Inness in the Countryside

Grade Level: 5–8

Discussion of a landscape painting by George Inness will introduce students to the impact of the railroad to the countryside in mid-nineteenth century America. They will depict this same scenery as they envision it in the past and in the future. Lastly, they will write an essay on how they would preserve the environment as the head of a railroad company.


George Inness
American, 1825–1894
The Lackawanna Valley, c. 1856
oil on canvas, 86 x 127.5 cm (33 7/8 x 50 3/16 in.)
National Gallery of Art, Gift of Mrs. Huttleston Rogers


NAEA Standards

4-C Students analyze, describe, and demonstrate how factors of time and place (such as climate, resources, ideas, and technology) influence visual characteristics that give meaning and value to a work of art.
5-B Students analyze contemporary and historic meanings in specific artworks through cultural and aesthetic inquiry.
6-B Students describe ways in which the principles and subject matter of other disciplines taught in the school are interrelated with the visual arts.

Curriculum Connections

  • Science (ecology)
  • Language Arts
  • History/Social Studies


  • Map of the U.S.
  • Drawing or painting materials
  • Writing materials

Warm-up Question

What do you think was the artist’s intention in this painting?


George Inness received a commission from the president of the new Delaware, Lackawanna, and Western Railroad to paint The Lackawanna Valley for advertising purposes. While documenting the achievements of the railroad, Inness also created a view of Scranton, Pennsylvania. The artist took relatively few liberties with his composition, but in compliance with the wishes of his patron, he included four trains and intentionally exaggerated the prominence of the railroad’s yet-to-be-completed roundhouse, a building for housing and repairing trains.

Steam-powered trains, like the one featured here that burned wood, released smoke and soot in the air and contributed to early forms of pollution in the United States. Rail travel was so dirty that it was not uncommon for porters to brush soot off passengers at the end of the line. Around the end of the nineteenth century, the Lackawanna Railroad—which had begun to use anthracite, a hard coal that produced heat but less smoke and flame—developed a campaign to counter its sooty reputation. Ads featured passenger Phoebe Snow, dressed in white, who rode the rails and praised the line’s cleanliness with slogans such as, “Says Phoebe Snow about to go upon a trip to Buffalo: ‘My gown stays white from morn ’til night upon the Road of Anthracite.’”* Inness’ inclusion of numerous tree stumps in the foreground, although accurate, lends ambiguity to the work. Is the painting to be read as an enthusiastic affirmation of technology or as a lament for a rapidly vanishing wilderness? This was a philosophical dilemma confronting Americans in the 1850s. Expansion inevitably necessitated the widespread destruction of unspoiled nature, itself a powerful symbol of the nation’s greatness.

*Charles Musser, Before the Nickelodeon: Edwin S. Porter and the Edison Manufacturing Company (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1991), 263–264.

Guided Practice

  • On the map, find the Lackawanna Valley located in northeast Pennsylvania. Based on its geography and on the clothes of the young man shown in the painting, what climate does the area have? (Cool temperate.) What other paintings have you seen that have similar climates? Different ones?
  • George Inness makes it appear that the Lackawanna Valley stretches for miles. How does a landscape painter make objects in the background appear far away even though they are painted on a flat canvas? What tricks do you see here? (Buildings are very small, mountains lack detail and are covered by clouds or fog.)
  • The young man watches as a train snakes through the valley. As the Delaware, Lackawanna, and Western Railroad grows, what resource illustrated in the painting will continue to be necessary for its expansion? (Timber.) How could the resource be used in the building of the railroad? (Railroad ties and fuel.)
  • Given the natural resources in the area, what types of jobs would be available to the man in the painting? What additional ones are made possible by the railroad?


Students will draw or paint two depictions of this setting. The first will be of the valley one thousand years prior to the date of this painting (1856). They should consider the following questions:

  • How does it look different?
  • Who might live here?
  • What does the vegetation look like?
  • What types of animals might you see?
  • What forms of technology and/or transportation are evident?

Students will then imagine this valley one thousand years into the future, answering the same questions.


Ideally, we should balance human progress with preservation of the natural environment. Here, trees had to be cut down to make room for the railroad beds, to build the tracks, and to fuel the trains. Students will write an essay imagining they are the owner of the Delaware, Lackawanna, and Western Railroad. They should answer the question, how could you be a good steward of the environment as your railroad expanded? One answer might be to plant trees in other areas to replace those cut down.

Related Resources

Borrow the teaching packet Art&

Access activities, curriculum resources, and information that relate art, science, and the environment from the Environmental Protection Agency

View satellite images of environmental change and descriptions of issues affecting particular locations from the United States Geologic Survey site

Browse hundreds of science and geography lesson plans for fifth and sixth graders through the National Geographic's website


Questions or comments? E-mail us at