Overview

In a review of the 1846 Salon, poet and critic Charles Baudelaire urged artists to depict "the heroism of modern life." Manet embodied Baudelaire's ideal painter of contemporary Paris. Emperor Napoleon III ordered the renovation of Paris under the direction of Baron Haussmann, and early in the 1860s the slum where Manet located his studio was being razed to accommodate the planned broad, tree–lined boulevards that still characterize the city. In this painting, Manet represented a strolling musician flanked by a gypsy girl and infant, an acrobat, an urchin, a drunkard, and a ragpicker—individuals the artist might have observed near his studio. The seemingly casual gathering is composed of the urban poor, possibly dispossessed by Haussmann’s projects. Neither anecdotal nor sentimental, Manet’s portrayal carries the careful neutrality of an unbiased onlooker, and this distinctly modern ambiguity and detachment are characteristic of all Manet's work.

By placing pigments side by side rather than blending tones, Manet could preserve the immediacy and directness of preliminary oil studies in his finished works. Effects produced by this technique were sharper and crisper than those obtained using academic methods. When they first encountered Manet's work early in the 1860s, Monet and Renoir admired his manner of painting and emulated it as they forged the style known as impressionism.

Inscription

lower right: ed. Manet 1862

Marks and Labels

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Provenance

(Manet sale, Paris, 4 February 1884, no. 9, withdrawn). (Camentron, Paris); possibly from whom purchased 1897 by (Durand-Ruel, New York and Paris), until at least 1904.[1] Alexandre Berthier, 4th Prince de Wagram [1883-1918], Paris, by 1906. P.R. Pearson, Paris, by 1912. (Galerie Arnot, Vienna); purchased 1913 by Österreichische Staatsgalerie (now Österreichische Galerie Belvedere), Vienna; released 1923 in exchange for two other paintings, possibly to (Galérie Barbazanges, Paris);[2] (Hodebert, Paris).[3] Acquired 1930 in Germany by (Galerie Étienne Bignou, Paris) for (Alex Reid & Lefèvre, London);[4] sold 1930 to Chester Dale [1883-1962], New York; bequest 1963 to NGA.

Exhibition History

1863
Galerie Martinet, Paris, 1863, no. 136.
1867
Tableaux de Edouard Manet, Avenue de l'Alma, Paris, 1867, no. 10.
1884
Exposition Manet, Ecole des Beaux Arts, Paris, 1884, no. 16.
1898
Exhibition of International Art, The International Society of Sculptors, Painters and Gravers, London, 1898, no. 55, as _Vagabond Musicians_.
1904
Catalogue of Pictures Presented to the City of Dublin to form the nucleus of a Gallery of Modern Art; also Pictures Lent by the Executors of the late Mr. J. Staats Forbes, and Others, Royal Hibernian Academy, Dublin, 1904, no. 51, as The Itinerant Musician.
1905
Derde Tentoonstelling van Schilderijen, E.J. van Wisselingh & Co., held at Pulchri Studio, The Hague, 1905, no. 87, as _Le musucien ambulant_.
1905
Pictures by Boudin, Cézanne, Degas, Manet, Monet, Morisot, Pissarro, Renoir, Sisley, Grafton Galleries, London, 1905, no. 100.
1905
Salon d'Automne, Paris, 1905, no. 5.
1912
Exposition centennale de l'art français. Saint Petersbourg, 1912, no. 401.
1927
A Century of French Painting, exhibition organized by Alex Reid & Lefevre and held at McLellan Galleries, Glasgow, 1927, no. 18, repro.
1928
Cent ans de peinture française, E.J. van Wisselingh & Co., Amsterdam, 1928, no. 42.
1928
Edouard Manet 1832-1883, Galerie Matthiesen, Berlin, 1928, no. 8.
1930
Ausstellung von Meisterwerken Deutscher und Französischer Malerei des 19. Jahrhunderts, Kunstverein für die Rheinland und Westfalen, Düsseldorf, January/February 1930, no. 46
1930
Cent ans de peinture française, Galerie Georges Petit, Paris, 1930, no. 15, repro.
1932
Exposition Manet, Musée de l'Orangerie, Paris, 1932, no. 10.
1965
The Chester Dale Bequest, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 1965, unnumbered checklist.
1980
Picasso: The Saltimbanques, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 1980, no. 10, fig. 6.
1982
Manet and Modern Paris, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 1982-1983, no. 67, repro.
2010
From Impressionism to Modernism: The Chester Dale Collection, National Gallery of Art, January 2010-January 2012, unnumbered catalogue, repro.

