Reader Mode
 

Cut-and-paste citation text:

Arthur K. Wheelock Jr., “Pieter Jansz Saenredam/Church of Santa Maria della Febbre, Rome/1629,” Dutch Paintings of the Seventeenth Century, NGA Online Editions, http://purl.org/nga/collection/artobject/46133 (accessed September 01, 2014).

 

Export as PDF


Export from an object page includes entry, notes, images, and all menu items except overview and related contents.
Export from an artist page includes image if available, biography, notes, and bibliography.
Note: Exhibition history, provenance, and bibliography are subject to change as new information becomes available.

Export  
 
Version Link
Apr 24, 2014 Version
Jan 01, 1995 Version

You may download complete editions of this catalog from the catalog’s home page.

Overview

Pieter Saenredam, who is best known for his paintings of church interiors, had broad humanistic interests, ranging from the history and development of the Netherlands to the literature of antiquity. A prize source of information about Rome was a sketchbook of antiquities made in the 1530s by Maerten van Heemskerck (1498–1574), which Saenredam would eventually acquire.

This painting is based on one of the images in Heemskerck’s sketchbook. The ancient, circular chapel of Santa Maria della Febbre in the foreground was originally built as a mausoleum in the second century. After 1506 the chapel was converted into the sacristy of the new Saint Peter’s basilica, which was then under construction behind it. The massive piers of the crossing that would eventually support the famous dome designed by Michelangelo are clearly visible in Saenredam’s painting. When Saenredam painted the scene in 1629, the dome had already been completed, and the Egyptian obelisk in the foreground, quarried in the thirteenth century BC and taken to Rome in the first century AD, had been moved to a different location on Saint Peter’s Square, some 275 yards away.

Interestingly, Saenredam portrayed Saint Peter’s as though it were an abandoned ruin overgrown with weeds. He created a sense of depth in the landscape by overlapping layers of contrasting tone, moving from a dark foreground through the buildings’ pinkish yellow to the bright blues and greens of low-lying distant hills. It is probable that the cardinal in his horse-drawn carriage and the other figures in the landscape were painted by Saenredam’s colleague Pieter Post (1608–1669).

Entry

A fascinating development in the Netherlands in the early seventeenth century was the appearance of city histories: books recounting the important events and personalities that had determined the character of the community and brought it fame. One of the most important city histories was Samuel Ampzing’s Beschryvinge ende lof der stad Haerlem in Holland, published in Haarlem in 1628. Among the factors that inspired a justifiable sense of civic pride in Ampzing were the painters whose works brought glory to their native city even after their deaths, including Maerten van Heemskerck (Netherlandish, 1498 - 1574), Hendrick Goltzius (Dutch, 1558 - 1617), and Jan Pietersz Saenredam (Dutch, 1565 - 1607), Pieter Saenredam’s father. Ampzing illustrated his book with prints related to Haarlem’s history that were based on drawings by various contemporary artists, including Pieter Saenredam. Saenredam’s designs, which are among his earliest works, range from maps depicting the history of the siege of Haarlem to a detailed rendering of the Town Hall beyond the Great Market Place [fig. 1]. As is characteristic of Ampzing’s approach, the Town Hall print provides more than just visual documentation of an important building: the poem inscribed beneath it stresses the building’s historical and symbolic importance, both for Haarlem and for the Netherlands at large.[1]

Ampzing’s book was but one manifestation of a broader need felt by the people of this newly formed country to trace their roots, to emphasize their cultural heritage, and to build a mythology that could define their place in history. Saenredam experienced this impulse keenly: throughout his career he carefully recorded, with annotated drawings and paintings of public buildings, both the world he saw around him and the one he could reconstruct from careful examination of physical and documentary evidence.

