World War II Provenance Research

Slideshow overview of extensive research conducted on the World War II provenances of paintings in the collection of the National Gallery of Art.

From its inception, the National Gallery of Art has conducted extensive research into the provenance, or history of ownership, of objects in its collection, with particular attention over the past several years to the World War II era. In the course of this research it was discovered that the objects in this slideshow had in fact been looted during the war. Archival research uncovered documentation indicating that each of these works of art had been returned to its rightful owner after the war. These objects are displayed in this slideshow with links to their ownership history. Wartime histories, including extensive archival references, are documented in their provenance footnotes. (See information on how to read Gallery provenance texts.) Another painting, Frans Snyders' Still Life with Fruit and Game, was determined to have been looted from a French collection and not subsequently restituted.

Frans Snyders, Still Life with Fruit and Game (Press Materials, 11/20/00)

Several of these objects had been confiscated by the Nazi Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg (ERR) from private French collections and stored at the Jeu de Paume in Paris. Captured German records, now at the National Archives in College Park, Maryland, have been used to trace the confiscation and subsequent dispersal from the Jeu de Paume. Most of the Gallery objects confiscated in this manner were discovered in salt mines in southern Germany and Austria by the Allies in the last days of the war, and were removed to the Munich Central Collecting Point. Records from the Munich Central Collecting Point document the restitution of the objects to their countries of origin, where prewar owners or heirs claimed them. Other objects now in the National Gallery were recovered after the war and returned to owners in Liechtenstein, Austria, and Holland.

The National Gallery of Art provides known provenance information on this Web site for all paintings and sculpture in the collection. This research is an ongoing project, and the Gallery welcomes any information that would augment or clarify the ownership history of objects in its collection.

  • World War II Provenance Research /etc/designs/ngaweb/images/placeholder-90x90.jpg

    Provenance Research Overview

     

    From its inception, the National Gallery of Art has conducted extensive research into the provenance, or history of ownership, of objects in its collection, with particular attention over the past several years to the World War II era. In the course of this research it was discovered that the objects displayed on this page had in fact been looted during the war. Archival research uncovered documentation indicating that each of these works of art had been returned to its rightful owner after the war. These objects are displayed on this page with links to their ownership history. Wartime histories, including extensive archival references, are documented in their provenance footnotes. Another painting, Frans Snyders' Still Life with Fruit and Game, was determined to have been looted from a French collection and not subsequently restituted.

     

    Several of these objects had been confiscated by the Nazi Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg (ERR) from private French collections and stored at the Jeu de Paume in Paris. Captured German records, now at the National Archives in College Park, Maryland, have been used to trace the confiscation and subsequent dispersal from the Jeu de Paume. Most of the Gallery objects confiscated in this manner were discovered in salt mines in southern Germany and Austria by the Allies in the last days of the war, and were removed to the Munich Central Collecting Point. Records from the Munich Central Collecting Point document the restitution of the objects to their countries of origin, where prewar owners or heirs claimed them. Other objects now in the National Gallery were recovered after the war and returned to owners in Liechtenstein, Austria, and Holland.

     

    The National Gallery of Art provides known provenance information on this Web site for all paintings and sculpture in the collection. This research is an ongoing project, and the Gallery welcomes any information that would augment or clarify the ownership history of objects in its collection.

  • World War II Provenance Research http://media.nga.gov/public/objects/5/2/1/9/9/52199-primary-0-740x560.jpg

    Camille Pissarro, French, 1830 - 1903, Place du Carrousel, Paris, 1900, oil on canvas, Ailsa Mellon Bruce Collection, 1970.17.55

    Provenance

     

    By inheritance from the artist [1830-1903] to his wife, Mme. Camille [Julie] Pissarro; (Pissarro sale, Galerie Georges Petit, Paris, 3 December 1928, no. 44); purchased by Van Riel.[1] Bruno Stahl [1892-1958], Berlin;[2] sold 5 January 1949 to (Wildenstein & Co., London, New York and Paris);[3] sold 30 March 1949 to Ailsa Mellon Bruce [1901-1969], New York;[4] bequest 1970 to NGA.

     

    [1] According to annotated sales catalogues, copies in NGA curatorial records.

     

    [2] This painting was confiscated by the ERR in France during World War II, with other objects from the Stahl collection that were stored in a bank vault with objects from the Wildenstein collection (ERR card UNB331, as Ansicht des Louvres, Paris. National Archives RG260/Property Division/Box 22, copy in NGA curatorial files). It was transferred to the Jeu de Paume and taken by Hermann Goering on 17 March 1941, as Louvreansicht, (No. 20 on the Nachtrag zur Liste v. 20.10.42 der für die Sammlung des Reichsmarschalls Hermann Göring abgegebenen Kunstgegenstände dated 9 April 1943 in OSS Consolidated Interrogation Report #2, The Goering Collection, Attachment 5, National Archives RG239/Entry 75/Box 85, copy in NGA curatorial files). Goering traded the picture to Gustave Rochlitz in exchange for a Raffaellino del Garbo and a Wouters (OSS Consolidated Interrogation Report #1, Activities of the Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg, p. 30, National Archives RG239/Entry 75/Box 85, copy in NGA curatorial files). The painting remained with Rochlitz, in whose possession it was found after the war (Detailed Interrrogation Report #4, Gustave Rochlitz, p. 9, National Archives RG239/Entry 74/Box 84, copy in NGA curatorial files). The painting was recovered by the Allies and restituted to France on 27 March 1946 (Munich property card #8040/6; French Receipt for Cultural Objects no. 5A, item no. 289, copies in NGA curatorial files). It was exhibited in 1946 in Les Chefs-d'oeuvre des collections privées françaises retrouvés en Allemagne par la Commission de Récuperation artistique et les Services alliés, no. 33. It was restituted to Wildenstein, from whose vault it had been removed, on 24 October 1947, and returned to Stahl that same year. Stahl sold the picture to Wildenstein on 5 January 1949.

     

    [3] See letter from Wildenstein dated 31 January 2001 in NGA curatorial files.

     

    [4] Bill of sale from Wildenstein dated 30 March 1949, in NGA curatorial files.

     

    Associated Names

     

    Bruce, Ailsa Mellon, Mrs.

    ERR

    Galerie Georges Petit

    Goering, Hermann, Reichsmarschall

    Munich Central Collecting Point

    Pissarro, Camille, Mme

    Rochlitz, Gustav

    Stahl, Bruno

    Wildenstein & Co., Inc.

  • World War II Provenance Research http://media.nga.gov/public/objects/5/3/1/2/6/53126-primary-0-740x560.jpg

    Gustave Courbet, French, 1819 - 1877, La Bretonnerie in the Department of Indre, 1856 oil on canvas, Gift of the W. Averell Harriman Foundation in memory of Marie N. Harriman, 1972.9.8

    Provenance

     

    Gift from the artist to Clément Laurier [1831-1878].[1] Private collection, Poitiers, France, by 1935.[2] (Paul Rosenberg et Cie., Paris), by 1937;[3] (Paul Rosenberg and Co., New York); sold June 1947 to Marie N. Harriman [1903-1970] and W. Averell Harriman [1891-1986], New York;[4] The W. Averell Harriman Foundation, New York; gift 1972 to NGA.

     

    [1] Letter from Robert Fernier to David Rust, dated 31 July 1972, in NGA curatorial files.

     

    [2] Lent to Gustave Courbet, Kunsthaus, Zurich, 1935, no. 44, from a private collection in Poitiers.

     

    [3] Exhibited at Paul Rosenberg Galleries in Paris in 1937. It was deposited with part of the Rosenberg collection at the Banque Nationale pour le Commerce et l'Industrie in Libourne, from which it was confiscated by the Nazi's ERR on 28 April 1941 (see Rosenberg claim file, National Archives RG260/Box 743, copies in NGA curatorial files). Documents from the National Archives in Washington indicate that the painting had been selected by Hermann Goering on 14 September 1941 from the Jeu de Paume (OSS Consolidated Interrogation Report #2, The Goering Collection, 15 September 1945, Attachment 5, Liste der für die Sammlung des Reichsmarschalls Hermann Göring abgegebenen Kunstgegenstände, dated 20 October 1942, no. 52, National Archives RG239/Entry 73/Box 78, copy in NGA curatorial files). The records of the Munich Central Collecting Point indicate that the painting was recovered by the Allies and restituted to France on 29 January 1946 (Munich property card #5836/788; French Receipt for Cultural Objects no. IIIa, item no. 167, National Archives RG260/Box 503 and RG260/Box 287, copies in NGA curatorial files). The painting was returned to the Rosenbergs on 17 May 1946 (see correspondence dated 23 June 2000 from the French Ministere des Affaires Étrangeres in NGA curatorial files.)

     

    [4] See Harriman collection cards in NGA curatorial files.

     

    Associated Names

     

    ERR

    Goering, Hermann, Reichsmarschall

    Harriman Foundation, W. Averell

    Laurier, Clément

    Marie Harriman Gallery

    Munich Central Collecting Point

    Private Collection (NGA Former Owner)

    Rosenberg & Co., Paul P.

  • World War II Provenance Research http://media.nga.gov/public/objects/9/2/9/9/6/92996-primary-0-740x560.jpg

    Henri Fantin-Latour, French, 1836 - 1904, Self-Portrait, 1861, oil on canvas, Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon, 1995.47.9

    Provenance

     

    Madame Fantin-Latour; sold by 1929 to (Tempelaere, Paris). David David-Weill [1871-1952], Neuilly-sur-Seine, by 1936.[1] (Robert Schmidt, Paris); sold June 1971 to Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon, Upperville, Virginia; gift 1995 to NGA.

     

    [1] The painting was lent by David-Weill to the 1936 exhibition of Fantin-Latour's work held in Grenoble. During World War II the painting was confiscated by the Nazi Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg (ERR) from the David-Weill collection in France, and recovered by the Allies. The records of the Munich Central Collecting Point indicate that the painting was restituted to France on 11 July 1946, with David-Weill as the presumed owner (Munich property card #181/6; French Receipt for Cultural Objects no. 9A, item no. 77; copies in NGA curatorial files). The painting was returned to the David-Weill family in September 1946 (see correspondence from the French Ministere des Affaires Étrangeres in NGA curatorial files). David-Weill was president of the Conseil artistique de la Réunion des Musées Nationaux. His claim for paintings not recovered after the war is published in the Répertoire des biens spoliés en France durant la guerre 1939-1945, Groupe français du conseil de controle, 1947.

     

    Associated Names

     

    David-Weill, David

    ERR

    Mellon, Paul, Mr.

