Overview

After learning the fundamentals of drawing and painting in his native Leiden, Rembrandt van Rijn went to Amsterdam in 1624 to study for six months with Pieter Lastman (1583–1633), a famous history painter. Upon completion of his training Rembrandt returned to Leiden. Around 1632 he moved to Amsterdam, quickly establishing himself as the town’s leading artist. He received many commissions for portraits and history paintings, and attracted a number of students who came to learn his method of painting.

The tragic story of Lucretia, recounted by Livy, took place in Rome in the sixth century BC during the reign of the tyrannical ruler Tarquinius Superbus. Rembrandt portrays Lucretia in utter anguish, right before her act of suicide. The tension surrounding that awful moment poignantly captures the moral dilemma of a woman forced to choose between life and honor.

Lucretia's husband, Collatinus, had boasted to his fellow soldiers that her loyalty and virtue were greater than that of their wives. Taking him up on the challenge, the men immediately rode to Rome where they discovered Lucretia and her handmaidens spinning wool. Lucretia's very virtue enflamed the desire of Sextus Tarquinius, son of the tyrant, who secretly returned to the house a few days later. Lucretia received him as an honored guest, but he later betrayed that hospitality by entering her chamber and threatening to kill her if she did not yield to him. The next day Lucretia summoned her father and husband, disclosed what had happened, and told them that, even though they deemed her an innocent victim, she was determined to end her life in order to reclaim her honor. Lucretia then drew a knife from her robe, drove it into her heart, and died. Overwhelmed by grief and anger, Lucretia’s father, her husband, and two accompanying friends swore to avenge her death. Lucretia's rape and death triggered a revolt that led to the overthrow of monarchical tyranny and the creation of the Roman Republic.

Inscription

center left: Rembrandt / 1664

Marks and Labels

null

Provenance

Jean-Joseph-Pierre-Augustin Lapeyrière [1779-1831, known as Augustin Lapeyrière, then de Lapeyrière], Paris; (his sale, Galerie Le Brun, Paris, 19 April 1825 and days following [originally scheduled for 14 March 1825 and days following], no. 143). Michael M. Zachary [d. 1837], London;[1] (sale, Phillips, London, 14-15 April 1826, 1st day, no. 64, bought in); (Zachary sale, Phillips, London, 31 May 1828, no. 25); purchased by Sir Thomas Lawrence [1769-1830] for Hugh Andrew Johnstone Munro [1797-1864], London, and Novar House, near Evanton, Ross-shire, Scotland.[2] Paul Pavlovich Demidoff [1839-1885], Prince of San Donato, near Florence; (his sale, at his residence, Florence, 15 March-10 April 1880, no. 1146). (Léon Gauchez, Paris); (sale, Christie, Manson & Woods, London, 13 July 1889, no. 56, bought in); (Léon Gauchez, Paris), until at least 1899.[3] (Bourgeois & Cie., Paris). (Leo Nardus [1868-1955], Suresnes, France, and New York).[4] Matthew Chaloner Durfee Borden [1842-1912], New York, by 1906;[5] (his estate sale, American Art Association, New York, 13-14 February 1913, 1st day, no. 28); (M. Knoedler & Co., New York and Paris);[6] sold 1913 to (Frederik Müller and Co., Amsterdam); sold 1913 to August Janssen [1863-1918], Amsterdam;[7] his estate; sold 1919 with the entire Janssen collection to (Jacques Goudstikker, Amsterdam).[8] Hermann Heilbuth [1861-1945], Copenhagen, by 1920.[9] (Ehrich Brothers, New York), in 1921.[10] (M. Knoedler & Co., New York and Paris); sold November 1921 to Andrew W. Mellon, Pittsburgh and Washington, D.C.; deeded 28 December 1934 to The A.W. Mellon Educational and Charitable Trust, Pittsburgh; gift 1937 to NGA.

Exhibition History

1832
British Institution for Promoting the Fine Arts in the United Kingdom, London, 1832, no. 44.[1]
1909
The Hudson-Fulton Celebration, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1909, no. 105.
1920
A Collection of Paintings [H. Heilbuth], Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen, 1920-1921, no. 63.
1969
Rembrandt in the National Gallery of Art [Commemorating the Tercentenary of the Artist's Death], National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 1969, no. 23, repro.
1991
Rembrandt's Lucretias, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.; Minneapolis Institute of Arts, 1991-1992, brochure.
2001
Rembrandt's Women, National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh; Royal Academy of Arts, London, 2001, no. 141, repro.