It must have been in large part because of this desire to immerse himself in his own heritage that Saenredam, at the very beginning of his career, turned so enthusiastically to Heemskerck’s drawings of antiquities. Church of Santa Maria della Febbre, Rome is one of the most visible manifestations of Saenredam’s interest in the earlier artist’s work. Saenredam based his scene on a drawing from Heemskerck’s famous Roman sketchbook, which was filled with images of antiquity that the Haarlem artist had executed in Italy almost a century before.[2] The sketchbook had remained in Haarlem and was at this time in the proud possession of one of the foremost painters of the day, Cornelis Cornelisz van Haarlem (1562–1638).[3] Saenredam probably had access to the sketchbook, which he would eventually acquire, possibly because of family connections to this important artist.[4]

As is evident later in Saenredam’s life, from the contents of his large library, the artist had broad humanistic interests, ranging from the history and development of the Netherlands to the literature of antiquity.[5] Heemskerck’s sketchbook provided him with a fascinating glimpse of Rome, a city he had never and would never visit. Studying the sketchbook also gave him an opportunity to learn from the earlier master’s sense of line and composition, components of his own work that were of particular concern to him. Saenredam based at least four paintings on this sketchbook and executed them over a fifteen-year period. The earliest, Church of Santa Maria della Febbre, Rome, is dated 1629, while the last was painted in 1643.[6]

The drawing in the sketchbook that Saenredam took as his point of departure for his depiction of Santa Maria della Febbre [fig. 2] records a building complex situated at the Vatican in the center of Rome.[7] In the foreground rises the Vatican obelisk (agulia Sancti Petri), distinguishable by the bronze ball at the top.[8] Behind the obelisk is the round structure of a second-century Roman mausoleum, which in the sixth century became known as the Church of San Andrea and later as Santa Maria della Febbre. After 1506 it was converted into the sacristy of Saint Peter’s, a function it served until it was demolished in 1776.[9] Looming behind Santa Maria della Febbre is the towering structure of Saint Peter’s, showing its state of construction in the 1530s. Visible here from the southeast are the huge pillar and coffered vault of the crossing as well as the coffered vault that connects to the façade of the sacristy. The irregularly shaped buildings to the right enclose chapels built along the southern aisle of Old Saint Peter’s. One of these, Cappella del Coro, is located just to the right of the arched entrance to the complex. Its apse corresponds to the projecting circular shape of its roof. On the adjacent structure hangs a reminder of the pope’s presence: the papal tiara displayed with ribbons from which are suspended two keys.

The drawing is a fascinating historical document, for it depicts a stage during the construction of Saint Peter’s that has been difficult to reconstruct. By the time Saenredam laid eyes on the Heemskerck sketchbook, the situation had changed radically, not only through the construction of the imposing dome designed by Michelangelo, but also through the relocation of the obelisk to Saint Peter’s Square.[10] Saenredam, however, made no effort to update the architecture or to represent the dynamic character of Rome. Quite to the contrary, he placed the buildings in a country setting and depicted foliage growing from the structures, as though Santa Maria della Febbre were an abandoned building or Saint Peter’s an ancient ruin. He reinforced this feeling by modulating the surfaces of the buildings with subtle touches of pinks and oranges that suggest age.

It would seem that Saenredam, given his humanistic leanings, would have recognized the buildings in Heemskerck’s drawings. Nevertheless, it is telling that he did not paint the circular roof defining the apse of the Cappella del Coro, which is clearly delineated in the drawing. Such an omission indicates that he was unaware of the character of that building. That he did not follow Heemskerck’s design slavishly is also evident from infrared reflectography, which reveals the initial underdrawing [fig. 3]. As it turns out, Saenredam made a number of adjustments in his composition, from eliminating windows to changing the perspective of the round structure of Santa Maria della Febbre itself. The pattern of changes suggests that he was interested in simplifying the structure and flattening the image.

One senses that Saenredam saw in Heemskerck’s stark drawing images of architecture he associated with antiquity. Saenredam apparently sought to emphasize the ancient venerability of the architectural setting while at the same time suggesting the continuity of the Catholic presence in Italy through the staffage figures and the papal tiara attached to the wall of one of the buildings. This approach seems to be a visual counterpart to the literary historicizing to which he had been exposed through his involvement in Ampzing’s Beschryvinge ende lof der stad Haerlem in Holland. The evocative power that this painting thus assumes makes it one of the most fascinating of Saenredam’s early works.