    Munich Central Collecting Point

    Schmidt, Robert

    Tempelaere, Gustave

  • World War II Provenance Research http://media.nga.gov/public/objects/5/2/1/6/7/52167-primary-0-740x560.jpg

    Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, French, 1796 - 1875, Madame Stumpf and Her Daughter, 1872, oil on canvas, Ailsa Mellon Bruce Collection, 1970.17.23

    Provenance

     

    Given by the artist to Monsieur F. Stumpf; Stumpf family until at least 1906;[1] Mme Barbier de Saint Hilaire, née Madeleine Stumpf, the child in the painting; sold by 1922[2] to (Tedesco Frères, Paris) and (Paul Rosenberg and Co., New York, London and Paris);[3] acquired c. 1965 by (E.V. Thaw & Co, New York);[4] sold January 1966 to (Thomas Agnew and Sons, London); sold 26 March 1966 to Ailsa Mellon Bruce [1901-1969], New York; bequest 1970 to NGA.

     

    [1] Discussed as part of the Stumpf collection, but not offered for sale, in Catalogue de tableaux moderne composant la collection de feu M. F. Stumpf, Galerie Georges Petit, Paris, 7 May 1906, pp. 6-10.

     

    [2] Letter dated 29 July 1970 from Jean Dieterle to David Rust, in NGA curatorial files.

     

    [3] According to a letter from Alexandre Rosenberg dated 27 June 1977, in NGA curatorial files, the painting was confiscated with others from the Rosenberg collection in France in 1940, traced to a Swiss collection in 1945, and returned to the Rosenbergs in 1947. The painting is listed as no. 37.954 in the Répertoire des biens spoliés en France durant la guerre 1939-1945 [List of Property Removed from France during the War, 1939-1945, Groupe française du conseil de controle, 1947. Documents from the National Archives in Washington indicate that the picture was confiscated on 18 September 1940 from the château of Floirac (see letter dated 15 December 1944 from Edmond Rosemberg with first list of Floirac pictures, National Archives RG 260/743, copy NGA curatorial files). The painting was selected by Hermann Goering from the Jeu de Paume (OSS Consolidated Interrogation Report #2, The Goering Collection, 15 September 1945, Attachment 5,Nachtrag zur Liste v. 20.10.42 der für die Sammlung des Reichnsmarschalls Hermann Göring abgegebenen Kunstgegestände dated 9 April 1943, no. 3, National Archives RG239/Entry 73/box 78; see also OSS dispatch dated 29 August 1945, National Archives RG 226/Entry 190/Box 532, copies in NGA curatorial files). The French dealer Zacharie Birtschansky [1889 - c.1950]was then involved in selling the picture to Hans Wendland for a Swiss dealer, probably Fischer (see OSS Consolidated Interrogation Report #2, The Goering Collection, 15 September 1945, p. 57-8, National Archives RG 226/Entry 99/Box 105, copy NGA curatorial files).

     

    [4] Letter of 20 April 1995 from E.V. Thaw and Co., Inc., in NGA curatorial files.

     

    Associated Names

     

    Agnew & Sons, Ltd., Thomas

    Barbier de Saint Hilaire, Madeleine, Mme.

    Birtschansky, Zacharie

    Bruce, Ailsa Mellon, Mrs.

    ERR

    Goering, Hermann, Reichsmarschall

    Rosenberg & Co., Paul P.

    Stumpf, F.

    Tedesco Frères

    Thaw & Co., Inc., E.V.

    Wendland, Hans

  • World War II Provenance Research http://media.nga.gov/public/objects/5/3/1/4/1/53141-primary-0-740x560.jpg

    David Teniers the Younger, Flemish, 1610 - 1690, Peasants Celebrating Twelfth Night, 1635, oil on panel, Ailsa Mellon Bruce Fund, 1972.10.1

    Provenance

     

    Edward Ladd Betts [d. 1695], England.[1] M. Belinarde, 1785.[2] Alfred and Jacques Pereire, Paris, by 1936; Mme. I. P[ereire]; (her sale, Galerie Jean Charpentier, Paris, 4 June 1937, no. 22, as Le Roi boit!);[3] Guy Stein. Baron Alex. Gendebien, Brussels, in 1937;[4] consigned c. 1939 for Baron Robert Gendebien by Eric-Emil Lyndhurst, Brussels, to (Katz Gallery, Dieren, The Netherlands); probably sold to (P. Smit van Gelder, Antwerp); sold to (J. Kalb); sold 12 February 1941 to (Goudstikker firm, Amsterdam); sold 11 December 1941 to Professor Hoffmann, Munich; Baron Robert Gendebien, Brussels, 1955. Eric-Emil Lyndhurst, Brussels, 1955.[5] (Kunsthandel Gebr. Douwes, Amsterdam), 1955.[6] (sale, Sotheby's, London, 10 July 1963, no. 42); Mrs. Pethick.[7] Mrs. M. Polak, New York.[8] (Kunsthandel Gebr. Douwes, Amsterdam), in 1964. Dr. Heinrich Becker, Dortmund, by 1967;[9](Schaeffer Galleries, New York); purchased 3 February 1972 by NGA.

     

    [1] The painting is inscribed on the reverse "E'd Ladd Betts, Esq." This is probably Edward Betts, a famous English physician, who died on 27 April 1695.

     

    [2] John Smith, A Catalogue Raisonné of the Works of the Most Eminent Dutch, Flemish and French Painters, 9 vols., London, 1929-1942: 3(1831):334, no. 276.

     

    [3] The painting could possibly have been in the collection of the Pereire family in the nineteenth century. During that period two Pereire brothers, Emile (1800-1875) and Isaac (1806-1880), played essential roles in France by pioneering railway transport and making innovations in investment banking and credit procedures. They were major collectors and shared an elaborate mansion on the Faubourg Saint-Honoré, where the collection was displayed. It was largely dispersed at public sales in 1868 and 1872. Their descendants Alfred and Jacques Pereire lent the painting to a 1936 exhibition in Paris. The 1937 auction catalogue identifies the seller as "Madame I.P.," although she was known to be Madame Isaac Pereire. On the family and their collection, see: M. Castille, Les frères Pereire, Paris, 1961; W. Bürger, "Galerie de MM. Pereire," Gazette des Beaux-Arts XVI (1864): 193-213, 297-317; Francis Haskell, Rediscoveries in Art: Some Aspects of Taste, Fashion and Collecting in England and France, Ithaca, 1976: 83-86; Albert Boime, "Entrepreneurial Patronage in Nineteenth Century France," in Enterprise and Entrepreneurs in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century France, ed. Edward C. Carter II et al., Baltimore and London, 1976: 142-146; Les donateurs du Louvre, Paris, 1989: 289; Pierre Rosenberg, "La donation Pereire," La Revue du Louvre et des Musées de France 25, no. 4 (1975): 259.

     

    [4] The 1964 Gebr. Douwes exhibition catalogue lists a Baron Alex. Gendebien as the owner of the painting in 1937. According to correspondence with the Inspectie Cultuurbezit of the Netherlands and copies of documents provided by the Dutch State Archives, a Baron Robert Gendebien owned the painting in 1939 and was involved in its restitution after it was confiscated during World War II (see note 5). The relationship between Alex. and Robert Gendebien, though obviously familial, is unclear.

     

    [5] A note on Witt Library fiche no. 13.365 indicates that the painting was "stolen from Belgium, 1939/1945." Although the collection of Eric-Emil Lyndhurst, a Jewish collector and dealer, was confiscated by the Nazi Einstazstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg (ERR) in 1943, this painting does not appear on the list of his collection compiled at that time. According to his statement of 23 July 1948, "[S]ome months before the outbreak of war in 1939, [he] handed over to Mr. Nathan Katz (of the Firm D. Katz, Dieren) [the Teniers painting] belonging to Baron Robert Gendebien for sale." Lyndhurst learned from Katz that the painting had been taken by the Germans during the war. After passing through Katz, Smit van Gelder, the Nazi-controlled Goudstikker firm, Kalb, and Hoffmann (probably Heinrich Hoffmann [1885-1957], Adolf Hitler's photographer) the painting made its way into Hitler's possession. The records of the Munich Central Collecting Point indicate that after the war the painting was recovered by the Allies in Austria and restituted to the Netherlands on 15 April 1946 (Munich property card #2588/Aussee 1932; Dutch Receipt for Cultural Objects No. 10a, item no. 34, copies in NGA curatorial files). The painting arrived in the Netherlands on 28 May 1946. Although it is unclear to whom the painting was returned by the Dutch authorities, Robert Gendebien was assumed to be the rightful owner and was involved in the restitution. After its return, he may have again put the painting on consignment to Lyndhurst, who, according to the 1964 Gebr. Douwes exhibition catalogue, was in possession of it in 1955. See the letter dated 9 December 1999 from the Inspectie Cultuurbezit of The Netherlands, and copies of documents from the Stichting Nederlands Kunstbezit, archive no. 267, sent 4 January 2000 by the Dutch State Archives, in NGA curatorial files.

     

    [6] According to a handwritten notation on a photograph in the Rubenianum in Antwerp.

     

    [7] The Sotheby's auction report lists the purchaser of the painting as a Mrs. Pethick. Her name, however, does not appear in any other provenance listing. Perhaps she was an agent for a dealer or private collector.

     

    [8] According to the catalogue of the 1964 Gebr. Douwes exhibition. In a letter of 30 January 1985 from Mrs. H.S. Schaeffer of Schaeffer Galleries, Inc., in NGA curatorial files, Mrs. Polak is listed as living in Sarasota.

     

    [9] See Fritz Rolf, Sammlung Becker, Dortmund, 1967: no. 86; in this entry the 1936 exhibition at the Pavillon de Marsan, which included the painting, is incorrectly listed as being at the Pavillon de Marsau in 1946.

     

    Associated Names

     

    Becker, Heinrich, Dr.

    Belinarde

    Betts, Edward Ladd

    Galerie Charpentier

    Galerie Goudstikker

    Gelder, P. Smit van

    Gendebien, Alex., Baron

    Gendebien, Robert, Baron

    Hoffmann, Heinrich

    Kalb, J.

    Katz, D.

    Lyndhurst, Eric-Emil

    Munich Central Collecting Point

    Pereire, Alfred

    Pereire, Emile and Isaac

    Pereire, Isaac, Mme

    Pereire, Jacques

    Pethick, Mrs.

    Polak, M., Mrs.

    Private Collection c/o Gebr. Douwes Fine Art

    Private Collection c/o Gebr. Douwes Fine Art

    Schaeffer Galleries, Inc.

