The three cargo ships in this large painting are the type of wide-bellied, seagoing vessels used to transport much of the commodities that generated the wealth of the Dutch in the seventeenth century. Flying the red, white, and blue flag of the Dutch Republic, these floating symbols of national prosperity are nevertheless in peril of crashing on the rocky shore. Each ship has already lost a mast, and flotsam bobbing in the steely gray water in the foreground reveals that at least one ship has been wrecked. All is not yet lost, as the sun’s golden rays break through the ominous clouds—a signal to the struggling sailors that the storm is about to abate. The subject serves as a reminder that our earthly existence is fleeting. Although realistic in appearance, the painting combines elements that Backhuysen repeated often in his theatrical compositions. The complex shapes, sharp contrasts of light and shadow, ragged rocks, and violent waves all heighten the drama. The palpable tension of the scene belies the fact that this painting is the first known representation of a full-blown tempest in Backhuysen’s oeuvre.
A native of Germany, Backhuysen was trained by his father to be a scribe. In 1649 he moved to Amsterdam, where his beautiful calligraphy landed him a job as a clerk for one of the city’s most prominent merchants. His excellent draftsmanship led him to get trained as a painter, and success followed quickly. Backhuysen had a particular fascination with the effect of weather on the surface of the sea, which he depicted with great skill. He became Holland’s leading seascape artist during the last quarter of the seventeenth century, producing marine paintings for royal and noble patrons throughout Europe.
Buffeted by violent winds and raging seas, three Dutch cargo ships struggle desperately to stay clear of a rocky coast. The threat of destruction is real, for the remnants of a shipwreck are ominously present in the foreground: a mast from the doomed ship, its Dutch flag still aloft, and cargo floating in the waves. An even more imminent danger for two of these ships is the threat of collision. One ship, its reefed sails filled with wind, races past two rock outcrops and bears down on another cargo ship that has turned into the wind to try to ride out the storm. Anxious sailors, struggling to bring their vessel under control, gesture wildly as spray from a huge wave crashes against its side. The other vessel’s rear mast has broken, and the crew has cut down the top portion of its mainmast to prevent further damage. Most of its crew is on deck frantically trying to control the disengaged mast and sail.
George S. Keyes in Mirror of Empire: Dutch Marine Art of the Seventeenth Century (Minneapolis, 1990), 88, interprets the vessel as floundering because it has “suffered terrible damage to its masts.” However, the crew has taken control of the situation by removing the upper portion of the mast. A similar strategy against the forces of a storm can be seen in Backhuysen’s 1694 painting of the Dutch men-of-war Ridderschap and Hollandia in the midst of a hurricane in the Strait of Gibraltar (Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, inventory no. A 4856, repro. in P. J. J. van Thiel, All the Paintings of the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam: A Completely Illustrated Catalogue, First Supplement, 1976–1991, trans. Michael F. Hoyle [Amsterdam, 1992], 20); the Hollandia is likewise shown without the top portion of the mainmast because its commander had it cut down to save the ship during the storm. See Rob Kattenburg, Two Centuries of Dutch Marine Paintings and Drawings from the Collection of Rob Kattenburg (Amsterdam, 1989), 42.
Lawrence Otto Goedde, “Convention, Realism, and the Interpretation of Dutch and Flemish Tempest Painting," Simiolus 16 (1986): 142, views the situation more negatively. He writes that “few of the sailors in Backhuysen’s picture will survive these cliffs.”
Backhuysen painted this dramatic scene in 1667, fairly early in his long and successful career as an artist. Most of his paintings from the 1660s depict identifiable ships massed in the waters offshore, whether outside the port of Amsterdam or near the island of Texel north of the Zuider Zee. Although Backhuysen delighted in activating such scenes with billowing clouds, choppy seas, and strong accents of light and dark, nothing anticipates the concentrated drama of this work. Indeed, it is remarkable that this painting, which is both large in scale and assured in concept and execution, is the first known representation of a tempest in his oeuvre.
