The Protestant Dutch had a reputation for strict rules that defined social conduct. Only on rare occasions, such as a betrothal when a suitor was expected to show passion for his future wife, would a demonstration of emotion be considered proper. In this sumptuous painting, Gabriel Metsu imagines an apparently prearranged "transgression" among the elite of Amsterdam. An officer bursts into a bedroom, where two elegant young women are getting ready for the day. The housekeeper, identified by the keys dangling from her apron, playfully pretends to restrain him. The woman seated in front of the mirror is clearly amused, but the young woman getting down from the bed seems perturbed at being caught in her underskirt. The scene contains a number of objects whose contradictory symbolic meanings would have intrigued contemporary viewers. The sliding of a naked foot into a slipper carries sexual overtones, and the bright red costume signals passion, while the comb held by the woman seated at the table denotes her purity.
Metsu organized this complex narrative scene by arranging his figures diagonally across the picture plane. His subject matter and style was influenced by Gerard ter Borch the Younger (1617–1681), whose Suitor’s Visit is also in the National Gallery of Art. Both artists excelled at depicting human interactions and rendering the satins, velvets, lace, and furs found in upper-class fashions.
Perhaps no Dutch artist was as facile with the brush as was Gabriel Metsu. His ability to capture ordinary moments of life with freshness and spontaneity was matched by his ability to depict materials with an unerring truth to nature. These qualities were particularly admired by eighteenth- and nineteenth-century critics, from Houbraken to Fromentin. In 1754, for example, Descamps, who wrote with great admiration about Metsu’s sense of design, softness of touch, and harmony of color, concluded by proposing “Metsu as the greatest model that Holland has produced, for all those who wish to follow or imitate the same genre.”
Jean-Baptiste Descamps, La vie des peintres flamands, allemands et hollandais, 4 vols. (Paris, 1753–1765), 2:240–241. Deschamps wrote: “Metzu comme le plus grand modèle qu’ait fourni la Hollande, à tous ceux qui voudront suivre ou imiter le même genre” (translated by Arthur K. Wheelock Jr. and Jennifer Henel).
Christiaan Josi, Collections d’imitations de dessins . . . commencée par C. Ploos van Amstel (London, 1821). Josi wrote: “l’art imitatif peut être porté” (translated by Arthur K. Wheelock Jr. and Jennifer Henel).
John Smith, A Catalogue Raisonné of the Works of the Most Eminent Dutch, Flemish and French Painters, 9 vols. (London, 1829–1842), 4:103. Smith knew the painting well, for he owned it for two brief periods of time between 1830 and 1833. See Provenance.
Smith’s enthusiasm for this painting has been shared by all subsequent critics, and indeed The Intruder stands as one of Metsu’s most finely wrought and carefully conceived works. Despite some losses in the
Applying transparent layers of paint that influence the colors or tonalities of the layers below.
All of these qualities show Metsu at his best and confirm the accolades that have always been accorded him. Nevertheless, truthfulness to nature, whether in the depiction of fabrics or human emotions, was merely incidental to the narrative he wanted to portray. For above all, Metsu was a storyteller. In painting after painting he sets up encounters between the sexes, in which individuals respond to interruptions or proposals, unimportant incidents that nevertheless elicit strong emotions. Although his scenes often have an anecdotal character, they appear to be taken from life, especially because he leaves the viewer guessing as to the outcome of the scenario he portrays.
This painting is no exception. While the physical activities of the protagonists are clear, the particular set of circumstances that preceded the event and those that will follow are impossible to fathom. Just why has this handsome young officer burst into the room and which of the two comely young ladies has he come to visit? It is difficult to judge from his gaze. In any event, the woman at her toilet is clearly delighted to see him, and the maid, who gently restrains him, smiles at his impertinence with a good-natured expression. The young woman who emerges from her bed, however, looks at him with undisguised disdain. To judge from the disarray of her clothes and the presence of her fur-lined red jacket and skirt thrown over the chair, she must have been lounging in bed and has quickly tried to dress after hearing the commotion at the door. Her state of relative undress, as well as the fact that she is putting her foot into her slipper as she clambers from the bed, adds a sexual overtone to the unexpected visit.
Even though it is a natural gesture, the placing of one’s foot in a slipper often had sexual overtones in Dutch literary and pictorial traditions. See Eddy de Jongh, Tot lering en vermaak: Betekenissen van Hollandse genrevoorstellingen uit de zeventiende eeuw (Amsterdam, 1976), 245, 259–260.
The area around the pitcher shows that Metsu initially placed a lower and wider vessel in that spot, most likely a chamber pot; by inserting the pitcher, he emphasized the scene’s sexual allusions.
