WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG

Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections

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    Ulm (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Münster Unser Lieben Frauen. Built 1377–1543, work resumed 1817, towers completed 1890. Damaged in 1944, later restored.

    Cover of Württemberg album, showing the Münster after bombardment. 

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    Ulm (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Münster Unser Lieben Frauen. Built 1377–1543, work resumed 1817, towers completed 1890. Damaged in 1944, later restored.

    Münster, before bombardment.

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    Ulm (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Münster Unser Lieben Frauen. Built 1377–1543, work resumed 1817, towers completed 1890. Damaged in 1944, later restored.

    View after bombardment.

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    Ulm (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Münster Unser Lieben Frauen. Built 1377–1543, work resumed 1817, towers completed 1890. Damaged in 1944, later restored.

    Interior, nave, before bombardment.

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    Ulm (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Münster Unser Lieben Frauen. Built 1377–1543, work resumed 1817, towers completed 1890. Damaged in 1944, later restored.

    Interior, nave, before bombardment.  Photo by Helga Glassner.

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    Ulm (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Münster Unser Lieben Frauen. Built 1377–1543, work resumed 1817, towers completed 1890. Damaged in 1944, later restored.

    Interior, choir, after bombardment, two views.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/07-a17-pl-6b-cor.jpg

    Ulm (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Münster Unser Lieben Frauen. Built 1377–1543, work resumed 1817, towers completed 1890. Damaged in 1944, later restored.

    Interior, choir, after bombardment (detail, lower right image).

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/08-a17-pl-6a-cor.jpg

    Ulm (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Münster Unser Lieben Frauen. Built 1377–1543, work resumed 1817, towers completed 1890. Damaged in 1944, later restored.  

    interior, choir, vault showing site of direct hit (detail, upper left image).

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/09-a17-pl-7-cor.jpg

    Ulm (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Münster Unser Lieben Frauen. Built 1377–1543, work resumed 1817, towers completed 1890. Damaged in 1944, later restored.

    Detail of a Sybil from the choir stalls.

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    Ulm (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Rathaus. 1370. Severely damaged in 1944, restored beginning 1949.

    Comparative views. Upper left, before destruction; lower right, after.

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    Ulm (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Schworhaus. 1612–1613 by Caspar Schmid (d. 1619), Laux Hemmerlin, the Younger (act. 1612–1613), and Gideon Bacher (act. 1590–1614). Severely damaged in 1944, rebuilt beginning 1953.

    Comparative photos: upper left, before bombardment; lower right, after.

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    Heilbronn (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Kilianskirche. 8th and 11th century, rebuilt ca. 1278, and 15th and 16th centuries. Restored 1886–1894, reconstructed 1946–1974.

    Comparative views.

    Shortly after the outbreak of the Second World War the figures from the altar of 1498 by sculptor Hans Seyfer (act. 1498–died 1509) were removed for safekeeping. Later they were transported along with some of the late 15th-century stained-glass windows of the choir to the salt mine in Kochendorf. Other art treasures were secured in the church itself. As early as September 10, 1944 the roofs of the choir, north aisle and sacristy were destroyed by incendiary bombs in an Allied air raid. On October 12, 1944 a land mine destroyed windows, the southern spiral staircase and the high altar. On December 4, 1944, the church was finally almost completely destroyed during an air raid. The west tower and the northern choir tower burned, as did the nave. The choir vault, gallery and the organ were completely destroyed. In April 1945, Allied artillery fire caused further damage, particularly to the west front. Reconstruction took place in several phases from 1946 until 1974.

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    Heilbronn (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Kilianskirche. 8th and 11th century, rebuilt ca. 1278, and 15th and 16th centuries. Restored 1886–1894, reconstructed 1946–1974.

    Exterior view before bombardment.

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    Heilbronn (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Kilianskirche. 8th and 11th century, rebuilt ca. 1278, and 15th and 16th centuries. Restored 1886–1894, reconstructed 1946–1974.

    Exterior view, showing destruction.

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    Heilbronn (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Kilianskirche.  8th and 11th century, rebuilt ca. 1278, and 15th and 16th centuries. Restored 1886–1894, reconstructed 1946–1974. 

    Exterior view, showing destruction.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/16-a17-pl-12-cor.jpg

    Heilbronn (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Kilianskirche. 8th and 11th century, rebuilt ca. 1278, and 15th and 16th centuries. Restored 1886–1894, reconstructed 1946–1974.

    Comparative views.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/17-a17-pl-12a-cor.jpg

    Heilbronn (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Kilianskirche. 8th and 11th century, rebuilt ca. 1278, and 15th and 16th centuries. Restored 1886–1894, reconstructed 1946–1974.

