While exposing her breast to the thrust of the dagger that will kill her, Saint Lucy turns her head to accept communion from a priest. This unconventional addition of the sacrament to the scene of Lucy's martyrdom is a reminder of the Counter-Reformation climate that shadowed Veronese's career. Twice, the artist had defended himself against allegations of impropriety in his treatment of religious subjects.
Sketchily rendered in the background is a team of oxen; these are the beasts who had failed to drag the chaste Lucy -- made miraculously immobile -- to the brothel where she had been condemned for her Christian faith. A glimpse of fire behind Lucy alludes to another failed attempt to martyr this third-century saint.
Veronese's own Venice, and not Lucy's ancient Syracuse, is made the backdrop to this scene. A brilliant decorator, Veronese was celebrated for his sumptuous histories and mythologies which he translated into opulent present-day surroundings and dress. If the artist was best known for the sparkling blond harmonies of his mature work, the Martyrdom of Saint Lucy is a masterpiece of his late style and reveals a different aspect of his temperament. Here, cast in evening light, the colors have deepened and acquired a muted glow.
Marks and Labels
Conte Teodoro Lechi, Brescia, Italy, by 1814 (no. 49 in 1814 inventory). Anonymous collection or dealer, Venice; sold 1827 to James Irvine, London and Rome; by whom sold 1827 to Sir William Forbes, 7th Bt. [d.1848], Fettercairn, Grampian, Scotland; (Forbes sale, London 2 June 1842, no. 30, not sold); by inheritance to Sir John Stuart Forbes, 8th Bt.[d. 1866], Pitsligo, Grampian and Fettercairn, Grampian, Scotland; by inheritance to his daughter Harriet Williamina Forbes Trefusis, Baroness Clinton [d.1869], Heanton Satchville, Dorset, England and Fettercairn, Grampian, Scotland; by inheritance [either directly from his mother or through his father, 20th Baron Clinton, who died 1904] to Charles John Robert Hepburn-Stuart-Forbes-Trefusis, 21st Baron Clinton, Heanton Satchville, Dorset, England and Fettercairn, Grampian, Scotland; by inheritance to his daughter Fenella Hepburn-Stuart-Forbes-Trefusis [Mrs. John Herbert Bowes-Lyon, Fettercairn, Grampian, Scotland; by gift to her daughter Diana Cinderella Bowes-Lyon [Mrs. Peter Somervell]; (Somervell sale, Christie's, London, 25 June 1971, no. 23); purchased by Eisenbeiss. Anonymous collection, Germany; (sale, Christie's, London, 10 April 1981, no. 78); (Matthiesen Fine Art, Ltd., London); sold 1984 to the National Gallery of Art).
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- Indice e Descrizione dei Quadri del Sig. Generale Conte Teodoro Lechi di Brescia esistenti nella sua Casa in Milano. Milan, 1814: no. 49.
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- Bettagno, Alessandro, ed. Paolo Veronese: Disegni e dipinti. Exh. cat. San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice, 1988: 104-105.
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- Rearick, W. R. The Art of Paolo Veronese, 1528-1588. Exh. cat. National Gallery of Art, Washington. Cambridge, 1988: 188-189.
- Brown, Beverly Louise. "Replication and the Art of Veronese." Studies in the History of Art 20 (1989):111-124, repro.
- Hinterding, Erik, and Fenny Horsch. “A Small but Choice Collection: The Art Gallery of King Willem II of the Netherlands (1792-1849).” Simiolus 20 (1989): 31.
- Humfrey, Peter. “The Provenance of Veronese’s Martyrdom of St Lucy in Washington.” Arte Veneta 43 (1989–1990): 89–90.
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- Pignatti, Terisio, and Pedrocco, Filippo. Veronese: Catalogo completo dei dipinti. Florence, 1991: 318 no. 253.
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- Hand, John Oliver. National Gallery of Art: Master Paintings from the Collection. Washington and New York, 2004: 99, no. 76, color repro.
- Humfrey, Peter, et al. The Age of Titian: Venetian Renaissance Art from Scottish Collections. Edited by Aidan Weston-Lewis. Exh. cat. Royal Scottish Academy, Edinburgh, 2004: 192-193.
- Romani, Vittoria. Tiziano e il tardo rinascimento a Venezia: Jacopo Bassano, Jacopo Tintoretto, Paolo Veronese. Florence, 2007: 304, 306.
- Brilliant, Virginia, and Frederick Ilchman, eds. Paolo Veronese: A Master and His Workshop in Renaissance Venice. Exh. cat. John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art, Sarasota. London, 2012: 147-148, 265.
- Rosand, David. Véronèse. Paris, 2012: 236-237, color repro.
- Biferali, Fabrizio. Paolo Veronese tra Riforma e Controriforma. Rome, 2013: 101-102.
- Harris, Neil. Capital Culture: J. Carter Brown, the National Gallery of Art, and the Reinvention of the Museum Experience. Chicago and London, 2013: 422.
- Zamperini, Alessandra.Paolo Veronese. San Giovanni Lupatoto (Verona), 2013: 265.
- Marini, Paola, and Bernard Aikema, eds. Paolo Veronese: L’illusione della realtà. Exh. cat. National Gallery, London; Palazzo della Gran Guardia, Verona. Milan, 2014: 296-297.