Bibliography

1829
Smith, John. A Catalogue Raisonné of the Works of the Most Eminent Dutch, Flemish and French Painters. 9 vols. London, 1829-1842: 7(1836):79, no. 192
1832
British Institution for Promoting the Fine Arts in the United Kingdom. Catalogue of pictures by Italian, Spanish, Flemish, Dutch, and English masters with which the proprietors have favoured the Institution. Exh. cat. British Institution. London, 1832: no. 44.
1854
Waagen, Gustav Friedrich. Treasures of Art in Great Britain: Being an Account of the Chief Collections of Paintings, Drawings, Sculptures, Illuminated Mss.. 3 vols. Translated by Elizabeth Rigby Eastlake. London, 1854: 2:137, no. 1.
1859
Blanc, Charles. L’Oeuvre Complet de Rembrandt. 2 vols. Paris, 1859–1861: 2: 435.
1860
Waagen, Gustav Friedrich. Handbook of Painting: The German, Flemish and Dutch Schools. 2 vols. London, 1860: 1:345.
1863
Muller, Frederik. De Nederlandsche geschiedenis in platen. 4 vols. Amsterdam, 1863: 156, no. 1266.
1868
Vosmaer, Carel. Rembrandt Harmens van Rijn, sa vie et ses œuvres. The Hague, 1868: 314, 497.
1873
Blanc, Charles. L’Oeuvre de Rembrandt. 2 vols. Paris, 1873: 2:435.
1877
Vosmaer, Carel. Rembrandt Harmens van Rijn: sa vie et ses oeuvres. 2nd ed. The Hague, 1877: 367, 573.
1879
Mollett, John W. Rembrandt. Illustrated biographies of the great artists. London, 1879: 95.
1883
Bode, Wilhelm von. Studien zur Geschichte der holländischen Malerei. Braunschweig, 1883: 524, 608-609, no. 375.
1885
Dutuit, Eugène. Tableaux et dessins de Rembrandt: catalogue historique et descriptif; supplément à l'Oeuvre complet de Rembrandt. Paris, 1885: 60, 70, repro.
1886
Michel, Émile. Rembrandt. Les Artistes Célèbres. Paris, 1886: 97, 99, repro.
1892
Müntz, Eugene. "Rembrandt et l’art italien." Gazette des Beaux-Arts 34 (July 1892): 196-211.
1893
Michel, Émile. Rembrandt: Sa vie, son oeuvre et son temps. Paris, 1893: 488-489.
1894
Michel, Émile. Rembrandt: His Life, His Work, and His Time. 2 vols. Translated by Florence Simmonds. New York, 1894: 2:170-171.
1897
Bode, Wilhelm von, and Cornelis Hofstede de Groot. The Complete Work of Rembrandt. 8 vols. Translated by Florence Simmonds. Paris, 1897-1906: 8:152-153, no. 595, repro.
1899
Bell, Malcolm. Rembrandt van Rijn and His Work. London, 1899: xvi, 86, 157.
1905
Veth, Jan. "Rembrandtiana. I. Rembrandt's wijze van adapteeren." Onze Kunst 4 (July-December 1905): 79-90.
1906
Michel, Émile. Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn: A Memorial of His Tercentenary. New York, 1906: 110-111.
1906
Veth, Jan. "Rembrandts Anpassungsort." Kunst und Künstler 4 (June 1906): 231-242.
1906
Wurzbach, Alfred von. Niederlandisches Kunstler-Lexikon. 3 vols. Vienna, 1906-1911: 2(1910):415.
1907
Hofstede de Groot, Cornelis. A Catalogue Raisonné of the Works of the Most Eminent Dutch Painters of the Seventeenth Century. 8 vols. Translated by Edward G. Hawke. London, 1907-1927: 6(1916):143-144, no. 218.
1907
Hofstede de Groot, Cornelis. Beschreibendes und kritisches Verzeichnis der Werke der hervorragendsten holländischen Maler des XVII. Jahrhunderts. 10 vols. Esslingen and Paris, 1907-1928: 6(1915): 120, no. 218.
1908
Rosenberg, Adolf. Rembrandt, des Meisters Gemälde. Klassiker der Kunst in Gesamtausgaben 2. 3rd ed. Stuttgart and Berlin, 1908: repro. 467, 564.
1909
Rosenberg, Adolf. Rembrandt: Des Meisters Gemälde. Edited by Wilhelm R. Valentiner. Klassiker der Kunst in Gesamtausgaben 2. Stuttgart und Leipzig, 1909: repro. 467, 564.
1909
Valentiner, Wilhelm R. Catalogue of a collection of paintings by Dutch masters of the seventeenth century. The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 1. Exh. cat. Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1909: xxiii, 106, no. 105, repro., 156, 159.
1910
Valentiner, Wilhelm R. Catalogue of a Loan Exhibition of Paintings by Old Dutch Masters Held at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in Connection with the Hudson-Fulton Celebration. New York, 1910: 12, repro. 354, 355, no. 105.
