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lower center: T. Cole / 1826

Marks and Labels



Commissioned 1826 by Robert Gilmor, Jr. [1774-1848], Baltimore;[1] his estate; (sale, Leonard & Cunningham, Boston, 24 April 1850, no. 39).[2] Robert Hall, Hamden, Connecticut, until 1968;[3] (Kennedy Galleries, New York); purchased 1968 by Mr. and Mrs. John D. Rockefeller, III, New York; gift 1989 to NGA.

Exhibition History
American Art: An Exhibition from the Collection of Mr. and Mrs. John D. Rockefeller 3rd, The Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, 1976, no. 33.
Art for the Nation: Gifts in Honor of the 50th Anniversary of the National Gallery of Art, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 1991, 140-141, color repro.
American Light: Selections from the National Gallery of Art, Art Museum of Western Virginia, Roanoke, May-August 1998, no cat.
Treasures of Light: Paintings from the National Gallery of Art, Dixon Gallery and Gardens, Memphis, March-April 1998, no cat.
Loan to display with permanent collection, Academy Art Museum, Easton, Maryland, 2007, no cat.
Dunlap 1834, 3:274.
Merritt, Howard S. "Correspondence Between Thomas Cole and Robert Gilmour, Jr." In Baltimore Museum of Art. Annual II: Studies on Thomas Cole, an American Romanticist. Baltimore, 1967: 43-57, 128, repro. 46.
Czestochowski, Joseph S. The American Landscape Tradition: A Study and Gallery of Paintings. New York, 1982: 64-65, color repro.
Wolf, Bryan Jay. Romantic Re-vision: Culture and Consciousness in Nineteenth-Century American Painting and Literature. Chicago and London, 1982: 194, 198-210, repro. 199.
Johnston, Sona K. American Paintings 1750-1900 from the Collection of the Baltimore Museum of Art. Baltimore, 1983: 153, n. 1.
Parry, Ellwood C., III. "Thomas Cole's Early Career: 1818-1829." In Edward J. Nygren, Views and Visions: American Landscape before 1830. Exh. cat. Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 1986: 173-174.
Myers, Kenneth. The Catskills: Painters, Writers, and Tourists in the Mountains, 1820-1895. Exh. cat. Hudson River Museum, Yonkers, New York, 1987: 83-84, n. 59.
Parry, Ellwood C., III. The Art of Thomas Cole: Ambition and Imagination. Newark, Delaware, 1988: 22, 43-45, pl. 2.
Powell, Earl A., III. Thomas Cole. New York, 1990: 30, color pl., 32.
Cikovsky, Nicolai, Jr., and Franklin Kelly. "Art for the Nation: The National Gallery Collects." Antiques 139 (March 1991): 568-573.
Parry, Ellwood C., III. "Les Montagnes dans L'imaginaire de Thomas Cole." In La Montagne et Ses Images du Peintre d'Arkrésilas à Thomas Cole. Paris, 1991: 389-393, 399, color repro. (reversed), 414.
American Paintings: An Illustrated Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1992: 144, repro.
Kelly, Franklin. Thomas Cole's Paintings of Eden Exh. cat. Amon Carter Museum, Fort Worth, 1994: 19, repro.
Kelly, Franklin, with Nicolai Cikovsky, Jr., Deborah Chotner, and John Davis. American Paintings of the Nineteenth Century, Part I. The Collections of the National Gallery of Art Systematic Catalogue. Washington, D.C., 1996: 76-81, color repro.
Myers, Kenneth John. "Above the Clouds at Sunrise: Frederic Church's Memorial to Thomas Cole." In The Cultured Canvas: New Perspectives on American Landscape Painting edited by Nancy Siegel. Lebanon, N.H., 2012: 64.
Technical Summary

The support is a medium-weight, plain-weave fabric that has been lined. Over a thin reddish\rbrown ground, the paint was applied in fairly thin \rlayers. In several areas, notably the sky and the background\rmountains, the ground shows through, contributing to the tonality. Areas of moderate impasto \rinclude the highlights of the trees and rocks and the \rbrightly lit clouds in the sky. The overall paint surface is \rslightly abraded, especially in the sky, and the light colors have become more transparent with age, allowing the \rdark ground to show more prominently than was originally intended. Discolored varnish was removed and the \rpainting was restored in 1990.