Metsu’s painting had an afterlife that may help in an assessment of the character of his narrative. In 1675 Eglon van der Neer (1634–1703) painted A Woman Washing Her Hands
See Eddy de Jongh, Tot lering en vermaak: Betekenissen van Hollandse genrevoorstellingen uit de zeventiende eeuw (Amsterdam, 1976), 195.
For a related emblem by Jacob Cats, see Spiegel van den ouden en nieuwen tijdt (The Hague, 1631), book 3:147, emblem 45. See Eddy de Jongh, Tot lering en vermaak: Betekenissen van Hollandse genrevoorstellingen uit de zeventiende eeuw (Amsterdam, 1976), 197, repro. (in reverse).
See, for example, The Hunter’s Gift, c. 1658–1660 (City of Amsterdam, on loan to the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, no. C177), discussed in Peter C. Sutton and Jane Iandola Watkins, Masters of Seventeenth-Century Dutch Genre Painting (Philadelphia, 1984), 250–251.
Metsu was a keen observer not only of everyday life, but also of other artists’ works; indeed, few other Dutch artists managed to forge their style from so many countervailing influences. During his early years he was influenced by the Utrecht artist Nicolaes Knüpfer (c. 1603–1655), whose history paintings and freely executed bordello scenes clearly appealed to him.
See Arthur K. Wheelock Jr., “Review of Robinson 1974,” Art Bulletin 58 (1976): 457–458.
Although The Intruder is not dated, it was almost certainly executed around 1660 when the influences of De Hooch and Ter Borch were strongest.
This painting can be associated with a few other paintings that must date at about this time. Primary among them is the Cello-Player (Royal Collection, Buckingham Palace, London), in which a woman wears a costume identical to that worn by the woman leaving the bed. See Franklin W. Robinson, Gabriel Metsu (1629–1667): A Study of His Place in Dutch Genre Painting of the Golden Age (New York, 1974), 139, fig. 69. The same model wears the fur-lined jacket of the woman seated at the table in Oyster Eaters (Hermitage, Saint Petersburg). See Franklin W. Robinson, Gabriel Metsu (1629–1667), 183, fig. 137.
The nature of the narrative owes far more to Ter Borch than to De Hooch. Ter Borch explored a similar theme of sexual innuendos in
Metsu quoted the figure of the suitor in Ter Borch’s The Suitor’s Visit in his own depiction of The Visit. Although Metsu’s painting is now lost, the composition is known from an engraving by I. Ch. Lingée. See Franklin W. Robinson, Gabriel Metsu (1629–1667): A Study of His Place in Dutch Genre Painting of the Golden Age (New York, 1974), 182, fig. 136. A similar figure appears in Visit to the Nursery, 1661 (The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, inv. no. 17.190.20). See Franklin W. Robinson, Gabriel Metsu (1629–1667), 178, fig. 130.
Arthur K. Wheelock Jr.
April 24, 2014
lower center on step to bed: G. Metsu
Marks and Labels
Possibly William van Huls, London; possibly (his estate sale, at his residence by Wilson, London, 6 August 1722 and days following, no. 129, as Ladies in their Bedroom); Edwin. Colonel Gregory Holman Bromley Way [1766-1844], Denham Place, Buckinghamshire; sold to (John Smith [1781-1855], London); sold 26 January 1830 to George John Venables-Vernon, 5th baron Vernon [1803-1866], Sudbury Hall, Derby; (his sale, Christie & Manson, London, 15-16 April 1831, 2nd day, no. 50, as The Importunate Intruder); purchased by (John Smith [1781-1855], London) for Sir Charles Bagot [1781-1843]; (his sale, Christie & Manson, London, 18 June 1836, no. 56); Albertus Brondgeest [1786-1849], The Hague, buying for Baron Johan Gijsbert Verstolk van Soelen [1776-1845], The Hague; sold 1846 with the Verstolk van Soelen collection through (John Chaplin, London) to a consortium of Samuel Jones Loyd [1796-1883, later 1st baron Overstone], Humphrey Mildmay [1794-1853], and Thomas Baring [1799-1873], London, and Stratton Park, Hampshire; by inheritance to Baring's nephew, Thomas George Baring, 1st earl of Northbrook [1826-1904], London and Stratton Park; by inheritance to his son, Francis George Baring, 2nd earl of Northbrook [1850-1929], London and Stratton Park; sold March 1927 to (Duveen Brothers, Inc., London, New York, and Paris); sold November 1927 to Andrew W. Mellon, Pittsburgh and Washington, D.C.; deeded 28 December 1934 to The A.W. Mellon Educational and Charitable Trust, Pittsburgh; gift 1937 to NGA.