    Interior, view of nave, before bombardment.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/18-a17-pl-12b-cor.jpg

    Heilbronn (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Kilianskirche. 8th and 11th century, rebuilt ca. 1278, and 15th and 16th centuries. Restored 1886–1894, reconstructed 1946–1974.

    View of nave, showing destruction.

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    Heilbronn (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Rathaus. 1417 and 1579–1582. Seriously damaged in 1944, later rebuilt.

    Comparative views.

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    Heilbronn (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Rathaus. 1417 and 1579–1582. Seriously damaged in 1944, later rebuilt.

    View of facade, before bombardment.

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    Heilbronn (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Rathaus. 1417 and 1579–1582. Seriously damaged in 1944, later rebuilt.

    View of facade, after bombardment.

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    Stuttgart (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Panoramas.

    During World War II, Allied air raids decimated central Stuttgart.  View after bombardment from the Marktplatz , with forward to the Württemberg volume.

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    Stuttgart (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Panoramas.

    View after bombardment from the Marktplatz,  detail.

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    Stuttgart (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Panoramas.

    Bird's-eye view, probably of Stuttgart, after bombardment.

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    Stuttgart (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Altes Schloss (now the Württemberg State Museum). 10th and 14th centuries, rebuilt 16th century. Damaged by fire in 1931 and by Allied bombings in 1944, renovated 1969.

    Comparative views.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/26-a17-pl-14a-cor.jpg

    Stuttgart (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Altes Schloss (now the Württemberg State Museum). 10th and 14th centuries, rebuilt 16th century. Damaged by fire in 1931 and by Allied bombings in 1944, renovated 1969.

    Exterior before bombardment.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/27-a17-pl-14b-cor.jpg

    Stuttgart (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Altes Schloss (now the Württemberg State Museum). 10th and 14th centuries, rebuilt 16th century. Damaged by fire in 1931 and by Allied bombings in 1944, renovated 1969.

    Exterior view, after bombardment.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/28-a17-pl-15-cor.jpg

    Stuttgart (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Altes Schloss (now the Württemberg State Museum).  10th and 14th centuries, rebuilt 16th century. Damaged by fire in 1931 and by Allied bombings in 1944, renovated 1969.

    Comparative views.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/29-a17-pl-15a-cor.jpg

    Stuttgart (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Altes Schloss (now the Württemberg State Museum).  10th and 14th centuries, rebuilt 16th century. Damaged by fire in 1931 and by Allied bombings in 1944, renovated 1969.

    Courtyard of the Schloss, before bombardment.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/30-a17-pl-15b-cor.jpg

    Stuttgart (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Altes Schloss (now the Württemberg State Museum). 10th and 14th centuries, rebuilt 16th century. Damaged by fire in 1931 and by Allied bombings in 1944, renovated 1969.

    Courtyard of the Schloss, after bombardment.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/31-a17-pl-16-cor.jpg

    Stuttgart (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Altes Schloss (now the Württemberg State Museum).  10th and 14th centuries, rebuilt 16th century. Damaged by fire in 1931 and by Allied bombings in 1944, renovated 1969.

    Courtyard of the Schloss, after bombardment.

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    Stuttgart (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Neues Schloss. Begun 1746 by Leopold Retti, (1705–1751), completed 1807. Burned 1944, restored 1958–1963.

    Comparative views.

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    Stuttgart (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Neues Schloss. Begun 1746 by Leopold Retti (1705–1751), completed 1807. Burned 1944, restored 1958–1963.

    View before bombardment.

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    Stuttgart (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Neues Schloss. Begun 1746 by Leopold Retti (1705–1751), completed 1807. Burned 1944, restored 1958–1963.

    View, after bombardment.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/35-a17-pl-18-cor.jpg

    Stuttgart (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Stiftskirche. 13th century on the site of a 10th- and 11th-century Romanesque church, choir added 1327–1347, nave rebuilt 1436–1452, west tower added 1490, south tower added 1488 and 1578. Severely damaged in 1944, rebuilt in the 1950s, restored 1999–2003.

    Comparative views.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/36-a17-pl-18a-cor.jpg

    Stuttgart (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Stiftskirche. 13th century on the site of a 10th- and 11th-century Romanesque church, choir added 1327–1347, nave rebuilt 1436–1452, west tower added 1490, south tower added 1488 and 1578. Severely damaged in 1944, rebuilt in the 1950s, restored 1999 –2003.

    View from the Schillerplatz, before bombardment.

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    Stuttgart (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Stiftskirche. 13th century on the site of a 10th-11th-century Romanesque church, choir added 1327–1347, nave rebuilt 1436–1452, west tower added 1490, south tower added 1488 and 1578. Severely damaged in 1944, rebuilt in the 1950s, restored 1999–2003.