One unresolved issue is whether the staffage figures—the cardinal riding in a horse-drawn wagon and the two accompanying gentlemen dressed in seventeenth-century costumes—were actually executed by Saenredam or by Pieter Jansz Post (Netherlandish, 1608 - 1669), an artist-architect who joined the Saint Luke’s Guild in Haarlem in 1628.[11] Although the figures in this work are not inconsistent with Post’s style, an attribution to him must remain tenuous since his first known dated paintings are not until 1631.[12] That a relationship between Post and Saenredam existed seems probable because of the broad, simplified character of the distant landscape, which is consistent with Post’s work of the early 1630s.

Arthur K. Wheelock Jr.

April 24, 2014

Inscription

lower center on paper attached to base of obelisk: P. Saenreda.fe. / Ao 1629

  • Inscription

Marks and Labels

null

Provenance

Friedrich, king of Prussia.[1] (sale, Frederik Muller and Co., Amsterdam, 25 November 1924, no. 60); Anton W.M. Mensing [1866-1936], Amsterdam;[2] (his estate sale, Frederik Muller and Co., Amsterdam, 15 November 1938, no. 96); (D.A. Hoogendijk, Amsterdam); J.A.G. Sandberg, Wassenaar, in 1950; private collection, The Netherlands; (D.A. Hoogendijk, Amsterdam), by 1953; (Frederick A. Stern, Inc., New York); sold 1954 to the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York; gift 1961 to NGA.

Exhibition History

1937
Pieter Jansz. Saenredam 1597-1665, Museum Boymans, Rotterdam; Museum Fodor, Amsterdam, 1937-1938, no. 1.
1950
Le Paysage Hollandais au XVIIe Siècle, Orangerie des Tuileries, Paris, 1950, no. 82.
1950
Tentoonstelling Kunstbezit van Oud-Alumni der Leidse Universiteit, Stedelijk Museum Lakenhal, Leiden, 1950, no. 47.
1961
Pieter Jansz. Saenredam, Centraal Museum, Utrecht, 1961, no. 111.
1998
A Collector's Cabinet, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 1998, no. 51.