1910
Waldmann, Emil. "Die Ausstellung holländischer Gemälde des 17. Jahrunderts in New York." Zeitschrift für Bildende Kunst 21 (January 1910): 73-85, repro. 76.
1911
Valentiner, Wilhelm R., and Augusto Floriano Jaccaci. Old and modern masters in the collection of M.C.D. Borden. 2 vols. New York, 1911: 1:11, 44, no. 7, repro. opp. 44.
1913
Graves, Algernon. A Century of Loan Exhibitions, 1813–1912. 5 vols. London, 1913-1915: 3(1914):1005.
1914
Beets, N. "Een 'print van Rafel' en Rembrandt's Lucretia." Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant (1 January 1914): 1.
1914
Knuttel, Gerhardus. "De Lucretia en Andere Werken van Rembrandt Bij de Firma Fred. Muller & Co. Amsterdam." Elsevier’s Geïllustreerd Maandschrift 47 (February 1914): 139–144, repro.
1914
Veth, Jan. "Rembrandt's Lucretia." Beelden en Groepen 25 (1914): 116-126.
1915
Havelaar, Just. Oud-Hollandsche figuurschilders. Haarlem, 1915: 154-155.
1919
Havelaar, Just. Oud-Hollandsche figuurschilders. 2nd ed. Haarlem, 1919: 153.
1920
Hirschmann, Otto. "Die Sammlung August Janssen." Der Cicerone 12 (January 1920): 17-26, 69-75.
1920
Madsen, Karl. Catalogue of a Collection of Paintings: Exhibited in the Danish Museum of Fine Art. (H. Heilbuth Collection). Exh. cat. Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen, 1920: 108-111, fig. 63, repro.
1921
Gold, Alfred "Die Sammlung Hielbuth." Der Cicerone 13 (March 1921): 89-93, repro. 91.
1922
Neumann, Carl. Rembrandt. 2 vols. Revised ed. Munich, 1922: 2:612 n.1, 624.
1923
Meldrum, David S. Rembrandt’s Painting, with an Essay on His Life and Work. New York, 1923: 203, pl. 444.
1926
Weisbach, Werner. Rembrandt. Berlin, 1926: 571, fig. 192, repro.
1931
Valentiner, Wilhelm R. Rembrandt Paintings in America. New York, 1931: no. 164, repro.
1932
Rijckevorsel, J. L. A. A. M. van. "Rembrandt en de Traditie." Ph.D. diss., Rijksuniversiteit Nijmegen, 1932: 222.
1935
Bredius, Abraham. Rembrandt Gemälde, 630 Abbildungen. Vienna, 1935: no. 484, repro.
1935
Bredius, Abraham. Rembrandt Schilderijen, 630 Afbeeldingen. Utrecht, 1935: no. 484, repro.
1936
Bredius, Abraham. The Paintings of Rembrandt. New York, 1936: no. 484, repro.
1937
Jewell, Edward Alden. "Mellon's Gift." Magazine of Art 30, no. 2 (February 1937): 82.
1941
Kieser, Emil. "Über Rembrandts Verhältnis zur Antike." Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte 10 (1941/1942): 142.
1941
National Gallery of Art. Preliminary Catalogue of Paintings and Sculpture. Washington, 1941: 165, no. 76.
1942
Bredius, Abraham. The Paintings of Rembrandt. 2 vols. Translated by John Byam Shaw. Oxford, 1942: no. 484, repro.
1942
Book of Illustrations. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1942: 240, repro. 30.
1943
Benesch, Otto. "The Rembrandt Paintings in the National Gallery of Art." The Art Quarterly 6 (Winter 1943): 33, fig. 14.
1948
Rosenberg, Jakob. Rembrandt. 2 vols. Cambridge, MA, 1948: 1:170, 2:fig. 245.
1949
National Gallery of Art. Paintings and Sculpture from the Mellon Collection. Washington, 1949 (reprinted 1953 and 1958): 84, no. 76, repro.
1950
Stechow, Wolfgang. "Review of Jakob Rosenberg, Rembrandt, 1948." Art Bulletin 32 (September 1950): 252–255.
1951
Stechow, Wolfgang. "Lucretia Statua." In Essays in Honor of Georg Swarzenski. Edited by Oswald Goetz. Chicago and Berlin, 1951: 114-124, note 46.
1959
Benesch, Otto. "Rembrandt and Ancient History." The Art Quarterly 22 (Winter 1959): 308-333.
1963
Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. New York, 1963: 314, repro.
1964
Rosenberg, Jakob. Rembrandt: Life and Work. Revised ed. Greenwich, Connecticut, 1964: 286, 360, fig. 245, note 33a, repro. 286.
1965
National Gallery of Art. Summary Catalogue of European Paintings and Sculpture. Washington, 1965: 109.
1966
Bauch, Kurt. Rembrandt Gemälde. Berlin, 1966: 15, no. 284, repro.
1966
Cairns, Huntington, and John Walker, eds. A Pageant of Painting from the National Gallery of Art. 2 vols. New York, 1966: 1: 234, color repro.
