Diana and Endymion

Grade Level: 5–8

Students will be introduced to the Greco-Roman myth of Diana and Endymion by critically analyzing a painting by Fragonard. They will then write and illustrate their own myth to describe a natural phenomenon or social custom.

fragonard-diana-endymion

Jean-Honoré Fragonard
French, 1732–1806
Diana and Endymion, c. 1753/1756
oil on canvas, 94.9 x 136.8 cm (37 3/8 x 53 7/8 in.) framed: 125.1 x 168.3 cm (49 1/4 x 66 1/4 in.)
National Gallery of Art, Timken Collection

 

NAEA Standards

2-C Students select and use the qualities of structures and functions of art to improve communication of their ideas.
3-A Students integrate visual, spatial, and temporal concepts with content to communicate intended meaning in their artworks.
3-B
Students use subjects, themes, and symbols that demonstrate knowledge of contexts, values, and aesthetics that communicate intended meaning in artworks.
6-B Students describe ways in which the principles and subject matter of other disciplines taught in the school are interrelated with the visual arts.

CURRICULUM CONNECTIONS

  • History/Social Studies
  • Language Arts

MATERIALS

  • Writing materials
  • Markers or colored pencils
  • Ruler to draw and measure comic strip boxes

WARM-UP QUESTION

What do you think is happening in this painting?

BACKGROUND

Diana was the twin sister of Apollo and goddess of the moon. Her symbol, a crescent moon, sits behind her in the sky. When Diana first saw the young shepherd Endymion sleeping in the shelter of a cave, she instantly fell in love with him. Quiet as moonlight she entered the cave and gently kissed his closed eyes. This kiss selfishly cast Endymion into an immortal sleep so that she could adore him forever. Beside Diana is Cupid with an arrow in his hand. The little god symbolizes what this myth is all about—love.

Ancient poets said that somewhere, high in the mountains of Greece, Endymion still sleeps in a hidden cave with his sheep and dog nearby. Ancient belief was that on nights of the new moon, when it was hidden from view, Diana left the sky to be at Endymion’s side.

As a young man, Fragonard was fired from his job with a Parisian notary because he used his pen more often for drawing than for doing the firm’s business—so he turned to art. Fragonard loved to paint light-hearted subjects: young people enjoying games and romance in gardens, girls on swings, and pairs of mythological lovers. In this particular painting, Fragonard was posed with a challenge: depicting a scene at night. He met this challenge by using soft blues and gray to give the night a pastel-colored lightness.

GUIDED PRACTICE

  • What moment of the story of Diana and Endymion has Fragonard chosen to depict? (After Diana kissed him, placing a spell on him to sleep forever.) Why might the artist have painted this moment?
  • How does he express surprise and delight in Diana’s gesture upon seeing Endymion?
  • Diana and Endymion is a story that takes place at night. How did Fragonard depict night? If you were a painter, how might you paint it differently?
  • What natural phenomenon is explained in this painting? (Why a new moon exists.) When you look in the sky at the time of the new moon and have difficulty finding it, what can you say about where Diana is?
  • What is the cresent moon or new moon a symbol of? (The goddess Diana.)
  • Diana fell very much in love with Endymion. What do you think about her decision to cast him into an immortal sleep so that he would never grow old or awaken, so she could love him forever? Would you have made the same choice as Diana? If not, how would you have handled the situation?

ACTIVITY

Students will write their own stories to explain a natural phenomenon (such as a rainbow or a thunderstorm) or a custom (such as shaking hands or hugging) began. They should be able to directly link a cause (in this story, Diana’s love for Endymion) to its effect (the existence of the new moon).

EXTENSION

Lastly, students should illustrate their myth. They can use a comic strip format to show different moments within their narratives. Then ask students to share their stories with the class.

Related Resources

Test your knowledge of gods and goddesses by playing the matching game "Ancient Arcade"

Borrow the teaching packet Art&

Borrow the teaching packet Classical Mythology in European Art

Contact

Questions or comments? E-mail us at classroom@nga.gov