- The Works of Ancient Masters, British Institution, London, 1834, no. 103.
- Pictures by Italian, Spanish, Flemish, Dutch, French and English Masters, British Institution, London, 1850, no. 48, as An Interior.
- Art Treasures of the United Kingdom: Paintings by Ancient Masters, Art Treasures Palace, Manchester, 1857, no. 1059.
- Exhibition of the Works of the Old Masters, associated with Works of Deceased Masters of the British School. Winter Exhibition, Royal Academy of Arts, London, 1871, no. 211.
- Exhibition of Works by the Old Masters, and by Deceased Masters of the British School. Winter Exhibition, Royal Academy of Arts, London, 1889, no. 128.
- Loan Collection of Pictures, Corporation of London Art Gallery (Guildhall), London, 1895, no. 121.
- Exhibition of Pictures by Dutch Masters of the Seventeenth Century, Burlington Fine Arts Club, London, 1900, no. 47.
- Gabriel Metsu, 1629-1667, National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin; Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam; National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 2010-2011, no. 34, fig. 126.
- Smith, John. A Catalogue Raisonné of the Works of the Most Eminent Dutch, Flemish and French Painters. 9 vols. London, 1829-1842: 4(1833):102-103, no. 94; 9:524, no. 29.
- British Institution for Promoting the Fine Arts in the United Kingdom. Catalogue of the works of ancient masters: the property of His Gracious Majesty William the Fourth, the Most Noble the Marquess of Westminster, and the Right Honourable Sir Charles Bagot, G.C.B. Exh. cat. British Institution, London, 1834: no. 103.
- British Institution for Promoting the Fine Arts in the United Kingdom. Catalogue of pictures by Italian, Spanish, Flemish, Dutch, French and English masters: with which the proprietors have favoured this Institution. June, 1850. Exh. cat. British Institution, London, 1850: no. 48.
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- Royal Academy of Arts. Exhibition of the works of the old masters, associated with works of deceased masters of the British School. Exh. cat. Royal Academy of Arts, Burlington House, London, 1871: no. 211.
- Crowe, Joseph A. Handbook of Painting: The German, Flemish, and Dutch Schools. Based on editions by Waagen and Kugler. 2 vols. London, 1879: 2:399.
- Gower, Ronald. The Northbrook Gallery: an illustrated, descriptive and historic account of the Collection of the Earl of Northbrook, G.C.S.I.. The Great Historic Galleries of England 4. London, 1885: 32.
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- Royal Academy of Arts. Exhibition of works by the old masters, and by deceased masters of the British School. Winter Exhibition. Exh. cat. Royal Academy of Arts, London, 1889: no. 128.
- Weale, William Henry James. A descriptive catalogue of the collection of pictures belonging to the Earl of Northbrook. 2 vols. London, 1889: 1:55, no. 74, 202-203, repro.
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- Burlington Fine Arts Club. Exhibition of pictures by Dutch masters of the seventeenth century. Exh. cat. Burlington Fine Arts Club, London, 1900: no. 47.
- Armstrong, Sir Walter. The Peel Collection and the Dutch School of Painting. London, 1904: 34-35.
- "Metsu." Masters in Art: A Series of Illustrated Monographs 7, part 78 (June 1906): 38, 41, pl. 5.
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- Hofstede de Groot, Cornelis. A Catalogue Raisonné of the Works of the Most Eminent Dutch Painters of the Seventeenth Century. 8 vols. Translated by Edward G. Hawke. London, 1907-1927: 1(1907):314-315, no. 190.
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- The Masterpieces of Metsu (1630(?)-1667). Gowans's Art Books. London and Glasgow, 1912: 50, repro.
- Collins Baker, Charles Henry. Dutch Painting of the Seventeenth Century. London, 1926: 24-25, color repro.
- Jewell, Edward Alden. "Mellon's Gift." Magazine of Art 30, no. 2 (February 1937): 82.
- "The Mellon Gift: A First Official List." Art News 35 (1937): 15.
- Duveen Brothers. Duveen Pictures in Public Collections of America. New York, 1941: no. 211, repro.
- Held, Julius S. "Masters of Northern Europe, 1430-1660, in the National Gallery." Art News 40, no. 8 (June 1941): 12, repro.
- Preliminary Catalogue of Paintings and Sculpture. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1941: 134, no. 57.