1966
Gimpel, René. Diary of an Art Dealer. Translated by John Rosenberg. New York, 1966: 161.
1966
Rosenberg, Jakob, Seymour Slive, and Engelbert H. ter Kuile. Dutch Art and Architecture: 1600–1800. Pelican History of Art. Baltimore, 1966: 74.
1967
Livermore, Ann. "Rembrandt and Jansen: a new interpretation." Apollo 85 (April 1967): 240-245, fig. 9.
1968
Gerson, Horst. Rembrandt Paintings. Amsterdam, 1968: 430, 503, no. 373, repro. 431.
1968
National Gallery of Art. European Paintings and Sculpture, Illustrations. Washington, 1968: 97, repro.
1969
Bredius, Abraham. Rembrandt: The Complete Edition of the Paintings. Revised by Horst Gerson. 3rd ed. London, 1969: 596, no. 484, repro.
1969
Haak, Bob. Rembrandt: His Life, His Work, His Time. Translated by Elizabeth Willems-Treeman. New York, 1969: 313, no. 531, color repro.
1969
Held, Julius S. Rembrandt's 'Aristotle' and Other Rembrandt Studies. Princeton, 1969: 95, fig. 3, repro.
1969
National Gallery of Art. Rembrandt in the National Gallery of Art: Commemorating the tercentenary of the artist's death. Exh. cat. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1969: 6, 33, no. 23, repro.
1970
Benesch, Otto. Otto Benesch Collected Writings. 2 vols. Edited by Eva Benesch. London and New York, 1970: 1:140-146, fig. 119.
1972
Rosenberg, Jakob, Seymour Slive, and Engelbert H. ter Kuile. Dutch Art and Architecture, 1600 to 1800. The Pelican History of Art 27. Revised paperback ed. Harmondsworth, 1972: 126.
1973
Held, Julius S. "Das gesprochene Wort bei Rembrandt." In Neue Beiträge zur Rembrandt-Forschung. Edited by Otto van Simson and Jan Kelch. Berlin, 1973: 111-125, repro. 78.
1975
National Gallery of Art. European paintings: An Illustrated Summary Catalogue. Washington, 1975: 284, repro.
1975
Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington. New York, 1975: 283, no. 375, color repro.
1976
Sonnenburg, Hubertus von. "Maltechnische Gesichtspunkte zur Rembrandtforschung." Maltechnik-Restauro 82 (1976): 14.
1977
Broos, Ben P. J. Index to the Formal Sources of Rembrandt's Art. Maarssen, 1977: 49-50.
1979
Strauss, Walter L., and Marjon van der Meulen. The Rembrandt Documents. New York, 1979: 418.
1982
Kitson, Michael. Rembrandt. 2nd ed. Oxford, 1982: 48.
1984
Rosenberg, Jakob, Seymour Slive, and Engelbert H. ter Kuile. Dutch Art and Architecture. The Pelican History of Art. Revised ed. Harmondsworth, 1984: 74.
1984
Schwartz, Gary. Rembrandt: Zijn leven, zijn schilderijen. Maarssen, 1984: 330, no. 382, repro.
1984
Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington. Rev. ed. New York, 1984: 283, no. 369, color repro., as by Rembrandt van Ryn.
1985
National Gallery of Art. European Paintings: An Illustrated Catalogue. Washington, 1985: 329, repro.
1985
Schwartz, Gary. Rembrandt: His Life, His Paintings. New York, 1985: 330, no. 382, repro.
1986
Guillaud, Jacqueline, and Maurice Guillaud. Rembrandt: das Bild des Menschen. Translated by Renate Renner. Stuttgart, 1986: 371, no. 424, color repro.
1986
Guillaud, Jacqueline, and Maurice Guillaud. Rembrandt, the human form and spirit. Translated by Suzanne Boorsch, et al. New York, 1986: no. 424, color repro.
1986
Sutton, Peter C. A Guide to Dutch Art in America. Washington and Grand Rapids, 1986: 313.
1986
Tümpel, Christian. Rembrandt. Translated by Jacques and Jean Duvernet, Léon Karlson, and Patrick Grilli. Paris, 1986: repro. 346, 403, no. 114.
1989
Garrard, Mary D. Artemisia Gentileschi: The Image of the Female Hero in Italian Baroque Art. Princeton, 1989: 237-239, no. 203, repro. 239.
1990
Buijsen, Edwin. "The Battle against the Dollar: The Dutch reaction to American collecting in the period from 1900 to 1914." In Great Dutch Paintings from America. Edited by Ben P. J. Broos. Exh. cat. Royal Picture Gallery Mauritshuis, The Hague; Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco. The Hague and Zwolle, 1990: 60-77, repro. 69.