    Sotheby's, London

    Stein, Guy

  • World War II Provenance Research http://media.nga.gov/public/objects/6/6/4/2/3/66423-primary-0-740x560.jpg

    Henri Matisse, French, 1869 - 1954, Pianist and Checker Players, 1924, oil on canvas, Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon, 1985.64.25

    Provenance

     

    Sold 21 October 1924 by the artist to (Galerie Bernheim-Jeune, Paris); by whom sold 24 October 1924 to Georges Bernheim, Paris;[1] sold to Paul Rosenberg, Paris;[2] sold to (Pierre Matisse Gallery, New York); sold 1951 to (Paul Rosenberg and Co., New York); Alexandre Rosenberg, New York; sold c. 1977 to (Eugene Victor Thaw and Co., New York);[3] sold January 1978 to Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon, Upperville, Virginia; gift 1985 to NGA.

     

    [1] See Guy-Patrice and Michel Dauberville, Henri Matisse Chez Bernheim-Jeune, Paris, 1995, volume 2, no. 607.

     

    [2] This painting was confiscated by the ERR with others from the Rosenberg collection in France in 1941 (ERR Inventory card UNB335, National Archives RG 260/Property Division/Box 22). It was selected by Hermann Goering from the Jeu de Paume, one of the six untitled paintings by Matisse from the Rosenberg collection listed as numbers 48-53 on the Nachtrag zur Liste v. 20.10.42 der für die Sammlung des Reichsmarschalls Hermann Göring abgegebenen Kunstgegenstände dated 9 April 1943 (OSS Consolidated Interrogation Report #2, The Goering Collection, Attachment 5, National Archives RG239/Entry73/Box 78) and traded 10 December 1941 to Gustav Rochlitz, in whose possession it remained until the end of the war. It was recovered in one of Rochlitz' residences in Bavaria by the Allies and transferred to the Munich Central Collecting Point, and restituted to France on 27 March 1946 (OSS Detailed Interrogation Report #4, Gustav Rochlitz, National Archives RG239/Entry 74/Box 84 and Munich property card #8049/15; French Receipt for Cultural Objects no. 5A, item no. 298; copies in NGA curatorial files). It was returned to Paul Rosenberg on 17 May 1946 (See letter from the Ministere des Affiares Etrangeres dated 20 February 2001 in NGA curatorial files). After its restitution, the painting was exhibited in the 1946 Les Chefs-d'oeuvre des collections privées françaises retrouvés en Allemagne par la Commission de Récupération artistique et les Services alliés, no. 53.

     

    [3] Post-war provenance details per Henri Matisse: The Early Years in Nice 1916-1930, exh. cat., National Gallery of Art, 1986, no. 129, and draft entry for forthcoming NGA systematic catalogue, in NGA curatorial files.

     

    Associated Names

     

    Bernheim-Jeune

    ERR

    Goering, Hermann, Reichsmarschall

    Matisse Gallery, Pierre

    Mellon, Paul, Mr.

    Munich Central Collecting Point

    Rochlitz, Gustav

    Rosenberg, Alexandre P.

    Rosenberg, Paul

    Thaw & Co., Inc., E.V.

  • World War II Provenance Research http://media.nga.gov/public/objects/4/6/1/2/0/46120-primary-0-740x560.jpg

    Attributed to Hans Holbein the Younger, German, 1497/1498 - 1543, Portrait of a Young Man, c. 1520/1530, oil on panel, Samuel H. Kress Collection, 1961.9.21

    Provenance

     

    Possibly a member of the de Rothschild family, Vienna, from about 1850.[1] Baron Louis de Rothschild [1882-1955], Vienna, probably by inheritance, by 1931;[2] (Rosenberg & Stiebel, New York, put on consignment with M. Knoedler & Co., New York, May, 1947; transferred to Knoedler's regular stock in June with a portion owned by Rosenberg & Stiebel);[3] purchased 1952 by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York; gift 1961 to NGA.

     

    [1] Not verified, but likely; stated in Ludwig Baldass, "Ein Frühwerk Hans Holbeins des Jüngeren." Kunstchronik und Kunstliteratur. Beilage zur Zeitschrift für bildende Kunst. 7/8 (1931): 61, and in M. Knoedler & Co. invoice of 6 February 1952 in NGA curatorial files.

     

    [2] This painting was confiscated by the Nazis from the Louis de Rothschild collection in Vienna in 1938 and was destined for Hitler's planned museum in Linz, Austria. It is listed on the 20 October 1939 Vorschlag sur Verteilung der in Wien beschlagnahmte Gemaelde: Fuer das Kunstmuseum in Linz prepared by Hans Posse, and also his Verzeichnis der fuer Linz in Aussicht genommenen Gemaelde dated 31 July 1940 (OSS Consolidated Interrogation Report #4, Linz: Hitler's Museum and Library, 15 December 1945, Attachments 72 and 73, National Archives RG226/Entry 190B/Box 35, copy NGA curatorial files). The records of the Munich Central Collecting Point indicate that the painting was recovered by the Allies and restituted to Austria on 25 April 1946 with Rothschild as the presumed owner. (Munich property card #2306/7; Austrian Receipt for Cultural Property no. IIIa, item no. 29; copies in NGA curatorial files.)

     

    [3] Letter of 10 April 1987 to John Hand from Gerald G. Stiebel, Rosenberg & Stiebel, in NGA curatorial files, gives their source for the picture as the Vienna Rothshilds; letter of 2 March 1988 to John Hand from Nancy C. Little, M. Knoedler & Co., in NGA curatorial files, describes the consignment to them from Rosenberg & Stiebel.

     

    Associated Names

     

    Knoedler & Company, M.

    Kress Foundation, Samuel H. (Kress number K1892)

    Munich Central Collecting Point

    Rothschild, Louis de, Baron

    Stiebel, Ltd.

  • World War II Provenance Research http://media.nga.gov/public/objects/4/6/4/7/3/46473-primary-0-740x560.jpg

    Sir Peter Paul Rubens, Flemish, 1577 - 1640, Agrippina and Germanicus, c. 1614, oil on panel, Andrew W. Mellon Fund, 1963.8.1

    Provenance

     

    F. van Bredael; purchased 1710 by Prince Johann Adam Andreas of Liechtenstein [1657-1712], Vienna;[1] Liechtenstein Collection, Vienna, Austria, and Vaduz, Liechstenstein;[2] purchased 25 October 1963 through (Feilchenfeldt, Zurich) by NGA.

     

    [1] According to records from the Liechtenstein Collection in NGA curatorial files, the painting was purchased 26 August 1710 from the collection of "F. van Bredael." In the catalogue of the 1948 exhibition of works from the collection of the Princes of Liechtenstein, the name of the seller is given as Jean Pierre van Bredael.

     

    [2] Records from the Liechtenstein Collection in NGA curatorial files indicate that the painting was stored during World War II in the salt mine at Lauffen bei Ischl and returned to Liechtenstein in 1945.

     

    Associated Names

     

    Bredael, F. van

    Feilchenfeldt, Walter M.

    Liechtenstein, Franz Josef II of, Prince

    Liechtenstein, Johann Adam of, Prince

    Liechtenstein, Princes of

  • World War II Provenance Research http://media.nga.gov/public/objects/4/6/1/3/8/46138-primary-0-740x560.jpg

    Luca Signorelli, Italian, 1445/1450 - 1523, The Marriage of the Virgin, c. 1490/1491, tempera on panel, Samuel H. Kress Collection, 1961.9.39

    Provenance

     

    Thomas Blayds, London; (his sale, Christie & Manson, London, 30-31 March 1849, 1st day, no. 81, as The birth of St. John; and the companion); Harris. Edward Habich [1818-1901], Kassel, probably from the 1890s;[1] presented 1900 to the Königliche Gemäldegalerie, Kassel;[2] sold around 1920;[3] Rudolf Chillingworth, Nürnberg; (his sale, Galerie Fischer, Lucerne, 5 September 1922, no. 111, in same lot as Presentation of Virgin);[4] (Jacques Goudstikker, Amsterdam), by 1930; Desirée Goudstikker von Saher, from 1949.[5] (Piero Tozzi, New York); sold February 1955 to the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York;[6] gift 1961 to NGA.

     

    [1] The buyer's name at the Blayds sale appears in an annotated copy of the sale catalogue in the Getty Library (copy in NGA curatorial files). According to Oscar Eisenmann, Ausgewählte Hanzeichmungen alterer Meilsler aus de Sammlung Edward Habich au Cassel, Lübeck, 1890: n.p., preface, Habich built up his collection in 1880s. At the time of his sale (see Katalog der ausgewählten und reichhaltigen Gemäldesammlung des Reutners herrn Edward Habich zu Cassel, sale catalogue, Haberle, Cologne, 9-10 May 1892), the NGA painting was apparently not yet in his possession.

     

    [2] The date of the donation is given in Katalog der Kniglichen Gemäldegalerie au Cassel, Antiliche Ausgade Berlin, 1913: 63. Girolamo Mancini, Luca Signorelli, Florence, 1903, is the first to cite the painting as belonging to the Kassel Gallery.

     

    [3] Miklós Boskovits, author of the NGA systematic catalogue entry on the painting, could not find any record of the sale, which probably occurred in the years of Germany's economic and political crisis just after World War I.

     

    [4] About Chillingworth and the sale of his collection, see Catalogue de la Collection Chillingworth, Tableaux anciens, XIIIe-XVIIe siècles, 1922: 5 (for the sale held at the Grand Hotel National in Lucerne under the direction of Galeries Fischer, Lucerne, and Frederik Muller & Cie., Amsterdam, 5 September 1922), and "Versteigerung--Ergebnisse in Luzerne," Kunstchronik Kunstmarkt 33 (1922): 49-50.

     

    [5] See Catalogue des Nouvelles Acquisitions de la Collection Goudstikker, a catalogue for an exhibition shown in Amsterdam and Rotterdam November 1930 and January 1931 (no. 39 in the series of catalogues published by the dealer Jacques Goudstikker). The NGA painting is no. 2585 on a May 1940 inventory of the Goudstikker gallery (copy NGA curatorial files). The Goudstikker firm and most of its contents were sold in July 1940 to Alois Meidl, an agent of Hermann Goering, to whom Miedl subsequently sold some of the inventory. The firm continued to operate throughout World War II under the Miedl's direction (see OSS Reports on Miedl, National Archives, RG239/Entry73/Box 80, copy in NGA curatorial files). According to documents in the Dutch State Archives the NGA painting was not sold to Goering. It was discovered in one of Miedl's buildings in the Netherlands after the war and returned to Goudstikker's widow, Desirée Goudstikker von Saher, on 18 May 1949. (Dutch State Archives ARA, NBI 857, nr. 7, copy in NGA curatorial files. See also letter dated 24 March 1999 from the Inspectie Cultuurbezit of the Netherlands, in NGA curatorial files.)