Backhuysen painted a number of tempest scenes in later years, among them actual events (see note 2), imaginary scenes, and a few representations of biblical stories, such as The Shipwreck of Paul, c. 1690–1700, Stiftung Henri Nannen, Emden (color repro. in Henri Nannen et al., Ludolf Backhuysen, Emden 1630–Amsterdam 1708: ein Versuch, Leben und Werk des Künstlers zu beschreiben [Emden, 1985], 43).
Arnold Houbraken states that Backhuysen began his career as an artist by drawing boats.
Arnold Houbraken, De groote schouburgh der Nederlandtsche konstschilders en schilderessen, 3 vols. (The Hague, 1753; reprint, Amsterdam, 1976), 2:237.
Everdingen’s tempest views may reflect his own experiences. Arnold Houbraken, De groote schouburgh der Nederlandtsche konstschilders en schilderessen, 3 vols. (The Hague, 1753; reprint, Amsterdam, 1976), 2:238, relates that Everdingen had been shipwrecked off the coast of Norway.
Arnold Houbraken, De groote schouburgh der Nederlandtsche konstschilders en schilderessen, 3 vols. (The Hague, 1753; reprint, Amsterdam, 1976), 2:238. As Egbert Haverkamp-Begemann has noted (personal communication), Houbraken’s comments have the character of topoi, rather than statements of fact.
The vessels depicted by Backhuysen are flutes (fluyten), a type of cargo ship that originated in Hoorn in the late sixteenth century. These ships were at the core of the enormous merchant fleet that was so essential to Dutch commercial prosperity. Merchants used flutes to transport a range of goods on many different maritime routes, including grain and lumber purchased in the Baltic Sea region. Many of the ships in the Baltic fleet came from Hoorn, one of the most important ports on the Zuider Zee, and the seat of one of the chambers of the East India Company.
George S. Keyes, Mirror of Empire: Dutch Marine Art of the Seventeenth Century (Minneapolis, 1990), 305.
Rob Kattenburg, letter of October 1, 1987, identifies the flag and adds, “Such a flag flown from the foremast usually signifies the residence of the ship’s owner, whereas a flag flying from the rear mast indicates the hometown of the skipper.” In the opinion of H. W. Saaltink, former curator of the Westfries Museum, “No special event from the history of Hoorn has been depicted” (letter of November 28, 1991). Both letters are in NGA curatorial files.
Even if a historic episode lies behind its conception, this tempest scene belongs to a Dutch and Flemish pictorial tradition that reaches back to the late sixteenth century. Artists as diverse as
Bellevois’s Sea Storm on a Rocky Coast
For an iconographic assessment of this painting, see Jochen Luckhardt in Jacob Isaaksz. van Ruisdael: Wasserfall mit Wachtturm—Eine werkmonographische Ausstellung (Braunschweig, 1991), 28–31. Also relevant to the interpretation of such paintings is a long emblematic tradition in which storm-tossed ships, threatened by rocky shores, are given various allegorical meanings. In Andrea Alciati’s Emblemata (Leiden, 1556), for example, this motif represented danger to the ship of state, whereas Adriaan Spinniker, in his Leerzame Zinnebeelden (Haarlem, 1714), uses it to illustrate the dangers to the soul that result from a life unmindful of God.
The painting is in a remarkable state of preservation. All of the details are intact, including the masts, sails, and lines on the ships. Particularly fascinating is the manner in which Backhuysen has indicated the spray from the waves by flicking a brush loaded with white paint against the canvas. This technique gives an immediacy to the scene that is not often found in his later works, when his manner of painting became heavier. Although no preliminary drawing for this painting is known, a drawing of a Ship in Distress in a Thunderstorm (Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, Rotterdam) has much the same spirit and may have been executed about the same time.
Inventory no. H. 209. This connection was noted by George S. Keyes in Mirror of Empire: Dutch Marine Art of the Seventeenth Century (Minneapolis, 1990), 221–222, no. 62 (repro.).
Hendrick Rietschoof, Two Three-Masters in a Heavy Storm Off a Rocky Coast, oil on canvas, 26 x 31 in. See Rob Kattenburg, Dutch Old Master Marine Paintings (Bergen, 2006), 12–13, repro.