- Martin, Wilhelm. Rembrandt en zijn tijd: onze 17e eeuwsche schilderkunst in haren bloetijd en nabloei. Vol. 2 of De Hollandsche Schilderkunst in de Zeventiende Eeuw. 2nd ed. Amsterdam, 1942: 170, 227.
- National Gallery of Art. Book of illustrations. 2nd ed. Washington, 1942: no. 57, repro. 28, 240.
- Bernt, Walther. Die niederländischen Maler des 17. Jahrhunderts. 3 vols. München, 1948: 2:no. 516, repro.
- National Gallery of Art. Paintings and Sculpture from the Mellon Collection. Washington, 1949 (reprinted 1953 and 1958): 90, repro.
- Baird, Thomas P. Dutch Painting in the National Gallery of Art. Ten Schools of Painting in the National Gallery of Art 7. Washington, 1960: 30, color repro.
- Bernt, Walther. Die niederländischen Maler des 17. Jahrhunderts. 3 vols. 2nd ed. Munich, 1960: 2:no. 516, repro.
- The National Gallery of Art and Its Collections. Foreword by Perry B. Cott and notes by Otto Stelzer. National Gallery of Art, Washington (undated, 1960s): 23.
- Grinten, Evert F. van der. "Le cachalot et le mannequin: deux facettes de la réalité dans l’art hollandais du seizième et du dix-septième siècles." Nederlands Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek 13 (1962): 170-173, fig. 23.
- Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. New York, 1963 (reprinted 1964 in French, German, and Spanish): 315, repro.
- National Gallery of Art. Summary Catalogue of European Paintings and Sculpture. Washington, 1965: 90.
- Gudlaugsson, Sturla J. "Kanttekeningen bij de ontwikkeling van Metsu." Oud Holland 93 (1968): 13-42, 27, repro.
- National Gallery of Art. European Paintings and Sculpture, Illustrations. Washington, 1968: 78, repro.
- Schneede, Uwe M. "Gabriel Metsu und der holländdische Realismus." Oud Holland 93 (1968): 47, 50.
- Bernt, Walther. Die niederländischen Maler des 17. Jahrhunderts. 3 vols. 3rd ed. Munich, 1969: 2:no. 752, repro.
- Robinson, Franklin W. Gabriel Metsu (1629-1667): A Study of His Place in Dutch Genre Painting of the Golden Age. New York, 1974: 56-57, 67, 181, repro. 133.
- National Gallery of Art. European paintings: An Illustrated Summary Catalogue. Washington, 1975: 232-233, repro.
- Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington. New York, 1975: 286, no. 379, color repro.
- Jongh, Eddy de. Tot Lering en Vermaak: betekenissen van Hollandse genrevoorstellingen uit de zeventiende eeuw. Exh. cat. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, 1976: 195, no. 3.
- Wheelock, Arthur K., Jr. "Review of Robinson 'Gabriel Metsu (1629–1667): A Study of His Place in Dutch Genre Painting of the Golden Age' (1974)". The Art Bulletin 58 (1976): 456.
- Wright, Christopher. The Dutch Painters: 100 Seventeenth Century Masters. London, 1978: 140, color repro.
- Bernt, Walther. Die niederländischen Maler und Zeichner des 17. Jahrhunderts. 5 vols. 4th ed. Munich, 1979: 2:no. 805, repro.
- Southgate, M. Therese, M.D., ed. "The Cover." Journal of the American Medical Association 249, no. 6 (11 February 1983): 740, cover repro.
- Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington. Rev. ed. New York, 1984: 287, no. 373, color repro.
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- Robinson, Franklin W. The Letter. San Diego, 1985: unpaginated, repro above fig. 8.
- Sutton, Peter C. A Guide to Dutch Art in America. Washington and Grand Rapids, 1986: 310, repro. 463.
- Tortora, Phyllis G., and Keith Eubank. A Survey of Historic Costume. New York, 1989: 157, fig. 10.9.
- Ydema, Onno. Carpets and Their Datings in Netherlandish Paintings, 1540-1700. Zutphen, 1991: 138, no. 129.
- Todorov, Tzvetan. Éloge du quotidien: essai sur la peinture hollandaise du XVIIe siècle. Paris, 1993: 76, fig. 45.
- Wheelock, Arthur K., Jr. Dutch Paintings of the Seventeenth Century. The Collections of the National Gallery of Art Systematic Catalogue. Washington, 1995: 164-168, color repro. 167.
- Southgate, M. Therese, M.D., ed. The art of JAMA: one hundred covers and essays from the Journal of the American Medical Association. St. Louis, 1997:140-141, repro. 211, 740, cover repro.