Bibliography

1907
Thieme, Ulrich, and Felix Becker, eds. Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart. 37 vols. Leipzig, 1907-1950: 29(1935):306.
1915
Bredius, Abraham. Künstler-Inventare: Urkunden zur Geschichte der holländischen Kunst des XVIten, XVIIten und XVIIIten Jahrhunderts. 8 vols. The Hague, 1915-1922: 7(1921):83.
1931
Regteren Altena, J.Q. van. "Saenredam Archeoloog." Oud Holland 48 (1931): 1-2, repro. 2.
1935
Swillens, P.T.A. Pieter Janszoon Saenredam: Schilder van Haarlem, 1597-1665. Amsterdam, 1935: 8, 83, no. 38, repro. 28.
1937
Hannema, Dirk. Pieter Jansz. Saenredam, 1597-1665: schilderijen en tekeningen. Exh. cat. Museum Boymans, Rotterdam; Museum Fodor, Amsterdam. Rotterdam, 1937: no. 1.
1938
Trivas, Numa S. "Pieter Saenredam." Apollo 27 (March 1938): 154-155.
1948
Bernt, Walther. Die niederländischen Maler des 17. Jahrhunderts.. 3 vols. Munich, 1948: 3:no. 1017, repro.
1950
Musée de l'Orangerie. Le paysage hollandais au XVIIe siècle. Exh. cat. Musée de l'Orangerie, Paris, 1950: no. 82.
1950
Pelinck, Egbert. Tentoonstelling kunstbezit van oud-alumni der Leidse universiteit. Exh. cat. Stedelijk Museum De Lakenhal, Leiden, 1950: no. 47.
1951
Bersier, Jean Eugène. L'influence d'Italie dans la peinture hollandaise. Paris, 1951: 102 n. 1.
1954
Gudlaugsson, Sturla J. "Aanvullingen omtrent Pieter Post’s werkzaamheid als schilder." Oud Holland 69 (1954): 59-71.
1956
Paintings and Sculpture from the Kress Colllection Acquired by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation 1951-56. Introduction by John Walker, text by William E. Suida and Fern Rusk Shapley. National Gallery of Art. Washington, 1956: 158, no. 61, repro.
1956
Walker, John. "The Nation's Newest Old Masters." The National Geographic Magazine 110, no. 5 (November 1956): 646, color repro. 652.
1957
Shapley, Fern Rusk. Comparisons in Art: A Companion to the National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC. London, 1957 (reprinted 1959): pl. 157.
1958
Magnuson, Torgil. Studies in Roman quattrocento architecture. Stockholm, 1958: 190.
1959
Paintings and Sculpture from the Samuel H. Kress Collection. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1959: 323, repro.
1960
Plietzsch, Eduard. Holländische und flämische Maler des XVII. Jahrhunderts. Leipzig, 1960: 123.
1961
Houtzager, Maria E., P. T. A. Swillens, and Iohannes Q. van Regteren Altena. Catalogue Raisonné of the Works by Pieter Jansz. Saenredam. Exh. cat. Centraal Museum, Utrecht, 1961: 164-165, no. 111, pl. 115.
1961
Seymour, Charles, Jr. Art Treasures for America: An Anthology of Paintings and Sculpture in the Samuel H. Kress Collection. London, 1961: 156-158, color repro. pl. 149.
1962
Pensa, M. "Pieter Jansz. Saenredam." Arte Antica e Moderna 18 (April-June 1962): xi, repro.
1963
Janson, Horst W. The Sculpture of Donatello: Incorporating the Notes and Photos of the Late Jenö Lányi. Princeton, 1963: 97.
1965
National Gallery of Art. Summary Catalogue of European Paintings and Sculpture. Washington, 1965: 119.
1968
National Gallery of Art. European Paintings and Sculpture, Illustrations. Washington, 1968: 107, repro.
1970
Vey, Horst. Sammlung Herbert Girardet: holländische und flämische Meister. Exh. cat. Wallraf-Richartz-Museum, Cologne; Museum Boymans-van Beuningen, Rotterdam. Cologne, 1970: cited in discussion of no. 48.
1975
Hülsen, Christian, and Hermann Egger. Die römischen Skizzenbücher von Marten van Heemskerck im Königlichen Kupferstichkabinett zu Berlin. 2 vols. Reprint of Berlin 1913-1916 ed. Soest, 1975: 7.
1975
National Gallery of Art. European paintings: An Illustrated Summary Catalogue. Washington, 1975: 316, repro.
1975
Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington. New York, 1975: 298, no. 400, repro.
1977
Eisler, Colin. Paintings from the Samuel H. Kress Collection: European Schools Excluding Italian. Oxford, 1977: 141-142, fig. 129, as Church of Santa Maria della Febbre, with St. Peter's Under Construction, Rome.
1980
Duparc, Frederik J. Mauritshuis: Hollandse schilderkunst - landschappen 17de eeuw. The Hague, 1980: 77–79, nos. 765–766.
1984
Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington. Rev. ed. New York, 1984: 298, no. 394, color repro.
1985
National Gallery of Art. European Paintings: An Illustrated Catalogue. Washington, 1985: 365, repro.
1989
Schwartz, Gary, and Marten Jan Bok. Pieter Saenredam: de schilder in zijn tijd. Translated by Loekie Schwartz. Maarssen and The Hague, 1989: 73 fig. 83, 76, 105, 204, 272, no. 111.
1989
Schwartz, Gary, and Marten Jan Bok. Pieter Saenredam: The Painter and His Time. New York, 1989: 73 fig. 83, 76, 105, 204, 272, no. 111.
1995
Slive, Seymour, and Jakob Rosenberg. Dutch painting 1600-1800. Pelican History of Art. Revised and expanded ed. New Haven, 1995: 264.
1995
Wheelock, Arthur K., Jr. Dutch Paintings of the Seventeenth Century. The Collections of the National Gallery of Art Systematic Catalogue. Washington, 1995: 349-353, color repro. 351.
1998
Wheelock, Arthur K., Jr. A Collector's Cabinet. Exh. cat. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1998: 30, 68, no. 51, repro.
2004
Butler, Kim E. "'Reddita lux est': Raphael and the Pursuit of Sacred Eloquence in Leonine Rome." In Artists at Court: Image-making and identity, 1300-1550. Edited by Stephen J. Campbell. Boston, 2004: 145, fig. 9.4.
2005
Kuretsky, Susan Donahue. Time and Transformation in Seventeenth-Century Dutch Art. Exh. cat. Frances Lehman Loeb Art Center, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie; John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art, Sarasota; J.B. Speed Art Museum, Louisville. Seattle, 2005: 31-32, fig. 19.