Bibliography

1884
Bazire, Edmond. Manet. Paris, 1884:15-17, 128.
1884
Gonse, Louis. "Manet." Gazette des Beaux-Arts 2e period (February 1884): 138, 140.
1902
Duret, Théodore. Histoire d'Edouard Manet et de son oeuvre.Paris, 1902:203, no. 40, repro.
1904
Mayclair, Camille.L'Impressionisme, son histoire, son esthétique, ses maîtres. Paris, 1904: repro. opposite 16.
1909
Sainte-Croix, Camille de. Edouard Manet, Portraits d'Hier. Paris, 1909 [reprinted in T. A. Gronberg, "Manet: A Retrospective," as "A Collegian and Manet," New York, 1990, 137].
1910
Duret, Théodore. Manet and the French Impressionists. Translated by J.E. Crawford Flitch. London and Philadelphia, 1910: 37, 216, no. 40.
1912
"L'Expositioni centennale de peinture française à Saint-Petersboug." Les arts XI (September 1912): 31.
1912
Meier-Graefe, Julius. Edouard Manet. Munich, 1912: 54, 316, repro.
1919
Duret, Théodore. Histoire de Edouard Manet et de son oeuvre. Paris, 1919: 23, 240.
1924
Severini, Gino. Manet. Rome, 1924: repro. 3.
1925
Blanche, Jacques-Emile. Manet. New York, 1925:31.
1925
Rosenthal, Leon. "Manet et l'Espagne." Gazette des Beaux-Arts 5e period, XII (September - October 1925): 208, 211.
1926
Moreau-Nélaton, Etienne. Manet, raconté par lui-même. 2 vols. Paris, 1926: I 39, 43, 47, 134; II: 120.
1928
Meier-Graefe, Julius. "Edouard Manet zur Ausstellung in der Galerie Matthiesen." Der Cicerone XX (1928): 85, repro.
1929
Apollo 9 (June 1929): 360, repro.
1930
Taylor, Francis Henry. "Salade de Legumes or Vegetable Plate?" Parnassus 2, no. VII (November 1930): 3, repro.
1930
Wehle, Harry B. Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art (October 1930): 225-226.
1931
McBride, Henry. "The Chester Dale Collection at New York." Formes 14 (April 1931): 57, repro.
1931
Tabarant, Adolphe. Manet: histoire catalographique. Paris, 1931: 46-47, 70, no. 43.
1932
Bazin, Germaine. "Manet et la tradition." L'Amour de l'Art 13, no. 5 (May 1932): 155.
1932
Colin, Paul. Edouard Manet. Paris, 1932: 22.
1932
Huyghe, Rene. "Manet, peintre." L'Amour de l'Art 13, no. 5 (May 1932): 171, 175.
1932
Jamot, Paul, and Georges Wildenstein. Manet. 2 vols. Paris, 1932: 1: 25, 63, 76, 89, 119-120, no. 44.
1933
Lambert, Elie. "Manet et l'Espagne." Gazette des Beaux-Arts 9 (June 1933) 373-374.
1938
Pemberton, Murdock. "Ambassador to Art." Esquire (February 1938): repro.
1938
Rey, Robert. Manet. New York and Paris, 1938: 11, repro.
1939
Venturi, Lionello. Les archives de l'impressionnisme. 2 vols. Paris and New York, 1939: II: 214.
1941
Catalogue of French Paintings from the Chester Dale Collection. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1941: 9, repro. pl. XVI
1941
"Chester Dale Loans to the National Gallery." Art Digest 16 (15 November 1941): 9.
1941
Frankfurter, Alfred M. "Now the Great French 19th Century in the National Gallery." Art News 40, no. 17 (December 15-31, 1941):repro. p. 19
1941
"The Chester Dale Pictures on loan to the National Gallery of Art."Magazine of Art 34 no. 9 (November 1941): 476+, repro.
1942
Dale, Chester. "The Golden Century of French Art." The New York Times Magazine 17 May 1942: 21, repro.
1942
French Paintings from the Chester Dale Collection. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1942: 32, repro.
1942
Tabarant, Adolphe. La vie artistique au temps de Baudelaire. Paris,1942: 367, 488.
1944
Cairns, Huntington, and John Walker, eds., Masterpieces of Painting from the National Gallery of Art. New York, 1944: 160, color repro.
1944