1991
Bal, Mieke. Reading "Rembrandt": Beyond the Word-Image Opposition. Cambridge New Art History and Criticism. Cambridge, 1991: 64-74, 102, 105, 122, 140, 169, 245, 362, 448 n. 45, repro. 2.1.
1991
Emison, Patricia. "The singularity of Raphael's Lucretia." Art History 14, no. 3 (September 1991): 372-396.
1991
Wheelock, Arthur K., Jr., and George S. Keyes. Rembrandt's Lucretias. Exh. brochure. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1991.
1992
Fehl, Philipp P. Decorum and wit: the poetry of Venetian painting: essays in the history of the classical tradition. Bibliotheca artibus et historiae. Vienna, 1992: 214, ill. 145.
1995
Wheelock, Arthur K., Jr. Dutch Paintings of the Seventeenth Century. The Collections of the National Gallery of Art Systematic Catalogue. Washington, 1995: 280-287, color repro. 281.
1997
Fleischer, Roland E., and Susan C. Scott. Rembrandt, Rubens, and the art of their time: recent perspectives. Papers in art history from the Pennsylvania State University 11. University Park, PA, 1997: no. 1-7, repro.
1998
Gibson, Sarah S. "Adultery." In Encyclopedia of Comparative Iconography: Themes Depicted in Works of Art. Edited by Helene E. Roberts. 2 vols. Chicago, 1998: 1:31.
1998
Helene E. Roberts, ed. Encyclopedia of Comparative Iconography: Themes Depicted in Works of Art. 2 vols. Chicago, 1998: 1:31.
1999
Jensen, Knud W. De glade givere: museernes bedste billeder. Exh. cat. Louisiana Museum of Modern Art, Humlebaek, 1999: 111, repro.
1999
Minor, Vernon Hyde. Baroque & Rococo: Art & Culture. New York, 1999: 170, repro.
1999
Schama, Simon. Rembrandt's Eyes. New York, 1999: 660, repro.
1999
Zuffi, Stefano and Francesca Castria, La peinture baroque. Translated from Italian by Silvia Bonucci and Claude Sophie Mazéas. Paris, 1999: 184, color repro.
2000
Wright, Christopher. Rembrandt. Collection Les Phares 10. Translated by Paul Alexandre. Paris, 2000: 77, fig. 66.
2001
Bal, Mieke. Looking In: The Art of Viewing. Critical voices in art, theory and culture. Amsterdam, 2001: 96, repro.
2001
Brown, Ron. The Art of Suicide. London, 2001: 106, repro.
2001
Lloyd Williams, Julia. Rembrandt's Women. Exh. cat. National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh; Royal Academy of Arts, London. London, 2001: no. 141, repro.
2002
Dixon, Annette, ed. Women who Ruled: Queens, Goddesses, Amazons in Renaissance and Baroque Art. Exh. cat. University of Michigan Museum of Art, Ann Arbor. London, 2002: 73, repro.
2003
Baines, Barbara J. Representing rape in the English early modern period. Mellen studies in literature: Jacobean drama 106. Lewiston, 2003: 250, repro. 15.
2003
Golahny, Amy. Rembrandt's Reading: The Artist's Bookshelf of Ancient Poetry and History. Amsterdam, 2003: 148, 151, fig. 37.
2003
Waagen, Gustav Friedrich. Treasures of Art in Great Britain. Translated by Elizabeth Rigby Eastlake. Facsimile edition of London 1854. London, 2003: 2:137, no. 1.
2004
Braider, Christopher. Baroque Self-Invention and Historical Truth: Hercules at the Crossroads. Burlington, VT, 2004: 56, 58, repro.
2004
Hand, John Oliver. National Gallery of Art: Master Paintings from the Collection. Washington, 2004: 200-201, no. 157, color repro.
2006
Rønberg, Lene Bøgh, and Eva de la Fuente Pedersen. Rembrandt?: The Master and His Workshop. Exh. cat. Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen, 2006: 206, fig. 18.
2007
Lopez, Jonathan. "‘Gross False Pretenses’: The Misdeeds of Art Dealer Leo Nardus." Apollo ser. 2, 166, no. 548 (December 2007): 80-81, fig. 10.
2011
Bailey, Colin B. Rembrandt and His School: Masterworks from the Frick and Lugt Collections. Exh. cat. Frick Collection, New York, 2011: 20-21, color repro.
2011
Keyes, George S., Tom Rassieur, and Dennis P. Weller. Rembrandt in America: collecting and connoisseurship. Exh. cat. North Carolina Museum of Art, Raleigh; Cleveland Museum of Art; Minneapolis Institute of Arts. New York, 2011: fig. 86, 154-156.