     

    [6] The bill from Piero Tozzi to the Kress Foundation is dated 9 February 1955 (copy in NGA curatorial files).

     

    Associated Names

     

    Blayds, Thomas

    Chillingworth, Rudolph

    Christie, Manson & Woods, Ltd.

    Galeries Fischer

    Goudstikker, Jacques

    Goudstikker von Saher, Desirée

    Habich, Edward

    Harris

    Königliche Gemäldegalerie Kassel

    Kress Foundation, Samuel H. (Kress number K2123)

    Tozzi, Piero

  • World War II Provenance Research http://media.nga.gov/public/objects/6/6/4/2/4/66424-primary-0-740x560.jpg

    Henri Matisse, French, 1869 - 1954, Still Life with Sleeping Woman, 1940, oil on canvas, Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon, 1985.64.26

    Provenance

     

    Purchased March 1940 from the artist by (Paul Rosenberg and Co, New York);[1] sold November 1951 to Robert von Hirsch [1883-1977], Basel; (his estate sale, Sotheby's, London, 26 June 1978, no. 751); purchased by (John Baskett, Ltd., London) for Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon, Upperville, Virginia; gift 1985 to NGA.

     

    [1]This painting was confiscated by the ERR in 1941 with others from the Rosenberg collection in France (see inventory of Rosenberg-Bernstein collection, National Archives RG260/Box 470/file XI, and ERR inventory card UNB322, National Archives RG260/Property Division/Box 22, copies NGA curatorial files). Documents from the National Archives in Washington indicate that the painting was selected by Hermann Goering on 3 March 1941 from the Jeu de Paume (OSS Consolidated Interrogation Report #2, The Goering Collection, 15 September 1945, Attachment 5, 2. Nachtrag zur Liste der für die Sammlung des Reichsmarschalls Hermann Göring abgegebenen Kunstgegenstände, dated 9 April 1943, no. 6, National Archives RG239/Entry 73/Box 78, copy NGA curatorial files). Goering is documented as having traded the painting to Gustav Rochlitz, who claimed to have sold it to Hans Wendland (OSS Consolidated Interrogation Report #1, Activity of the Einsatzstab Rosenberg in France, 15 August 1945, V: Details of Exchanges, exchange #1, item no. 7, National Archives RG 239/Entry 74/Boxes 84-84A and OSS Detailed Interrogation Report #4, Gustav Rochlitz, 15 August 1945, Einsatzstab Confiscated Paintings Sold by Rochlitz, no. 30, National Archives RG239/Entry74/Boxes 85-85A, copies NGA curatorial files.). However, according to Wendland, the Matisse remained with Rochlitz (OSS Detailed Interrogation Report, Hans Wendland, 18 September 1946, pp. 14-16, National Archives RG 239/Entry 73/Box 82, copy NGA curatorial files). Further documentation at the National Archives supports Wendland's claim. The picture is not among those known to have been sent by him to Switzerland with others from the same sale from Rochlitz (see Douglas Cooper, Report of Mission to Switzerland, 10 December 1945, pp. 8-9, National Archives RG 239/Entry 73/Box 82, copy NGA curatorial files). Moreover, in a letter dated 18 January 1945, Paul Rosenberg's brother Edmond states that by that time the picture was in a private collection in Paris, having been sold by the dealers Kohl and Renoux of rue Faubourg St. Honoré, Paris (National Archives, RG260/Box 743). Hector Feliciano, in The Lost Museum, New York, 1997, p. 121, reports that Matisse himself had seen the picture for sale in Paris in 1942. The picture was returned to the Rosenbergs (per telephone conversation with Rosenberg archives 16 March 2001) who later sold it to von Hirsch.

     

    Associated Names

     

    ERR

    Goering, Hermann, Reichsmarschall

    Hirsch, Robert von

    Mellon, Paul, Mr.

    Rochlitz, Gustav

    Rosenberg & Co., Paul P.

    Sotheby's

  • World War II Provenance Research http://media.nga.gov/public/objects/4/5/8/8/6/45886-primary-0-740x560.jpg

    Lucas Cranach the Elder, German, 1472 - 1553, Portrait of a Man, 1522, oil on panel, Samuel H. Kress Collection, 1959.9.1

    Provenance

     

    Dr. Friedrich Campe [1777-1846], Nuremberg, by 1844.[1] Bernhard von Lindenau, Altenburg; by inheritance to his niece, Mrs. von Watzdorf-Bachoff, Altenburg.[2] (Paul Cassirer, Berlin, by 1921).[3] Private collection, possibly von der Heydt.[4] August and Serena Lederer, Vienna, possibly by 1923, but certainly before 1932;[5] Lederer family; sold by 1954 to (Rosenberg & Stiebel, Inc., New York); purchased January 1954 by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York;[6] gift 1959 to NGA.

     

    [1] The 1995 NGA systematic catalogue entry on the painting stated that it was only possibly owned by Dr. Campe. Although Joseph Heller, Das Leben und die Werke Lucas Cranach's (Bamberg, 1844), 89, lists "Ein männliches und ein weibliches Brustbild, bezeichnet mit 1522 und der Schlange" as belonging to the art and book dealer Dr. Friedrich Campe of Nuremberg, the painting is not mentioned in other descriptions of the collection, such as Ritter C. Heideloff, Verzeichniss der Friedrich Campe'schen Sammlung von Oelgemälden und geschmeltzen Glasmalereien, (Nuremberg, 1847). However, correspondence from Dr. Dieter Gleisberg (letters of 27 July and 1 November 1999, in NGA curatorial files) does confirm Campe's ownership and provides his life dates.

     

    [2] H.-C. v.d. Gabelentz, Director, Staatliche Lindenau Museum, Altenburg, letter of 19 July 1968 to Dr. Ilse Franke, Munich, in curatorial files. As Gabelentz notes in his letter, Bernhard von Lindenau ordered all his papers destroyed after his death, so it is not possible to determine, for example, when he acquired the painting.

     

    [3] Karl Scheffler. "Kunstausstellungen." Kunst und Künstler 19 (1921), 298, cites the painting as being with Cassirer. Gabelentz, letter of 19 July 1968 cited above, says that Mrs. von Watzdorf-Bachoff sold the portrait to Cassirer.

     

    [4] Not verified. Gabelentz, letter of 19 July 1968, cited in note 2, states that the portrait was in the von der Heydt collection, but it has not been possible to locate it in any catalogues associated with the name von der Heydt.

     

    [5] Curt Glaser. Lukas Cranach. (Leipzig, 1923), 179, reproduces the portrait as being in a private collection, Vienna; this is not included in the 1921 edition. Scheffler 1921, 298, reports only that the portrait went from Cassirer into a private collection and so it is possible, although not verified, that Lederer owned it as early as 1921. Max J. Friedländer and Jakob Rosenberg. Die Gemälde von Lucas Cranach. (Berlin, 1932), 53-54, nos. 123-124 (Rev. ed. The Paintings of Lucas Cranach. Amsterdam, 1978, 99, nos. 145-146, repro.), are the first to mention Lederer as owner.

     

    This painting was confiscated by the Nazis in 1938 with others in the Lederer collection. It was discovered in 1945 by US forces at the abbey in Kremsmünster and transferred to the salt mine at Alt Aussee. By August 1947 it was transferred to the control of the Bundesdenkmalamt, Vienna. [Receipt for objects of Austrian origin, dated 14 July 1947, item no. 841, National Archives RG 260/USACA/Box 1, copy in NGA curatorial files.] According to a letter dated 10 April 1987 from Gerald G. Stiebel to John Hand, in NGA curatorial files, this and 1959.9.2 were acquired from the Lederer family by the firm of Rosenberg & Stiebel, who sold the paintings to the Kress Foundation in 1954.

     

    [6] Invoice of 29 January 1954 and letter of 30 January 1954 from Saemy Rosenberg to John Walker, in NGA curatorial files.

     

    Associated Names

     

    Campe, Friedrich, Dr.

    Galerie Paul Cassirer

    Heydt, Eduard von der, Baron

    Kress Foundation, Samuel H. (Kress number K2031)

    Lederer, August and Serena

    Lindenau, Bernhard von

    Stiebel, Ltd.

    Watzdorf-Bachoff, von, Mrs.

  • World War II Provenance Research http://media.nga.gov/public/objects/4/5/8/8/7/45887-primary-0-740x560.jpg

    Lucas Cranach the Elder, German, 1472 - 1553, Portrait of a Woman, 1522, oil on panel, Samuel H. Kress Collection, 1959.9.2

    Provenance

     

    Dr. Friedrich Campe [1777-1846], Nuremberg, by 1844.[1] Bernhard von Lindenau, Altenburg; by inheritance to his niece, Mrs. von Watzdorf-Bachoff, Altenburg.[2] (Paul Cassirer, Berlin, by 1921).[3] Private collection, possibly von der Heydt.[4] August and Serena Lederer, Vienna, possibly by 1923, but certainly before 1932;[5] Lederer family; sold by 1954 to (Rosenberg & Stiebel, Inc., New York); purchased January 1954 by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York;[6] gift 1959 to NGA.

     

    [1] The 1995 NGA systematic catalogue entry on the painting stated that it was only possibly owned by Dr. Campe. Although Joseph Heller, Das Leben und die Werke Lucas Cranach's (Bamberg, 1844), 89, lists "Ein männliches und ein weibliches Brustbild, bezeichnet mit 1522 und der Schlange" as belonging to the art and book dealer Dr. Friedrich Campe of Nuremberg, the painting is not mentioned in other descriptions of the collection, such as Ritter C. Heideloff, Verzeichniss der Friedrich Campe'schen Sammlung von Oelgemälden und geschmeltzen Glasmalereien, (Nuremberg, 1847). However, correspondence from Dr. Dieter Gleisberg (letters of 27 July and 1 November 1999, in NGA curatorial files) does confirm Campe's ownership and provides his life dates.

     

    [2] H.-C. v.d. Gabelentz, Director, Staatliche Lindenau Museum, Altenburg, letter of 19 July 1968 to Dr. Ilse Franke, Munich, in curatorial files. As Gabelentz notes in his letter, Bernhard von Lindenau ordered all his papers destroyed after his death, so it is not possible to determine, for example, when he acquired the painting.

     

    [3] Karl Scheffler. "Kunstausstellungen." Kunst und Künstler 19 (1921), 298, cites the painting as being with Cassirer. Gabelentz, letter of 19 July 1968 cited above, says that Mrs. von Watzdorf-Bachoff sold the portrait to Cassirer.

     

    [4] Not verified. Gabelentz, letter of 19 July 1968, cited in note 2, states that the portrait was in the von der Heydt collection, but it has not been possible to locate it in any catalogues associated with the name von der Heydt.

