro.
- Hand, John Oliver. National Gallery of Art: Master Paintings from the Collection. Washington and New York, 2004: 211, no. 166, color repro.
- De Hond, Jan and Janssen, Paul Huys. Pieter Saenredam in den Bosch. Exh. cat., Het Noordbrabants Museum, ’s-Hertogenbosch. Eindhoven, 2013: 116-119, no. 118 color fig. [Not in the exhibition.]
- Schwartz, Gary. Jheronimus: De wegen naar hemel en hel. Translated by Loekie Schwartz. Hilversum, 2016: 208, color repro.
The cradled support panel is composed of three vertically grained oak boards. Dendrochronology gives a felling date of approximately 1630 for all three boards. Board widths are roughly equal at left and center and slightly narrower at right. Several checks exist at top and bottom, and gouges, some fairly deep, are found along the edges and in an intermittent horizontal band across the center.
Infrared reflectography at 1.5 to 1.8 microns reveals a detailed fine-line underdrawing apparently based upon a preliminary construction drawing. Minor changes appear in the spear held by the sculpted figure at the far right, in the statue to the right of center, and in the arc of the ribs in the vault.
Paint was applied in transparent washes, glazes, and fine brushwork that leave the thin off-white ground layer and architectural underdrawing plainly visible. Scattered small losses indicate a history of flaking. Abrasion is found overall, particularly in the stone floor, the pilaster and engaged statue to the right of the altar, and the pilaster to the left of the altar. A conservation treatment was carried out in 1987–1990 to remove discolored varnish and inpainting and accurately reconstruct abraded passages.
 Dendrochronology was performed by Dr. Peter Klein, Universität Hamburg (see report dated January 27, 1987, in NGA Conservation department files).
 Infrared reflectography was performed with a Santa Barbara Focalplane array InSb camera fitted with an H filter.
Related IconClass Terms
- Roman Catholicism
- revolution +Dutch Revolt
- patron +Catholic
- mathematical perspective
- historical person +Isabella Clara Eugenia