Conservation Notes

The original coarse, plain-weave fabric, composed of heavy, unevenly spun threads, has been lined. The top, right, and left edges have been trimmed slightly, leaving worn and ragged edges. The bottom was at one time used as a tacking margin, but has now been returned to the picture plane. Slight cusping present along the top and sides, but not the bottom, suggests a reduction in that dimension.

The double ground consists of a thick, gray lower layer and a moderately thin, dark brown upper layer.[1] In the dark areas, particularly the background, the dark brown upper ground layer was incorporated into the design, and in the upper left and lower right quadrants the upper ground was deliberately scraped away to expose the gray lower ground layer as part of the composition. In the richly impasted details on the dress, paint was applied thickly and freely with broad brushwork. Paint was both blended wet-into-wet and scumbled with a dry brush to exploit the coarse canvas texture. Extensive use of the palette knife can be recognized in the proper left cuff and in the lower portion of the dress. Incisions with the butt end of the brush are found in the proper left cuff and on the neck.

Several pentimenti have become visible over time. The dagger was once 3.5 cm longer, and the sitter’s proper right sleeve has been altered. Stray brushmarks cross the dress and white blouse at right, suggesting alterations to the neckline.

The paint is in good condition with few losses. Wide-aperture drying crackle has formed on either side of the head. Moderate abrasion has occurred in the darks, and the bottom tacking margin has been overpainted to incorporate it into the design. Conservation treatment was carried out in 1985 to remove an aged, discolored varnish layer and discolored inpainting.

 

[1] The ground composition was analyzed by the NGA Scientific Research department using cross-sections (see report dated May 8, 1985, in NGA Conservation files).

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