     

    [5] Curt Glaser. Lukas Cranach. (Leipzig, 1923), 179, reproduces the portrait as being in a private collection, Vienna; this is not included in the 1921 edition. Scheffler 1921, 298, reports only that the portrait went from Cassirer into a private collection and so it is possible, although not verified, that Lederer owned it as early as 1921. Max J. Friedländer and Jakob Rosenberg. Die Gemälde von Lucas Cranach. (Berlin, 1932), 53-54, nos. 123-124 (Rev. ed. The Paintings of Lucas Cranach. Amsterdam, 1978, 99, nos. 145-146, repro.), are the first to mention Lederer as owner.

     

    This painting was confiscated by the Nazis in 1938 with others in the Lederer collection. It was discovered by the United States Forces in Austria in the Alt Aussee salt mine after the war and restituted to the Austrian government in 1947. [Receipt for objects of Austrian origin, dated 14 July 1947, item no. 841, National Archives RG 260/USACA/Box 1, copy in NGA curatorial files.] According to a letter dated 10 April 1987 from Gerald G. Stiebel to John Hand, in NGA curatorial files, this and 1959.9.2 were acquired from the Lederer family by the firm of Rosenberg & Stiebel, who sold the paintings to the Kress Foundation in 1954.

     

    [6] Invoice of 29 January 1954 and letter of 30 January 1954 from Saemy Rosenberg to John Walker, in NGA curatorial files.

     

    Associated Names

     

    Campe, Friedrich, Dr.

    Galerie Paul Cassirer

    Heydt, Eduard von der, Baron

    Kress Foundation, Samuel H. (Kress number K2032)

    Lederer, August and Serena

    Lindenau, Bernhard von

    Stiebel, Ltd.

    Watzdorf-Bachoff, von, Mrs.

  • World War II Provenance Research http://media.nga.gov/public/objects/7/1/0/7/1/71071-primary-0-740x560.jpg

    Henri Matisse, French, 1869 - 1954, Woman Seated in an Armchair, 1940, oil on canvas, Given in loving memory of her husband, Taft Schreiber, by Rita Schreiber, 1989.31.1

    Provenance

     

    Purchased from the artist by (Paul Rosenberg, Paris);[1] (Alexandre Rosenberg, New York)by 1948; sold 1950 to William Somerset Maugham [1874-1965], St. Jean-Cap-Ferrat, France;[2] (his sale, Sotheby's, London, 10 April 1962, no. 24); Colonel C. Michael Paul, New York; sold 15 January 1970 to Taft B. Schreiber, Beverly Hills [1908-1976];[3] his wife, Rita B. Schreiber, Beverly Hills [d. 1989]; gift 1989 to NGA.

     

    [1] This painting was confiscated by the ERR in 1941 with others from the Rosenberg collection in France (ERR inventory card PR34, National Archives RG260/Property Division/Box 19, copy NGA curatorial files). There is confusion in the archival records as to whether picture was taken from the Rosenberg vault at Libourne or the chateau at Floirac. In the Rosenberg claim file (National Archives RG260/Box 742, copies NGA curatorial files) there are lists and correspondence from Edmond Rosenberg, brother of Paul Rosenberg, which provide conflicting information. However, it seems likely the picture was taken from Floirac, as it was this part of the Rosenberg collection assigned the code "PR." Documents from the National Archives in Washington indicate that the painting was traded by the ERR on 16 November 1943, along with a Bonnard painting from the Kann collection, to the dealer Max Stöcklin in exchange for a painting by Rudolf Alt. (Receipt for the exchange, National Archives RG260/ Box 452, copy NGA curatorial files). The picture seems to be confused throughout the archival documentation with another Matisse painting described as of a woman in a yellow chair, which also appears to have been confiscated from the Rosenberg collection. However this second picture dates from 1939, is in a vertical format, and the woman is nude. On some documents the code PR34 seems to be associated with the 1939 picture, but it is clearly the NGA painting which is described on the ERR card for PR34, and on the receipt for the exchange between Stöcklin and the ERR. Moreoever, the photographs taken by the ERR of confiscated objects illustrate the NGA picture with the code PR34. After Stöcklin, the painting was traced to the Swiss dealer André Martin, and seen on view at the Galerie Neupert in Zurich (See item no. 62 on atachment B to Douglas Cooper's "Report on Mission to Switzerland," 10 December 1945, National Archives RG239/Entry 73/Box 82, copy NGA curatorial files).

     

    The NGA picture was returned to the Rosenbergs by 1948, according to the records of the gallery, which sold it to Somerset Maugham in 1950.

     

    [2]According to Rosenberg gallery records.

     

    [3]Correspondence between Paul and Schreiber in NGA curatorial files.

     

    Associated Names

     

    ERR

    Martin, André

    Maugham, William Somerset

    Paul, C. Michael

    Rosenberg & Co., Paul P.

    Schreiber, Rita Bloch

    Schreiber, Taft B.

    Sotheby's

    Stöcklin, Max

  • World War II Provenance Research http://media.nga.gov/public/objects/4/1/6/0/1/41601-primary-0-740x560.jpg

    Antwerp 16th Century, possibly Matthys Cock, Netherlandish, c. 1509 - 1548, The Martyrdom of Saint Catherine, c. 1540, oil on plywood transferred from panel, Samuel H. Kress Collection, 1952.2.18

    Provenance

     

    (Van Diemen Gallery, Berlin).[1] Acquired 1926 in Berlin by Karl Rösler, until 1947.[2] (Van Diemen-Lilienfeld Galleries, New York); sold 1950 Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York; gift 1952 by exchange to NGA.

     

    [1] The catalogue of the Exposition d'Art flamand ancien (Antwerp, 1930), no. 53, gives the owner as Dr. Benedict; this refers to Curt Benedict who was with the Van Diemen Gallery, part of a group of galleries under the umbrella organization of the Margraf Concern. The initial ownership of the painting by the Van Diemen-Margraf Gallery is verified in a letter of 27 January 1951 from Karl Lilienfeld to the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, in NGA curatorial files.

     

    [2] This picture was acquired from Rössler in 1940 by the dealer Walter Paech in Amsterdam. Paech sold the painting to Hans Posse, for Hitler's planned museum in Linz. (See Linz inventory no. 1368, as by Brueghel, National Archives RG260/Boxes 428, 430, copies NGA curatorial files).

     

    The records of the Munich Central Collecting Point indicate that the painting was recovered by the Allies and restituted to the Netherlands on 4 March 1946 (See Munich property card #4347/2996, National Archives RG260/Munich Central Collecting Point/Box 501 and Dutch Receipt for Cultural Property no. 8A, dated 7 March 1946, National Archives RG260/Munich Central Collecting Point/Box 288, both copies NGA curatorial files.)

     

    The painting was restituted to Rössler on 23 May 1947 (see documentation provided by the Dutch Inspectie Culuurbezit in letter dated 5 February 2002, in NGA curatorial files.)

     

    Associated Names

     

    Galerie van Diemen & Co.

    Kress Foundation, Samuel H. (Kress number K1696)

    Munich Central Collecting Point

    Paech, Walter

    Posse, Hans

    Rössler, Mendel Meyer

    Van Diemen-Lilienfeld Galleries

  • World War II Provenance Research http://media.nga.gov/public/objects/1/1/9/0/4/9/119049-primary-0-740x560.jpg

    Master of the Death of Saint Nicholas of Münster, German, active c. 1460 - 1490, Calvary, c. 1470/1480, oil on panel, Patrons' Permanent Fund, 2001.70.1

    Provenance

     

    Léon Tabourier; (his estate sale, Hôtel Drouot, Paris, 20-22 June 1898, no. 193, as Ecole Allemande); (Durand-Ruel et Cie, Paris). (F. Kleinberger Galleries, Paris), in 1913. André J. Seligmann [1898-1945], Paris, by 1938;[1] his heirs; (sale, Christie, Manson & Woods, New York, 27 January 2000, no. 49); purchased jointly by (Bernheimer, Munich), (Otto Nauman, New York), and (Alfred Bader, Milwaukee); purchased 6 June 2001 by NGA.

     

    [1] The painting was confiscated by the Nazis in July 1940 from the collection of André Seligmann and taken to the Germany Embassy in Paris (See Verzeichnis der im Juli 1940 durch die Geheime Feldpolizei in Paris gesicherten und in die Deutsche Botschaft uberbrechten Gegenstände aus judischen Kunsthandlungen, p. 8-9, National Archives RG260/Ardelia Hall Collection/Box 469/File VII and ERR card no. SEL 545, as Westphalian, second half of the 15th century, National Archives RG260/Property Division/Box 19-20, both copies in NGA curatorial files). It was transferred to the Jeu de Paume from where it was removed by Hermann Goering on 5 November 1940 (OSS Consolidated Report #2, The Goering Collection, 15 September 1945, Attachment 5, List der für die Sammlung des Reichsmarschalls Hermann Goering abgegebenen Kunstgegenstände dated 20 October 1942, no. 236, National Archives RG239/Entry 73/Box 78, copy NGA curatorial files). The records of the Munich Central Collecting Point indicate that the painting was recovered by the Allies and restituted to France on 30 October 1946 (see Munich property card #6772/1722 as Flemish c. 1480, National Archives RG260/Box 503, and French Receipt for Cultural Objects No. 14A, item no. 121, National Archives RG260/Box 287, copies NGA curatorial files). In 1951 the Office des Biens Privés deposited the painting at the Musée du Louvre in Paris (M.N.R. number 622). The painting remained there until 1999, when it was returned to André Seligmann's two daughters.

     

    Associated Names

     

    Bernheimer Fine Arts Ltd.

    Christie, Manson & Woods, Ltd.

    Drouot, Hôtel

    Durand-Ruel et Cie

    ERR

    Goering, Hermann, Reichsmarschall

    Kleinberger Gallery

    Munich Central Collecting Point

    Musée du Louvre

    Seligmann, André J.

    Tabourier, Léon

  • World War II Provenance Research http://media.nga.gov/public/objects/7/3/3/9/8/73398-primary-0-740x560.jpg

    Alessandro Algardi, Italian, 1598 - 1654, A Flagellator of Christ, c. 1630s, silver, Patrons' Permanent Fund, 1991.124.1

    Provenance

     

    Eugen Gutmann [1840-1925], Berlin, by 1912;[1] Gutmann heirs, Holland;[2] by whom sold on the New York art market c. 1950. (sale, Sotheby's, New York, 22 June 1989, no. 150); (Ellin Mitchell, New York); purchased 7 June 1991 by NGA.

     

    [1] Die Kunstsammlung Eugen Gutmann, Berlin, 1912, No. 170.