Arthur K. Wheelock Jr.
April 24, 2014
lower center on rock: LBackh / 1667
Marks and Labels
Arthur George, 3rd earl of Onslow [1777-1870], Richmond, and Clandon Park, near Guilford, Surrey; his heirs; (his estate sale, Christie, Manson & Woods, London, 22 July 1893, no. 24); (J.W. Vokins). Siméon del Monte, Brussels, by 1928; sold by his heirs at (sale, Sotheby's, London, 24 June 1959, no. 22); purchased by (P. & D. Colnaghi & Co., London); (sale, Christie, Manson & Woods, London, 19 April 1985, no. 111); purchased by NGA.
- Tentoonstelling van schilderijen door oud-hollandsche en vlaamsche meesters, Koninklijke Kunstzaal Kleykamp, The Hague, 1932, no. 41.
- Mirror of Empire: Dutch Marine Art of the Seventeenth Century, The Minneapolis Institute of Arts; The Toledo Museum of Art; Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1990-1991, no. 4.
- Time and Transformation in Dutch Seventeenth Century Art, The Frances Lehman Loeb Art Center, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie; The John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art, Sarasota; The Speed Art Museum, Louisville, 2005-2006, no. 34, repro.
- Glück, Gustav. La Collection del Monte. Vienna, 1928: 22, pl. 41.
- Goedde, Lawrence Otto. "Convention, Realism, and the Interpretation of Dutch and Flemish Tempest Painting." Simiolus 16 (1986): 142.
- Sutton, Peter C. A Guide to Dutch Art in America. Washington and Grand Rapids, 1986: 306.
- Goedde, Lawrence Otto. Tempest and Shipwreck in Dutch and Flemish Art: Convention, Rhetoric, and Interpretation. University Park, PA, 1989: 177, 202-204, fig. 161.
- Keyes, George S. Mirror of Empire: Dutch Marine Art of the Seventeenth Century. Exh. cat. Minneapolis Institute of Arts; Toledo Museum of Art; Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Cambridge, England, 1990: 88-89, no. 4.
- Walsh, John, Jr. "Review: Los Angeles—Dutch Marine Art." The Burlington Magazine 133 (September 1991): 645–646, repro.
- Slive, Seymour, and Jakob Rosenberg. Dutch painting 1600-1800. Pelican History of Art. Revised and expanded ed. New Haven, 1995: 223-224, repro.
- Wheelock, Arthur K., Jr. Dutch Paintings of the Seventeenth Century. The Collections of the National Gallery of Art Systematic Catalogue. Washington, 1995: 15-18, color repro. 17.
- Beer, Gerlinde de. Ludolf Backhuysen (1630 - 1708): sein Leben und Werk. Zwolle, 2002: 69, no. 26, pl. 71.
- Wilson-Bareau, Juliet, and David C. Degener. Manet and the sea. Exh. cat. Art Institute of Chicago; Philadelphia Museum of Art; Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam. Philadelphia, 2003: 9, fig. 8.
- Hand, John Oliver. National Gallery of Art: Master Paintings from the Collection. Washington and New York, 2004: 189, no. 151, color repro.
- Kuretsky, Susan Donahue. Time and Tansformation in Seventeenth-Century Dutch Art. Exh. cat. Frances Lehman Loeb Art Center, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie; John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art, Sarasota; J.B. Speed Art Museum, Louisville. Seattle, 2005: 76, 178-179, no. 34, repro.
The painting has been lined with the tacking margins trimmed. No reduction of the picture plane has occurred. A cream-colored ground, which covers the fine-weight, plain-woven support, is visible through the thinly applied paint. Thin, fluid, opaque paint layers are blended wet-into-wet with minimally impasted highlights and finely drawn paint lines in the rigging. The paint condition is excellent, with losses confined to the paint edges and only minor abrasion. Discolored varnish and inpainting were removed when the painting was treated in 1985.
Related IconClass Terms
- rocky coast
- sea seascape
- meteorological phenomena
- storm at sea
- artist +Willem van de Velde the Younger + influence of