- Wtewael, Joachim Anthonisz
- Dutch, c. 1566 - 1638
- Uytewael, Joachim Anthonisz , Wttewael, Joachim Anthonisz , Utenwael, Joachim Anthonisz , Wtenwael, Joachim Anthonisz , Wtewael, Joachim Antonisz
Born in about 1566, Joachim Anthonisz. Wtewael (whose surname is also recorded in variant forms such as Wttewael, Uytewael, Utenwael, and Wtenwael) was the son of Anthonis Jansz. Wtewael, an Utrecht glass painter. Van Mander (see person bibliography) records that Joachim worked for his father until the age of eighteen, when he began to study oil painting with the Utrecht artist Joos de Beer (d. 1591). Abraham Bloemaert (1564-1651) was also a pupil of De Beer, whose works were influenced by both the Italianate Flemish and Fontainebleau schools of painting.
In 1586, after two years with De Beer, Wtewael traveled to Italy in the retinue of Charles de Bourgneuf de Cucé, Bishop of Saint Malo. He worked for the bishop for the next four years--two of them in Padua and two in France--before returning to Utrecht. In 1592 he joined the city's Saddlers' Guild, since at that time Utrecht had no artists' guild. When one was established in 1611, Wtewael was a founding member. He was also active in various spheres unrelated to the arts, notably local politics, serving on Utrecht's city council in 1610, and again from 1632 to 1636. A Calvinist and staunch patriot, he also assisted in 1618 in the overthrow of the Remonstrant magistracy of Utrecht and its replacement with a Calvinist administration loyal to the House of Orange. Other activities included running a flax and linen business--to which, Van Mander complained, Wtewael devoted more energy than he did to his art.
Nonetheless, as Van Mander acknowledged, he did find time to produce a considerable number of paintings. Surviving works range in date from the early 1590s to 1628 and vary considerably in size, support, and subject. Although the majority represent biblical and mythological subjects, Wtewael also executed portraits and genre scenes. Stylistically, he was influenced by a number of different schools, and his oeuvre demonstrates no clear stylistic evolution.
Wtewael died in Utrecht on August 1, 1638, having survived his wife, Christian van Halen, by nine years. He had four children, one of whom, Peter, was a painter who worked in his style. [This is an edited version of the artist's biography published, or to be published, in the NGA Systematic Catalogue]
- Mander, Karel van. Het Schilder-boeck. Haerlem, 1604: 296-297.
- Mander, Karel van. Het Schilder-boek. 1604. 2nd ed. Amsterdam, 1618: 296-297.
- Lindeman, Catherine Marius Anne Alettus. Joachim Anthonisz. Wtewael. Utrecht, 1929.
- Lowenthal, Anne W. Joachim Wtewael and Dutch Mannerism. Doornspijk, 1986.
- MacLaren, Neil. The Dutch School, 1600-1900. Revised and expanded by Christopher Brown. 2 vols. National Gallery Catalogues. London, 1991: 1:501-502.
- Luijten, Ger. Dawn of the Golden Age: Northern Netherlandish Art 1580-1620. Exh. cat. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. Zwolle, 1993: 326-327.
- Wheelock, Arthur K., Jr. Dutch Paintings of the Seventeenth Century. The Collections of the National Gallery of Art Systematic Catalogue. Washington, D.C., 1995: 393-394.
- Bok, Marten Jan. "Biographies." In Masters of Light: Dutch Painters in Utrecht during the Golden Age. Edited by Joaneath A. Spicer and Lynn Federle Orr. Exh. cat. Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco; Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore; National Gallery, London. New Haven, 1997: 392-393.