     

    [2] This object was sold in 1942 with the Gutmann collection of 225 silver, jewelry and Renaissance objects to the dealers Karl Haberstock and Julius Boehler [See papers of Haberstock Gallery, National Archives RG 260/Box 446, copies NGA curatorial records]. After the war the Gutmann heirs filed a claim for the return of the collection, which was recovered by the Allies in Starnberg, Germany, and sent to the Munich Central Collecting Point. This sculpture was restituted to the Dutch government with others from the Gutmann collection on 8 July 1946. [See Dutch claim #N-3, National Archives RG 260/747; see also Munich property card #16395/33 and Dutch Receipt for Cultural Objects no. 15A, item no. 110, National Archives RG 260/288, copies NGA curatorial records.].

     

    [3] "Gutmann Collection Here for Dispersal," Art Digest 25 (November 1, 1950), p. 13.

     

    Associated Names

     

    Böhler, Julius

    Gutmann, Eugen

    Haberstock, Karl

    Mitchell, Ellin, Ms.

    Munich Central Collecting Point

    Sotheby's

  • World War II Provenance Research http://media.nga.gov/public/objects/4/1/7/1/8/41718-primary-0-740x560.jpg

    Jean-Antoine Houdon, French, 1741 - 1828, Giuseppe Balsamo, Comte di Cagliostro, 1786, marble, Samuel H. Kress Collection, 1952.5.103

    Provenance

     

    Possibly (sale, Galerie Georges Petit, Paris, 22-24 November 1826, no. 208, as Un Buste en marbre de Cagliostro par M. Houdon).[1] Sir Richard Seymour-Conway, 4th Marquess of Hertford [1800-1870], Paris; by inheritance to his illegitimate son, Sir Richard Wallace [1818-1890], Paris; by inheritance to his wife, Lady Julie Wallace [1819-1897], Paris; by bequest to the Wallace's secretary and adviser, Sir John Murray Scott [1847-1912], Paris; by bequest to his intimate friend, Josephine Victoria Sackville-West, Lady Sackville [1864-1936], Paris; sold 1914 to (Jacques Seligmann & Cie, Paris and New York);[2] purchased February 1952 by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York;[3] gift 1952 to NGA.

     

    [1] Anne L. Poulet, Jean-Antoine Houdon: Sculptor of the Enlightenment, exh. cat., National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.; The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles; Musée et domaine national du château de Versailles, Washington, D.C., 2003: 125.

     

    [2] The direct transfer from Sir John Murray Scott to Lady Sackville and then to Jacques Seligmann is described in Germain Seligman's book Merchants of Art, New York, 1961: 98-99. Seligmann Paris stock no. 7969 and New York no. 2205 (Archives of American Art, Seligmann Papers, NY Stock Catalogues, Box 280, folder 8, copy NGA curatorial files). Germain Seligmann, manager of Seligmann's New York branch, is listed as the owner in the catalogue of the 1932 exhibition of French art in London, and in Robert Cecil's 1950 article, "The Remainder of the Hertford and Wallace Collections," Burlington Magazine, XCII (June 1950): 170, no. 24. The bust was in Paris when the Nazis invaded in 1940 and was confiscated with other portions of the Seligmann family collections at that time. It was recovered and returned to France in 1947. Correspondence concerning Germain Seligmann's efforts to have the bust shipped from France to the United States beginning in 1948 can be found in the Seligmann papers, Archives of American Art, Box 141 (copies in NGA curatorial files).

     

    [3] The invoice for the purchase of the bust was included with a letter of 8 February 1952 from Seligmann's New York branch to the Kress Foundation (copy in NGA curatorial files). The bust was sent to Washington from New York a week later.

     

    Associated Names

     

    Galerie Georges Petit

    Kress Foundation, Samuel H. (Kress number K1907)

    Sackville-West, Lady Sackville, Victoria

    Scott, John Murray, Sir

    Seligmann & Cie., Jacques

    Seymour-Conway, 4th Marquess of Hertford, Richard

    Wallace, 1st bt., Richard, Sir

    Wallace, Julie-Amélie-Charlotte Castelnau, Lady

  • World War II Provenance Research http://media.nga.gov/public/objects/5/2/1/5/7/52157-primary-0-740x560.jpg

    Eugène Boudin, French, 1824 - 1898, On the Jetty, c. 1869/1870, oil on wood, Ailsa Mellon Bruce Collection, 1970.17.13

    Provenance

     

    Levy de Benzion, Paris.[1] (sale, Hôtel Drouot, Paris, 29 November 1949, no. 80). E. Slater; sold 1950 to (Alex Reid and Lefevre, Glasgow and London); sold 1951 to Capt. Edward H. Molyneux [1891-1974], Paris;[2] sold 15 August 1955 to Ailsa Mellon Bruce [1901-1969], New York; bequest 1970 to NGA.

     

    [1] This painting was confiscated by the Nazi Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg (ERR) from the Levy de Benzion collection in France. The painting was selected by Hermann Goering on 25 November 1942 from the Jeu de Paume (OSS Consolidated Interrogation Report #2, The Goering Collection, 15 September 1945, Attachment 5, Liste der für die Sammlung des Reichsmarschalls Hermann Göring abgegebenen Kunstgegenstände, dated 20 October 1942, 1. Nachtrag, no. 67, National Archives RG239/Entry 73/Box 78, copy in NGA curatorial files). The records of the Munich Central Collecting Point indicate that the painting was recovered by the Allies and restituted to France on 18 April 1946 (Munich property card no. 5914; French Receipt for Cultural Objects no. 6A, item no. 950, National Archives RG260/Ardelia Hall/Box 286 copies NGA curatorial files). The painting was returned to the Levy de Benzion family on 10 May 1946.

     

    [2] See letter from Alex Reid & Lefèvre, dated 18 August 1977, in NGA curatorial files.

     

    Associated Names

     

    Bruce, Ailsa Mellon, Mrs.

    Drouot, Hôtel

    ERR

    Goering, Hermann, Reichsmarschall

    Levy de Benzion

    Molyneux, Edward H., Captain

    Munich Central Collecting Point

    Reid & Lefèvre, Ltd, Alex

    Slater, E.

  • World War II Provenance Research http://media.nga.gov/public/objects/4/1/7/1/5/41715-primary-0-740x560.jpg

    Desiderio da Settignano, Italian, c. 1429 - 1464, Ciborium for the Sacrament, c. 1455, marble, Samuel H. Kress Collection, 1952.5.100

    Provenance

     

    S. Pier Maggiore, Florence, until 1783, when the church partially collapsed. A marble worker's shop in Piazza del Madonna, Florence. T. Gagliardi, via del Scala, Florence; sold c. 1880 to Nathaniel de Rothschild [1836-1905], Vienna;[1] his nephew, Alphonse de Rothschild [1878-1942], Vienna;[2] Baroness Clarice de Rothschild [1894-1967]; sold 1951 through (Rosenberg & Stiebel, New York) to the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York; gift 1952 to NGA.

     

    [1] Walter and Elisabeth Paatz, Die Kirchen von Florenz: ein kunstgeschichtliches Handbook, 6 vols., Frankfurt am Main, 1940- : 4(1952): 654 n. 55.

     

    [2] This object appears to have been part of the Vienna collection of Alphonse de Rothschild which was confiscated by the Nazis in 1938 and stored at the Kunsthistoriches Museum in Vienna. Its location was published in 1942 as the storeroom of the Kunsthistoriches Museum by Leo Planiscig, Desiderio da Settignano, Vienna, 1942: 22. It was returned to the Rothschilds by 1951 when it was acquired by the Kress Foundation from the Baroness de Rothschild; see Kress files in NGA curatorial records.

     

    Associated Names

     

    Gagliardi, T.

    Kress Foundation, Samuel H. (Kress number K1851)

    Rothschild, Alphons de

    Rothschild, Clarice de, Baroness

    Rothschild, Nathaniel Mayer von, Baron

    S. Pier Maggiore

    Stiebel, Ltd.

  • World War II Provenance Research http://media.nga.gov/public/objects/1/3/6/0/1/2/136012-primary-0-740x560.jpg

    Pierre Bonnard, French, 1867 - 1947, Work Table, 1926/1937, oil on canvas, Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon, 2006.128.12

    Provenance

     

    Acquired 1937 from the artist by (Bernheim-Jeune, Paris); sold to Pierre Loeb.[1] Paul Rosenberg, Paris.[2] private collection, Switzerland, in 1965. Paul Mellon, Upperville, VA; gift 2006 to NGA.

     

    [1] Early provenance and Swiss collection per Jean Dauberville, Bonnard: catalogue raisonné, 4 vols., Paris, 1966: no. 1356.

     

    [2] During World War II the painting was confiscated from the Rosenberg collection by the Nazi Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg (ERR). Documents from the National Archives in Washington indicate that the painting had been selected by Hermann Goering on 9 July 1941 from the Jeu de Paume (OSS Consolidated Interrogation Report #2, The Goering Collection, 15 September 1945, Attachment 5, Liste der für die Sammlung des Reichsmarschalls Hermann Göring abgegebenen Kunstgegenstände, dated 20 October 1942, 1 Nachtrag, no. 31, National Archives RG239/Entry 73/Box 78, copy in NGA curatorial files). Goering traded the picture to the dealer Gustav Rochlitz, from whom it was recovered after the war. The records of the Munich Central Collecting Point indicate that the painting was recovered by the Allies and restituted to France on 27 March 1946 (Munich property card #8046, National Archives RG260/Box 503, copies in NGA curatorial files). It was exhibited in 1946 in Les Chefs-d'oeuvre des collections privées françaises retrouvés en Allemagne par la Commission de Récuperation artistique et les Services allies, no. 52.

     

    Associated Names

     

    Bernheim-Jeune

    Goering, Hermann, Reichsmarschall

    Mellon, Paul, Mr.

    Rochlitz, Gustav

  • World War II Provenance Research http://media.nga.gov/public/objects/1/4/4/2/9/8/144298-primary-0-740x560.jpg

    Hendrick ter Brugghen, Dutch, 1588 - 1629, Bagpipe Player, 1624, oil on canvas, Paul Mellon Fund and Greg and Candy Fazakerley Fund, 2009.24.1

    Provenance

     

    Possibly Aernout van Lingen, Utrecht, by 1676.[1] probably with (Glenz, Berlin), in 1915;[2] possibly Gustav Klemperer Edler von Klemenau [1852-1926], Dresden; his son, Dr. Herbert von Klemperer [1878-1951], Berlin;[3] (sale, Lange, Berlin, 18-19 November 1938, no. 151); acquired by Wallraf-Richartz-Museum, Cologne, inv. no. 2613; restituted July 2008 to Klemperer's heirs; (sale, Sotheby's, New York, 9 January 2009, no. 40); (Johnny Van Haeften London Ltd., London; Otto Naumann, New York; Bernheimer Fine Art Ltd., Munich); purchased April 2009 by NGA.