French Paintings from the Chester Dale Collection. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1944: 32, repro.
1944
Jewell, Edward Alden. French Impressionists and their Contemporaries Represented in American Collections. New York, 1944: repro. 60.
1947
Florisoone, Michel. Manet. Monaco, 1947: 15, repro.
1947
Tabarant, Adolphe. Manet et ses oeuvres. Paris, 1947: 46-48, 136-137, 491.
1948
Bex, Maurice. Manet. Columbia series New York, 1948: repro pl. 14.
1948
Walker, John. "Edouard Manet." Ladies Home Journal (September 1948)
1952
"Chester Dale's Collection." Pictures on Exhibit Vol XV, no 3 (December 1952): 10, repro.
1952
McBride. Henry. "Chesterdale's Way." Art News 51, no. 9 (December 1952):53, repro.
1953
French Paintings from the Chester Dale Collection. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1953: 42, repro.
1954
Epstein, Lewis. "What is Great Art?" Gazette des Beaux-Arts VI period, XLIII (May-June 1954): 294-296.
1954
Hamilton, George Heard. Manet and His Critics. New Haven, 1954: 38, 105, 271, 276, 278.
1954
Sandblad, Nils Gösta. Manet: Three Studies in Artistic Conception. Lund, 1954: 28-31, repro.
1955
Bataille, Georges. Manet. Translated by Austryn Wainhouse and James Emmons. Lausanne, 1955: 38-41.
1955
Vaudoyer, Jean-Louis. E. Manet. Paris, 1955: no. 11, repro.
1956
Fosca, François. La peinture française au XIXe siècle. Paris, 1956: 109, repro.
1957
Pars, H. H. Pictures in Peril. Translated by Kathrine Talbot. Oxford, 1957: 8.
1957
Shapley, Fern Rusk. Comparisons in Art: A Companion to the National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC. London, 1957 (reprinted 1959): pl. 110
1957
Taubes, Frederic. "Francophobia." American Artisit 21, no. 2 (February 1957): 18, repro.
1958
Richardson, John. Edouard Manet: paintings and drawings. London, 1958: no. 7, repro.
1959
Hemmings, F.W.J. and Niess, Roberts, eds. Emile Zola: Salons. Geneva, 1959: 95.
1960
The National Gallery of Art and Its Collections. Foreword by Perry B. Cott and notes by Otto Stelzer. National Gallery of Art, Washington (undated, 1960s): 23, repro.
1963
MacNeil, Neil. "Chester Dale: Collector." McCalls (November 1963):213.
1963
Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. New York, 1963 (reprinted 1964 in French, German, and Spanish): 254, repro.
1964
De Leiris, Alain. "Manet, Guéroult and Chrysippos." The Art Bulletin XLVI (September 1964): 401-404, repro.
1965
Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Paintings & Sculpture of the French School in the Chester Dale Collection, National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1965: 70, repro.
1965
Summary Catalogue of European Paintings and Sculpture. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1965: 82
1966
Cairns, Huntington, and John Walker, eds. A Pageant of Painting from the National Gallery of Art. 2 vols. New York, 1966: 2:422, color repro.
1966
Feller, Glorionna Colton. A Study of the Sources for Manet's "The Old Musician." Ph. D. diss. Columbia University, 1966.
1966
Hanson, Anne Coffin. Edouard Manet 1832-1883. Exh. cat. Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1966:43-45, repro.
1967
Bowness, Alan. "Manet and Mallarmé." Bulletin of the Philadelphia Museum of Art LXII, no. 193 (April-June 1967): 221, repro.
1968
Bodelsen, Merete. "Early Impressionist Sales 1874-94 in the light of some unpublished 'procès-verbaux'." The Burlington Magazine 110 (June 1968): 341.
1968
European Paintings and Sculpture, Illustrations. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1968: 71, repro.