Technical Summary

The support is a beveled, horizontally grained oak panel with a slight concave warp.[1] Narrow oak strips, possibly original, are attached to the edges. The vertical strips are sawn at regularly spaced intervals to counteract splitting of the wood. Neither the smooth, thin, white ground layer nor the paint extends onto the strips. Infrared reflectography at 1.5 to 1.8 microns reveals a loosely executed underdrawing that delineates the church architecture.[2] Minor changes in two of the windows and some architectural details are visible between the drawn and painted stages.

Paint, applied thinly with small brushes, leaves both the wood grain and the individual brushstrokes plainly visible. The sky was laid in first, followed by the buildings, with the figures painted over the completed background, in an economical technique employing opaque wet-into-wet layering and thin scumbles and glazes. Figures and landscape were handled similarly and appear contemporaneous.

Abrasion is minimal. Discolored inpainting covers small losses found primarily along the bottom edge, in the church architecture, and in the sky. In a selective cleaning, prior to acquisition, a layer of discolored, aged varnish was left over the dark foreground in the lower left and over a clump of bushes rising from the building at the left. The painting has not been treated since its acquisition.

 

 

[1] Dendrochronology provides a felling date between 1627 and 1634. Dendrochronology was performed by Dr. Peter Klein, Universität Hamburg (see report dated January 7, 1987, in NGA Conservation department files).

[2] Infrared reflectography was performed with a Santa Barbara focal plane array InSb camera fitted with an H astronomy filter.

Related Works

Related Resources

  • Event Type
    Event Name
    March 1–June 1
    Mon, Tues, and Wed at 1:00
    March 5, 2012 at 2:00
    March 7, 2012 at 4:00
    East Building, Auditorium
    Name of docent
    image:
    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum
    60 minutes
    Registration for this event begins on April 1, 2012 at noon.
    Download the program notes (100k)
  • Self-Guided Tour
    Italian Collection
    image:
    Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum
 
Church of Santa Maria della Febbre, Rome
  • Comparable Figure
    [fig. 1] Pieter Jansz Saenredam, plate from Samuel Ampzing, Beschryvinge ende lof der stad Haerlem in Holland, Haarlem, 1628
    Compare Image
  • Comparable Figure
    [fig. 2] Maerten van Heemskerck, Santa Maria della Febbre, c. 1532, pen and ink, 79 D 2,  Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Kupferstichkabinett. Photo: bpk, Berlin / Kupferstichkabinett, Staatliche Museen, Berlin / Volker-H. Schneider / Art Resource,NY
    Compare Image
  • Comparable Figure
    [fig. 3] Detail, infrared reflectogram, Pieter Jansz Saenredam, Church of Santa Maria della Febbre, Rome, 1629, oil on panel, National Gallery of Art, Washington, Samuel H. Kress Collection, 1961.9.34
    Compare Image
  • [1]

    The poem emphasizes both the historical importance of the Town Hall as the palace and home of Willem II, Duke of Holland, and the honor it had brought to the city as a symbol of justice. The poem ends with a broad statement on the importance of justice as a foundation for the country.