     

    [1] The inventory of Aernout van Lingen, "raad in de Vroedshap," which was made in Utrecht in 1676, lists: "Een saakpijp van Ter Brugghen." The inventory, first published by Marten Jan Bok ("Hendrick Jansz. ter Brugghen," in Albert Blankert et al., Nieuw Licht op de Gouden Eeuw; Hendrick ter Brugghen en tijdgenoten, exh. cat., Centraal Museum, Utrecht; Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, Braunschweig, 1986-1987: 71), is in the Gemeentearchief Utrecht, Stadsarchief II, inv. no. 3146, 1676.

     

    [2] A. von Schneider, Caravaggio und die Niederländer, Marburg-Lahn, 1933; 2nd ed., Amsterdam, 1967: 140.

     

    [3] Dr. Klemperer was forced to surrender the painting when he left Germany in 1938.

     

    Associated Names

     

    Bernheimer Fine Arts Ltd.

    Glenz

    Klemenau, Gustav Klemperer Edler von

    Klemperer, Herbert von Dr.

    Lingen, Aernout van

    Naumann, Otto

    Sotheby's

    Van Haeften Ltd., Johnny

  • World War II Provenance Research http://media.nga.gov/public/objects/1/3/9/4/5/8/139458-primary-0-740x560.jpg

    Salomon van Ruysdael, Dutch, 1600/1603 - 1670, River Landscape with Ferry, 1649, oil on canvas, Patrons' Permanent Fund and The Lee and Juliet Folger Fund. This acquisition was made possible through the generosity of the family of Jacques Goudstikker, in his memory. 2007.116.1

    Provenance

     

    Possibly Hugh Edward Wilbraham [1857-1930], Delamere House, near Northwich, Cheshire; by inheritance to his son, George Hugh de Vernon Wilbraham [1890-1962], Delamere House; (his sale, Christie, Manson & Woods, London, 18 July 1930, no. 33); (Jacques Goudstikker, Amsterdam);[1] restituted 6 February 2006 to his daughter-in-law, Marei von Saher, Greenwich, Connecticut; purchased 5 November 2007 through (Christie's, New York) by NGA.

     

    [1] The dealer Jacques Goudstikker fled Amsterdam with his wife and son in May 1940, and died in an accident on board the ship on which he left. He left behind most of his gallery's stock of paintings, including the Ruysdael, and with the rest of the Goudstikker paintings, it was confiscated by the Nazis later the same year and delivered to Hermann Göring; see Rapport inzake de Kunsthandel v.h J Goudstikker NV in oprichtung per 13 September 1940, Beilage III, Staat van Schilderijen, gekocht M Goering van de "oude" Goudstikker, Access no. 1341, inv. 103, Gemeentearchief, Amsterdam. The painting was recovered by the Allies at the end of World War II and held at the Munich Central Collecting Point (where it was no. 5324), before being returned to The Netherlands in 1948. In The Netherlands, ownership was transferred among several museums, during which time the painting maintained the identifying inventory number NK 2347: Stichting Nederlands Kunstbezit, The Hague, in 1948; Dienst voor's Rijks Verspreide Kunstvoorwerpen, The Hague, 1948-1975; Dienst Verspreide Rijkscollecties, The Hague, 1975-1985; Rijksdienst Beeldende Kunst, The Hague, 1985-1997; and Instituut Collectie Nederland, Amsterdam, in 1997. Physical custody of the painting was transferred in 1960 to the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, where it had the inventory number SK A 3983 and where it remained until 2006. In 2005, the Dutch Advisory Committee on the Assessment of Restitution Applications for Items of Cultural Value and the Second World War recommended in favor of the Goudstikker family's claim for the return of this and other paintings that had been confiscated in 1940. The surviving heirs were Marei von Saher, the widow of Goudstikker's son, Edward, and her daughters, Charlène and Chantel, who received the restituted paintings in early 2006.

     

    Associated Names

     

    Christie, Manson & Woods, Ltd.

    Goering, Hermann, Reichsmarschall

    Goudstikker, Jacques

    Munich Central Collecting Point

    Saher, Marei von

    Wilbraham, George Hugh de Vernon

    Wilbraham, Hugh Edward M.B.E.

  • World War II Provenance Research http://media.nga.gov/public/objects/7/5/7/6/6/75766-primary-0-740x560.jpg

    François Boucher, French, 1703 - 1770, Design for a Funeral Monument, c. 1767, black chalk and stumping with touches of graphite, heightened with white, on brown laid paper, Gift of Arthur L. Liebman, 1992.87.28

    Provenance

     

    Chevalier de Damery, Paris [d. 1803] (Lugt 2862); (sale Paris, May 14, 1906, no. 10); Baron Nathaniel Mayer von Rothschild [1836-1905], Vienna; by inheritance to his nephew, Baron Alphonse de Rothschild [1878-1942];[1] his widow Clarice de Rothschild [1894-1967]. Arthur Liebman [d. 1991], Lake Forest, IL; bequest 1992, to NGA

     

    [1] This drawing was among the Rothschild collections confiscated by the Nazis in Austria in 1938 and stored at the monastery in Kremsmünster, from where it was later evacuated to the salt mine at Alt Aussee. It was discovered there by US forces and in July 1945 sent to the Munich Central Collecting Point (Munich Central Collecting Point Property Card no. 4804, US National Archives, copy NGA curatorial files). On 15 December 1945 it was returned Kremsmünster and placed under the control of the Landeskonservator of Land Oberoesterreich. It was restituted to the Rothschild family on 4 October 1947 (AR 711, export license Zl 5905/47 dated 3 October 1947, Bundesdenkmalamt, Vienna, copies in NGA curatorial files).

     

    Associated Names

     

    Damery, Chevalier de

    Liebman, Arthur Estate of

    Munich Central Collecting Point

    Rothschild, Alphons de

    Rothschild, Clarice de, Baroness

    Rothschild, Nathaniel Mayer von, Baron

  • World War II Provenance Research http://media.nga.gov/public/objects/4/1/6/7/9/41679-primary-0-740x560.jpg

    Francesco Francia, Italian, c. 1447 - 1517, Bishop Altobello Averoldo, c. 1505, oil on panel, Samuel H. Kress Collection, 1952.5.64

    Provenance

     

    Purchased 24 March 1837 by Teodoro Lechi, Brescia, from a certain Mr. Bonaldi; sold 31 May 1847 to Graf Samuel von Festetits [1806-1859], Vienna;[1] sold 1859 to Heinrich Adamberger, Vienna;[2] (his sale, Posonyi, Vienna, 24-28 April 1871, no. 1); Friedrich Jakob Gsell, Vienna; (his sale, G. Plach, Vienna, 14 March 1872, no. 152); Baron Nathaniel Mayer von Rothschild [1836-1905], Vienna; by inheritance to his nephew Baron Alphons de Rothschild [1878-1942];[3] his widow Clarice de Rothschild [1894-1967]; (Frederick Mont, New York); sold March 1948 to the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York; [4] gift 1952 to NGA.

     

    [1] Fausto Lechi, I quadri delle collezioni Lechi in Brescia: Storia e documenti, Florence, 1968: 174, notes that an early Lechi collection inventory attributed the work to Raphael, an ascription later "corrected" in the archive files.

     

    In his diary of October 1857 Otto Mündler describes a portrait of Altobello Averoldo in the collection of the Abate Antonio Averoldi in Brescia: "A fine portrait of Altobello Alveroldo, splendidly coloured, which I take to be an undoubted Lorenzo Costa, in his francia-lilke stile.[sic] The face rather wooden, particularly the nose badly drawn, it would be otherwise a first-rate portrait. Golden tone." In the index for the transcribed diary the Gallery's painting is said to be the one described by Mündler, but the 1847 sale of the painting by Lechi to Von Festetits would seem to preclude this. See The Travel Diaries of Otto Mündler 1855-1858, ed. Carol Togneri Dowd, in Walpole Society 51 [1985]: 174, 272.

     

    [2] The von Festetits sale to Adamberger is referred to in Theodor von Frimmel, Lexikon der Wiener Gemäldesammlungen, 2 vols., Vienna, 1913-1914: 1:3. Frimmel notes the provenance through the acquisition by Baron de Rothschild. In his entry on the Festetits collection, Frimmel notes that Gsell bought almost a quarter of the pictures offered in the Festetis estate sale held in Vienna in March and April 1859, but the NGA painting is not included in the transcription of the sales catalogue provided by Frimmel.

     

    [3] Frimmel 1913-1914, 1:3. Fern Rusk Shapley (in Catalogue of the Italian Paintings, 2 vols., Washington, D.C., 1979: 1:192) gives the name of the Rothschild owner as Baron Nathaniel Mayer de Rothschild of Tring, Hertfordshire. This was corrected by Ellis Waterhouse in a review of Shapley's book: "The Baron Nathaniel de Rothschild...who owned the Francia portrait was not the one of Tring, but the one of Vienna" ("The National Gallery of Art, Washington and Dulwich Catalogues," The Burlington Magazine XCCII (September 1980): 638).

     

    This painting was among the Rothschild collections confiscated by the Nazis in Austria in 1938. It was discovered in 1945 by US forces at the abbey in Kremsmünster and transferred to the salt mine at Alt Aussee. By August 1947 it was transferred to the control of the Bundesdenkmalamt, Vienna. (Alt Aussee receipt for objects of Austrian origin, dated 14 July 1947, item number 1169, National Archives RG 260/USACA/Box 1, copy in NGA curatorial files.) It was restituted to the Rothschild family on 16 October 1947 (Index card for AR 873, restitution decision in Zl. 5739/47 dated 23 September 1947; export license in Zl 5905/47 dated 3 October 1947, all Bundesdenkmalamt, Vienna, copies in NGA curatorial files).

     

    [4] The bill of sale from Frederick Mont to the Kress Foundation is dated 2 March 1948, and marked paid three days later (copy in NGA curatorial files).

     

    Associated Names

     

    Adamberger, Heinrich

    Bonaldi, Mr.