1968
Hanson, Anne Coffin. "Manet's Subject Matter and a Source of Popular Imagery." Museum Studies 3 (1968):70-72, repro.
1968
Liebmann, Kurt. Edouard Manet. Dresden, 1968: 8, 29, 46-47, repro. fig. 5.
1969
Farwell, Beatrice. "Manet's Espada and Marcantonio." Metropolitan Museum of Art Journal 2 (1969): 206.
1969
Fried, Michael. "Manet's Sources, Aspects of his Art, 1859-1865." Artforum 7 (March 1969): 28-82.
1969
La Coste-Messelière, M.-G. de. "Un jeune prince amateur d'impressionnistes et chauffeur." L'Oeil 179 (November 1969): repro. 19.
1969
Reff. Theodore. "'Manet's Sources': A Critical Evaluation." Artforum 8 (September 1969):40-48.
1969
Walker, John. Self Portrait with Donors. Boston & Toronto, 1969: 168.
1970
Hanson, Anne Coffin. "Edouard Manet, 'Les Citanos,' and the Cut Canvas."The Burlington Magazine 112 (March 1970): 158-167.
1970
Orienti, Sandra and Denis Rouart. Edouard Manet. Paris, 1970: no. 44, repro.
1970
Reff, Theodore. "Manet and Blanc's 'Histoire de Peintures'." The Burlington Magazine 112, no. 808 (July 1970): 456-457.
1971
Gállego, Julian. "Goya en el arte moderno." Goya (January-February 1971):: 256.
1972
Bazin, Germain. Edouard Manet. Milan, 1972: 19-21, 88-89.
1972
Hanson, Anne Coffin. "Popular Imagery and the Work of Edouard Manet" in French Nineteenth Century Paintings and Literature, Ulrich Finke, ed. New York, 1972:133-163, repro.
1974
Rewald, John. "Jours sombres de l'impressionnisme." L'Oeil no. 223 (February 1974): 17, repro.
1975
Collins, Bradford R. "Manet's 'Rue Mosnier Decked with Flags' and the Flâneur Concept." The Burlington Magazine 117, no. 872 (November 1975): 713.
1975
European Paintings: An Illustrated Summary Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1975: 212, repro.
1975
Georgel, Pierre. "Les Transformations de la peinture vers 1848, 1855, 1863." Revue de l'Art 27 (1975): 64-65, repro.
1975
Mauner, George. Manet: Peintre-Philosophe; A Study of the Painter's Themes. University Park, PA, and London, 1975:2, 18, 46-79, 88, 94, 148. 159, 170, 202.
1975
Rouart, Denis and Daniel Wildenstein. Edouard Manet, catalogue raisonné 2 vols. Lausanne and Paris, 1975:I:4, 62-63; II: 120-121.
1976
Richardson, John. Manet. Oxford, 1976:6, plate.4.
1977
Hanson, Anne Coffin. Manet and the Modern Tradition. New Haven and London, 1977:36,55-57,61-67,114,120,134,169,198,202, repro.11
1977
Johnson, Ronald. "Picasso's Parisian Family and the 'Saltimbanques'." Arts Magazine 51, no. 5 (January 1977): 90-95, repro.
1978
Brown, Marilyn R. "Manet's Old Musician: Portrait of a Gypsy and Naturalist Allegory." Studies in the History of Art 8 (1978): 77-87, repro.
1978
King, Marian. Adventures in Art: National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. New York, 1978: 84, pl. 50.
1979
Watson, Ross. The National Gallery of Art, Washington. New York, 1979: 111, pl. 97.
1980
Carmean, E.A., Jr. Picasso: The Saltimbanques. Exh. cat. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1980:22, repro.
1980
Kelder, Diane. The Great Book of French Impressionism. New York, 1980: 70, 436, repro. 89
1980
Reff, Theodore. "Courbet and Manet." Arts Magazine 54, no. 7 (March 1980): 99, repro.
1981
Dufwa, Jacques. Winds from the East : a study in the art of Manet, Degas, Monet and Whistler, 1856-86. Stockholm, 1981: 53-54, repro.
1981
Farwell, Beatrice. Manet and the Nude: A Study in Iconography in the Second Empire. Ph.D. diss., UCLA, 1973. New York, 1981: 21, 85, 91, 94-96, 160, 186, 191, 301, 382.