  • [2]

    See Christian Hülsen and Hermann Egger, Die römischen Skizzenbücher von Marten van Heemskerck im königlichen Kupferstichkabinett zu Berlin (Berlin, 1913–1916; reprint, 1975). Heemskerck was in Rome between 1532 and 1536. Not all of the drawings in this sketchbook are now believed to be by Heemskerck. At least two other hands have been identified. See, in particular, Ilja M. Veldman, “Heemskercks Romeinse tekeningen en ‘Anonymus B,’” Nederlands Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek 38 (1987): 369–382.

  • [3]

    When Cornelis Cornelisz van Haarlem died in 1638, he had in his estate “het treffelyck getekent boeckie van Mr. Maertyn Heemskerck nae alle de fraiste antique van Roma.” See Abraham Bredius, Künstler-Inventare . . . , 8 vols. (The Hague, 1915–1922), 7:83; and Gary Schwartz, Marten Jan Bok, and Loekie Schwartz, Pieter Saenredam: The Painter and His Time (New York, 1990), 324 n. 26.

  • [4]

    For a discussion of the relationship of Cornelis Cornelisz van Haarlem to Saenredam, see Gary Schwartz, Marten Jan Bok, and Loekie Schwartz, Pieter Saenredam: The Painter and His Time (New York, 1990), 23. That Saenredam eventually acquired the drawings seems probable given the announcement for the sale of his collection of graphic art after his death in 1669, which included “many drawings by Maerten van Heemskerck . . . made . . . from life in Italy.” For a hypothesis on how this acquisition came about, see Schwartz, Bok, and Schwartz, Pieter Saenredam: The Painter and His Time, 185.

  • [5]

    The contents of his library are described in the catalog for the sale of his collection, which was held on April 20, 1677. The catalog, discovered by Bert van Selm, has been analyzed, in part, by Gary Schwartz, Marten Jan Bok, and Loekie Schwartz, Pieter Saenredam: The Painter and His Time (New York, 1990), 181–187.

  • [6]

    The other paintings based on this sketchbook are: The Colosseum, Rome, signed and dated 1631 (Girardet Collection, Kettwig-Ruhr); View from the Aracoeli, Rome, towards the Colosseum in the South, signed and dated 1633 (formerly Musée des Beaux-Arts, Orleans, but destroyed in 1940); and Portico of the Pantheon, Rome, signed and dated 1643 (private collection). These paintings are included in Gary Schwartz, Marten Jan Bok, and Loekie Schwartz, Pieter Saenredam: The Painter and His Time (New York, 1990) as, respectively, cat. nos. 114, 113, and 112.

  • [7]

    The first art historian to connect the painting with the drawing, which is fol. 72r in the sketchbook, was J. Q. van Regeteren Altena, “Saenredam Archeoloog,” Oud-Holland 48 (1931): 1–3. He argued, on the basis of this information, that Saenredam had never traveled to Italy. Ilja M. Veldman, “Heemskercks Romeinse tekeningen en ‘Anonymus B,’” Nederlands Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek 38 (1987): 369–382, attributed the drawing in the Heemskerck sketchbook to another, anonymous hand. For the purposes of this entry the designation “Heemskerck” will be used when referring to this drawing.

  • [8]

    The following description of the buildings is based largely on Christian Hülsen and Hermann Egger, Die römischen Skizzenbücher von Marten van Heemskerck im königlichen Kupferstichkabinett zu Berlin (Berlin, 1913–1916), 7 (from the description of the plates in the second volume).

  • [9]

    This information has been gleaned from Horst W. Janson, The Sculpture of Donatello: Incorporating the Notes and Photos of the Late Jenö Lányi (Princeton, 1963), 97.

  • [10]

    For a depiction of the site from a similar point of view in the early 1580s, showing the dome under construction, see Henry A. Millon, Michelangelo Architect: The Façade of San Lorenzo and the Drum and Dome of St. Peter’s (Milan, 1988), 101, fig. E.

  • [11]

    Sturla J. Gudlaugsson, “Aanvullingen omtrent Pieter Post’s werkzaamheid als schilder,” Oud-Holland 69 (1954): 59–71.

  • [12]

    Mauritshuis: Hollandse schilderkunst—landschappen 17de eeuw (The Hague, 1980), 77–79, nos. 765–766.