    Festetits, Samuel von, Graf

    Gsell, Friedrich Jakob

    Kress Foundation, Samuel H. (Kress number K1531)

    Lechi, Teodoro

    Mont, Inc., Frederick

    Rothschild, Alphons de

    Rothschild, Clarice de, Baroness

    Rothschild, Nathaniel Mayer von, Baron

    Sale, Vienna

  • World War II Provenance Research http://media.nga.gov/public/objects/3/4/6/6/0/34660-primary-0-740x560.jpg

    Jacopo de' Barbari, Italian, c. 1460/1470 - 1516 or before, Nude Woman Holding a Mirror (Allegory of Vanitas), c. 1503/1504, engraving, Rosenwald Collection, 1948.11.18

    Provenance

     

    Rudolf Ritter von Gutmann [1880-1966, L2770], Vienna;[1] (Christian M. Nebehay, Vienna); sold to (William H. Schab Gallery, New York); sold 6 February 1948 to Lessing J. Rosenwald; gift 1948 to NGA.

     

    [1]This print is inventory no. 829 of the Rudolf Ritter von Gutmann collection confiscated by the Nazis in Austria in 1938. The collection was stored at the Zentraldepot in Vienna and transferred to the salt mine at Alt Aussee. The print was restituted to the Viennese dealer Christian Nebehay acting on Gutmann’s behalf in August 1947 (Restitution decision in Zl. 4716/47; export license in Zl 4694/47 dated 11 August 1947, all Bundesdenkmalamt, Vienna, copies in NGA curatorial files).

     

    Eight other prints from the Gutmann collection are in the National Gallery of Art, all restituted via the dealer Nebehay. These are: 1948.11.56 (no. 772); 1949.4.1 (no. 799); 1948.11.15 (no.. 804); 1948.11.138 (no. 828) ; 1949.5.36 (no. 830); 1948.11.17 (no. 833); 1948.11.20 (no. 834); 1950.17.16 (no. 846).

     

    Associated Names

     

    Gutmann, Rudolf

    Nebehay, Christian

    Rosenwald, Lessing Julius

    Schab Gallery, Inc., William H.

  • World War II Provenance Research http://media.nga.gov/public/objects/6/6/5/8/1/66581-primary-0-740x560.jpg

    Edgar Degas, French, 1834 - 1917, Three Studies of Ludovic Halévy Standing, c. 1880, charcoal counterproof, Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon, 1985.64.167

    Provenance

     

    (Degas sale, 22-23 November 1918, no. 201). Ambroise Vollard. [1867-1939], Paris. (sale, Hôtel Drouot, Paris, 25 June 1935, lot F). David David-Weill [1871-1952] Neuilly-sur-Seine;[1] (his sale, Hôtel Drouot, Paris, 25-26 May 1971, no. 56); acquired by (Walter Feilchenfeldt) for Paul Mellon [1907-1999]; gift 1985 to NGA.

     

    [1] During World War II the drawing was confiscated by the Nazi Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg (ERR, no. D-W 355a) from the David-Weill collection in France, and recovered by David-Weill after the war. David-Weill was president of the Conseil artistique de la Réunion des Musées Nationaux. His claim for objects not recovered after the war is published in the Répertoire des biens spoliés en France durant la guerre 1939-1945, Groupe français du conseil de controle, 1947.

     

    Associated Names

     

    David-Weill, David

    Drouot, Hôtel

    ERR

    Feilchenfeldt, Walter M.

    Mellon, Paul, Mr.

    Vollard, Ambroise

  • World War II Provenance Research http://media.nga.gov/public/objects/6/6/4/8/9/66489-primary-0-740x560.jpg

    Edgar Degas, French, 1834 - 1917, Three Studies of Ludovic Halévy Standing, c. 1880, charcoal, Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon, 1985.64.88

    Provenance

     

    (Degas sale, 22-23 November 1918, no. 201). Ambroise Vollard. [1867-1939], Paris. (sale, Hôtel Drouot, Paris, 25 June 1935, lot F). David David-Weill [1871-1952], Neuilly-sur-Seine; [1] (his sale, Hôtel Drouot, 25-26 May 1971, no. 56); acquired by (Walter Feilchenfeldt) for Paul Mellon [1907-1999]; gift 1985 to NGA.

     

    [1] During World War II the drawing was confiscated by the Nazi Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg (ERR, no. D-W 355) from the David-Weill collection in France, and recovered by David-Weill after the war. David-Weill was president of the Conseil artistique de la Réunion des Musées Nationaux. His claim for objects not recovered after the war is published in the Répertoire des biens spoliés en France durant la guerre 1939-1945, Groupe français du conseil de controle, 1947.

     

    Associated Names

     

    David-Weill, David

    Drouot, Hôtel

    ERR

    Feilchenfeldt, Walter M.

    Mellon, Paul, Mr.

    Vollard, Ambroise

  • World War II Provenance Research http://media.nga.gov/public/objects/9/3/0/3/0/93030-primary-0-740x560.jpg

    François Etienne Villeret, French, c. 1800 - 1866, Rue de Rivoli and Pavillon Marsan, watercolor over graphite on wove paper, Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon, 1995.47.69

    Provenance

     

    David David-Weill [1871-1952], Neuilly-sur-Seine, probably after 1928;[1] Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon, Upperville, VA; gift to NGA, 1995.

     

    [1] Not included in Gabriel Henriot, Collection David-Weill, 3 vols. Paris,1926-1928. During World War II the drawing was confiscated by the Nazi Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg (ERR, no. D-W 416) from the David-Weill collection in France, and recovered by the Allies. The records of the Munich Central Collecting Point indicate that the drawing was restituted to France on 11 July 1946, with David-Weill as the presumed owner (Munich property card #12549; copy in NGA curatorial files). David-Weill was president of the Conseil artistique de la Réunion des Musées Nationaux. His claim for objects not recovered after the war is published in the Répertoire des biens spoliés en France durant la guerre 1939-1945, Groupe français du conseil de controle, 1947.

     

    Associated Names

     

    David-Weill, David

    ERR

    Mellon, Paul, Mr.

    Munich Central Collecting Point

  • World War II Provenance Research http://media.nga.gov/public/objects/1/3/9/2/7/6/139276-primary-0-740x560.jpg

    Joseph Anton Koch, Austrian, 1768 - 1839, Tivoli and the Waterfalls with Shepherd Families, 1821, pen and black ink over graphite, with border lines, on laid paper, Wolfgang Ratjen Collection, Patrons' Permanent Fund, 2007.111.114

    Provenance

     

    Possibly Baron von Bernus, Heidelberg. (Galerie Dr. H. Burg, Cologne). Dr. Georg S.Hirschland [1885-1942], Essen and New York;[1] his son-in-law, Fred Triest [1914-1999], San Francisco; sold 1996 to Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.

     

    [1] In 1938 Georg Hirschland, a patron of the Museum Folkwang, Essen, emigrated to the United States with his family, but was not permitted by the Nazi government to bring his art collection with him. In 1939 the Museum Folkwang and the city of Essen raised the funds to purchase the collection to keep it together; the funds were paid to an estate administrator. The collection consisted of 27 paintings and drawings including this by Koch, described as a pencil and India ink drawing of Tivoli.

     

    Eleven Hirschland paintings were evacuated, with other paintings from the Folkwang, to a mine near Siegen, where they were recovered by Allied forces and taken in June 1946 to the Collecting Point at Marburg, in the American zone of Occupied Germany. Other Hirschland objects were discovered in a convent in the French zone, and several drawings, including the Koch, were identified as being in a palace Hugenpost bei Kettwig, near Essen, in the British zone, in 1947. (List of location of objects from the Hirschland estate enclosed in letter from Riegelman, Strasser, Schwarz & Spiegelberg to the US Secretary of State dated 22 March 1947, NARA, M1947/48.)

     

    Georg Hirschland died in New York in 1942. After the war his heirs, represented by a New York law firm, made claims for the collection. The 11 paintings in Marburg were transferred by September 1946 to the Collecting Point in Wiesbaden, and in October 1948 were transferred to the British zone (Receipt for Interzonal Exchange dated 19 October 1938, NARA M1941/reel 45). The objects in the French zone could not be transferred as there was no interzonal agreement in place. By 1951 it appears that all but one of the Hirschland objects in the British zone had been released to the estate in the United States. The sole holdout was an El Greco for which there was difficulty in obtaining an export permit. (Letter dated 20 August 1951 from the Senior Finance Officer, British Control Council for Germany, National Archives, Kew, FO 1014/668.)

     

    Associated Names

     

    Galerie Dr. H. Burg

    Hirschland, Georg S.

    Stiftung Ratjen

    Triest, Fred

  • World War II Provenance Research http://media.nga.gov/public/objects/1/3/9/2/1/3/139213-primary-0-740x560.jpg

    Wilhelm Leibl, German, 1844 - 1900, Malresl Working in the Kitchen, c. 1898, graphite with stumping on polished wove paper, Wolfgang Ratjen Collection, Patrons' Permanent Fund, 2007.111.117

    Provenance

     

    Max Silberberg [d. 1944], Breslau; (sale, Paul Graupe, Berlin, 12 October 1935, no. 64). (Sale, Karl und Faber, Munich, 30 May 1975, no. 448); Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; repurchased 2003 by Ratjen Foundation from the heirs of Max Silberberg; purchased 2007 by NGA.

     

    Associated Names

     

    Graupe, Paul

    Karl und Faber

    Silberberg, Max

    Stiftung Ratjen

World War II Provenance Research: Related Publications

Bradsher, Greg. Holocaust Era Assets. National Archives and Records Administration, Washington DC, 1998.

Buomberger, Thomas.  Raubkunst-Kunstraub: Die Schweiz und der Handel mit gestohlenen Kulturgütern zür Zeit des Zweiten Weltkriegs. Zurich, 1998.

Feliciano, Hector. The Lost Museum. New York, 1997.

Kurtz, Michael. Nazi Contraband: American Policy on the Return of European Cultural Treasures, 1945-1955. New York, 1985.

Lilllie, Sophie. Was Einmal War. Vienna, 2003.

Nicholas, Lynn H. The Rape of Europa. New York, 1994.

Petropoulos, Jonathan. Art as Politics in the Third Reich. University of North Carolina Press, 1996.

Petropoulos, Jonathan. The Faustian Bargain: The Art World in Nazi Germany. New York, 2000.

Schwarz, Birgit. Hitlers Museum: Die fotoalben Gemäldegalerie Linz. Vienna, 2004.

Simpson, Elizabeth, ed. The Spoils of War: World War II and Its Aftermath. The Loss, Reappearance, and Recovery of Cultural Property. New York, 1997.

Tisa-Francini, Esther, Anja Heuss and George Kreiss. Fluchtgut-Raubgut: Der Transfer von Kulturgütern in und über die Schweiz 1933-1945 und die Frage der Restitution. Zurich, 2001.

Yeide, Nancy H.  Beyond the Dreams of Avarice: The Hermann Goering Collection, Dallas, 2009.

Yeide, Nancy H., Konstantin Akinsha and Amy L. Walsh, The AAM Guide to Provenance Research, Washington DC, 2001.