1982
Ross, Novelene. Manet's 'Bar at the Folies-Bergère' and the Myths of Popular Illustration. Ann Arbor, 1982:30, 91
1984
Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington. Rev. ed. New York, 1984: 446, no. 646, color repro.
1985
Athill, Philip. "The International Society of Sculptors, Painters and Gravers." Burlington Magazine 127, no. 982 (January 1985): 25
1985
European Paintings: An Illustrated Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1985: 245, repro.
1988
Reff, Theodore. "Manet and the Paris of his Time." InKunst um 1800 und die Folgen: Werner Hoffmann zu Ehren Christian Beutler, Peter-Klaus Schuster und Martin Warnke, eds. Munich, 1988: 248+
1991
Champa, Kermit Swiler. The Rise of Landscape Painting in France: Corot to Monet. Exh. cat. The Currier Gallery of Art, Manchester, 1991: 50, repro.
1991
Coman, Florence E. Joie de vivre: French Paintings from the National Gallery of Art. Washington, 1991:9, repro.
1991
Darragon, Eric. Manet. Paris, 1991:82-86, repro.
1991
Kopper, Philip. America's National Gallery of Art: A Gift to the Nation. New York, 1991: 239,247, color repro.
1991
Wilson-Bareau, Juliet, ed. Manet by Himself: Paintings, Pastels, Prints & Drawings. London, 1991:no. 51.
1992
Carr-Gomm, Sarah. Manet. London, 1992: 50.
1992
National Gallery of Art, Washington. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1992: 185, repro.
1992
Stevenson, Lesley. Manet. New York, 1992:42, repro.
1993
Frascina, Francis et. al. Modernity and Modernism: French Painting in the Nineteenth Century. New haven and London, 1993:82, repro.
1993
Perutz, Vivien. Edouard Manet. London and Toronto, 1993: repro. plate 6.
1994
Asséo, Henriette. Les Tsiganes Une Destinée Européenne. Paris, 1994: 64, repro.
1994
Kuhn-Wengenmayr, Annemarie. " Die Metrisierung in einigen Figurenblldern Eduard Manets un deren künstlerische Herkunft." In Festschrift Lorenz Dittmann.Hans-Caspar Graf von Bothmer, Klaus Güthlein, and Rudolf Kuhn, eds Frankfurt am Main and New York, 1994: 115-130.
1994
Rubin, James H. Manet's Silence and the Poetics of Bouquets. Cambridge, 1994:39, repro.
1995
Smith, Paul. Impressionism Beneath the Surface. New York, 1995: 44-45, repro.
1996
Körner, Hans. Edouard Manet: Dandy, Flaneur, Maler. Munich, 1996: 54-55, 227, color fig. 41.
1997
Kelder, Diane. The Great Book of French Impressionism, 1997, no. 76, repro.
1998
Eisen, Arnold M. Rethinking Modern Judaism. Chicago and London, 1998: 167, repro.
1999
Townsend, Richard P. "La Petite Bergère: William Bouguereau und der "goût espanol" im Frankreich des 19. Jahrhunderts." Belvedere Heft 2/99 (1999): 44, repro.
2000
Fried, Michael. Le modernisme de Manet. Paris, 2000: repro. 39.
2001
Brooke, Xanthe. "Seville and Beyond: The Taste for Murillo's Genre Painting Across Europe." In Murillo Scenes of Childhood. Exh. cat. Dulwich Picture Gallery and Alte Pinacothek, Munich, 2001:72, repro.
2001
Southgate, M. Therese. Journal of the American Medical Association 285, no. 2 (10 January 2001): 137, cover repro,
2004
Hand, John Oliver. National Gallery of Art: Master Paintings from the Collection. Washington and New York, 2004: 363-364, no. 298, color repro.
2008
Picasso et les maitres. Exh. cat. Paris, 2008: 345.
2009
Jones, Kimberly, and Ann Hoenigswald. "Shedding New Light on The Old Musician." Bulletin / National Gallery of Art, no. 41 (Fall 2009): 2-6, 8-13, figs. 1, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11.

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