lower right: G. Inness 1874; lower center, partially painted over: [Geo I]nness Rome 187[2?]
Darius Ogden Mills [1825-1910], Millbrae, California, c. 1874 or 1875; his children, Ogden Mills [1856-1929] and Elizabeth Mills [Mrs. Whitelaw Reid], Millbrae, California, c. 1910-1943; Mills Estate, 1943-1947; the daughter of Ogden Mills, Gladys Mills Phipps [Mrs. Henry C. Phipps, 1883-1970]; her son, Ogden Phipps [b. 1908], New York; consigned November 1955 to (M. Knoedler & Co., New York); sold May 1956 to Huntington Hartford, New York; sold to (Hirschl & Adler Galleries, New York); purchased 1 June 1973 by NGA.
- George Inness, 5 venues, shown only at National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 1985, not in catalogue (other venues: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; Cleveland Museum of Art; Minneapolis Institute of Art; Los Angeles County Museum of Art).
- George Inness in Italy, Taft Museum of Art, Cincinnati, 2011-2012, not in catalogue.
- George Inness in Italy, Taft Museum of Art, Cincinnati, 2011 - 2012, unnumbered catalogue.
- Paintings from the Huntington Hartford Collection in the Gallery of Modern Art. New York, 1964: no. 15, repro.
- Ireland, LeRoy. The Works of George Inness: An Illustrated Catalogue Raisonné. Austin, 1965: 166-167, repro. 167.
- "La Chronique des Arts." Gazette des Beaux-Arts 83 (February 1974): 139, repro. 138.
- Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington. New York, 1975: 551, no. 836, color repro.
- American Paintings: An Illustrated Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1980: 181, repro.
- Williams, William James. A Heritage of American Paintings from the National Gallery of Art. New York, 1981: color detail 4-5, 125, repro.
- Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington. Rev. ed. New York, 1984: 547, no. 827, color repro.
- American Paintings: An Illustrated Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1992: 210, repro.
- Kelly, Franklin, with Nicolai Cikovsky, Jr., Deborah Chotner, and John Davis. American Paintings of the Nineteenth Century, Part I. The Collections of the National Gallery of Art Systematic Catalogue. Washington, D.C., 1996: 357-360, color repro.
The support is a finely woven twill fabric that has been lined. There is cusping along the top and bottom cut edges. A white ground was applied to the fabric, followed by a reddish-brown imprimatura layer. Infrared reflectography reveals underdrawing, possibly in charcoal, consisting of several gently curving horizontal lines in the background. The paint was built up of many layers in a wet-into-wet technique and manipulated by brush, brush handle, and rubbing to achieve a variety of textural effects. A toned glaze covers the sky, giving the blue paint a yellow cast. X-radiography reveals two large flat rocks in the lower right hand corner, and dense layers throughout the left background. The changes indicated by x-radiography are probably those made during the reworking of the painting between 1872 and 1874. Traction crackle is found in thicker areas of brown paint but the painting is in good condition overall. The varnish has not discolored.