- Roberts, Helene E., ed. Encyclopedia of Comparative Iconography: Themes Depicted in Works of Art. 2 vols. Chicago, 1998: 1:326.
- Tortora, Phyllis G., and Keith Eubank. Survey of Historic Costume: A History of Western Dress. 3rd ed. New York, 1998: 215, fig. 9.10.
- Winkel, Marieke de. "The Interpretation of Dress in Vermeer’s Paintings." In Vermeer Studies. Edited by Ivan Gaskell and Michiel Jonker. New Haven, 1998: 326-339, fig. 3.
- Chapman, H. Perry. "Home and the Display of Privacy." In Art & Home: Dutch Interiors in the Age of Rembrandt. Edited by Mariët Westermann. Exh. cat. Newark Museum; Denver Art Museum. Zwolle, 2001: 145-147, repro.
- Waagen, Gustav Friedrich. Treasures of Art in Great Britain. Translated by Elizabeth Rigby Eastlake. Facsimile edition of London 1854. London, 2003: 2:183.
- Bergvelt, Ellinoor, J.P. Filedt Kok, and Norbert Middelkoop. De Hollandse meesters van een Amsterdamse bankier: de verzameling van Adriaan van der Hoop (1778-1854). Exh. cat. Amsterdams Historisch Museum; Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. Zwolle, 2004: 35, fig. 28.
- Schavemaker, Eddy. "Eglon van der Neer, 'A Lady, Washing Her Hands'." In Senses and Sins : Dutch Painters of Daily Life in the Seventeenth Century. Edited by Jeroen Giltaij. Exh. cat. Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, Rotterdam; Städelsches Kunstinstitut und Städtische Galerie, Frankfurt am Main. Ostfildern-Ruit, 2004: 271-272, no. 76, fig. 2.
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The original support, an oak panel with vertical grain, has been thinned, backed, and cradled. An X-radiograph taken in 1940 shows the painting prior to cradling and suggests the panel is composed of a single board. The panel was prepared with a light-tan upper ground over a white lower ground. Metsu laid out the figures with a brown painted sketch, then worked up the composition in an underpainting. In the floor he scratched through the light-colored underpaint to describe the planks. Metsu made some revisions by sketching over the underpaint using black paint that can be seen with infrared reflectography at 1.5 to 1.7 microns. He revised the proper right hand of the woman at her toilet, and introduced the candlestick and pitcher in the foreground. The vessel was originally sketched as a wide-necked vase and only converted into a pitcher during the final painting.The original shape is visible as a pentimento.  As is characteristic of Metsu’s technique, the secondary sketch appears throughout, for example, in the figure of the central young woman. Metsu applied the final paint smoothly in the darks and more thickly in the lights, with small brushstrokes blended wet-into-wet. He glazed dark colors such as the green and red garments and handled highlights in low impasto.
Several areas of abrasion were extensively repainted in the past. Much of the repaint was removed during a 1986 conservation treatment. The green jacket at left is somewhat abraded and the upper paint layer has blanched. An upper layer of glaze has also been abraded in the brown skirt of the maid in the right background. Original paint in the deeper shades of the red slippers and red clothing on the chair at right has blanched and the pigment has altered to gray. The area around the pitcher in the foreground was abraded, revealing the earlier shape of the vessel. The painting was treated again in 2010 at which time the abrasion and blanching in the paint and glazes were inpainted.
 Infrared reflectography was performed using a Santa Barbara Focalplane InSb camera fitted with an H astronomy filter.
 In an 1831 letter from Charles Bagot to dealer/collector John Smith, Bagot writes in regards to this painting: "I find no fault with the addition made to it in turning the pot de chamber into a vessel of another description and shall certainly leave it as it is. It is very well done." See Charles Sebag – Montefiore with Julia I. Armstrong-Totten, A Dynasty of Dealers: John Smith and Successors 1801 – 1924: A Study of the Art Market in Nineteenth-Century London. (London, 2013), 77.
 E. Melanie Gifford, "Eloquent Imprecision: Gabriel Metsu’s Painting Technique," in Adriaan E. Waiboer, Gabriel Metsu (New Haven, 2010), 168–169.
 The pigments were analyzed by the NGA Scientific Research department using cross-sections, polarized light microscopy, and air-path X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (see report dated August 1, 1986, in NGA Conservation department files).
Related IconClass Terms
- jug +used symbolically
- candle +used symbolically
- fashion and clothing +nobility and patriciate
- shoes +used symbolically
- household management
- cleaning +used symbolically
- the rich
- art criticism
- artist +Gerard ter Borch the Younger + influence of
- historical person +Arnold Houbraken + author critic