    View from the Schillerplatz, after bombardment.

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    Stuttgart (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Stiftskirche. 13th century on the site of a 10th-and 11th-century Romanesque church, choir added 1327–1347, nave rebuilt 1436–1452, west tower added 1490, south tower added 1488 and 1578. Severely damaged in 1944, rebuilt in the 1950s, restored 1999–2003.

    Exterior view, after bombardment.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/39-a17-pl-20-cor.jpg

    Stuttgart (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Stiftskirche. 13th century on the site of a 10th-and 11th-century Romanesque church, choir added 1327–1347, nave rebuilt 1436–1452, west tower added 1490, south tower added 1488 and 1578. Severely damaged in 1944, rebuilt in the 1950s, restored 1999–2003.

    Two interior views of destruction.

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    Stuttgart (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Stiftskirche. 13th century on site of a 10th-11th century Romanesque church. Choir added 1327 –47. Nave rebuilt 1436 –52. West tower, 1490. South tower, 1488 and 1578. Severely damaged in 1944, rebuilt in the 1950s, restored 1999 –2003.

    Interior view, after bombardment.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/41-a17-pl-20b-cor.jpg

    Stuttgart (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Stiftskirche. 13th century on the site of a 10th-and 11th-century Romanesque church, choir added 1327–1347, nave rebuilt 1436–1452, west tower added 1490, south tower added 1488 and 1578. Severely damaged in 1944, rebuilt in the 1950s, restored 1999–2003.

    Interior view, showing destruction.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/42-a17-pl-21-cor.jpg

    Stuttgart (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Stiftskirche. 13th century on the site of a 10th-and 11th-century Romanesque church,  choir added 1327–1347, nave rebuilt 1436–1452, west tower added 1490, south tower added 1488 and 1578. Severely damaged in 1944, rebuilt in the 1950s, restored 1999 –2003.

    Interior view, showing destruction.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/43-a17-pl-22-cor.jpg

    Stuttgart (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Stiftskirche. 13th century on site of a 10th- and 11th-century Romanesque church, choir added 1327–1347, nave rebuilt 1436–1452, west tower added 1490, south tower added 1488 and 1578. Severely damaged in 1944, rebuilt in the 1950s, restored 1999–2003.

    Interior view, after bombardment.

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    Bruchsal (Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany). Schloss. 1722–1725 by Maximilian von Welsch (1671–1745); Anselm Frans Freiherr von Ritter zu Grunstein (1692–1765); Georg Seitz (1689–1739); Balthasar Neumann (1687–1753) and Johann Michael Ludwig Rohrer (1683–1732). Destroyed March 1, 1945; later restored.

    Cover of the Baden album, showing Schloss façade after bombardment

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    Pforzheim (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Panorama.

    Album frontispiece. Pencil drawing of Pforzheim, post-bombing. Inscribed: Pforzheim 19. Okt. 1945 / O. Elsässar

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    Pforzheim (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Panoramas.

    Forward to the Baden volume.

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    Bruchsal (Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany). Schloss. 1722–1725 by Maximilian von Welsch (1671–1745), Anselm Frans Freiherr von Ritter zu Grunstein (1692–1765), Balthasar Neumann (1687–1753), and Johann Michael Ludwig Rohrer (1683–1732). Destroyed March 1, 1945; later restored.

    Comparative views.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/48-a16-pl-2b-cor.jpg

    Bruchsal (Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany). Schloss. 1722–1725 by Maximilian von Welsch (1671–1745), Anselm Frans Freiherr von Ritter zu Grunstein (1692–1765), Balthasar Neumann (1687–1753), and Johann Michael Ludwig Rohrer (1683–1732). Destroyed March 1, 1945; later restored.

    Exterior, before bombardment.

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    Bruchsal (Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany). Schloss. 1722–1725 by Maximilian von Welsch (1671–1745), Anselm Frans Freiherr von Ritter zu Grunstein (1692–1765), Balthasar Neumann (1687–1753), and Johann Michael Ludwig Rohrer (1683–1732). Destroyed March 1, 1945; later restored.

    View of principal facade, 1945, showing war damage.

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    Bruchsal (Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany). Schloss. 1722–1725 by Maximilian von Welsch (1671–1745), Anselm Frans Freiherr von Ritter zu Grunstein (1692–1765), Balthasar Neumann (1687–1753), and Johann Michael Ludwig Rohrer (1683 –1732). Destroyed March 1, 1945; later restored.

    Principal facade, showing war damage.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/51-a16-pl-4-cor.jpg

    Bruchsal (Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany). Schloss. 1722–1725 by Maximilian von Welsch (1671–1745), Anselm Frans Freiherr von Ritter zu Grunstein (1692–1765), Balthasar Neumann (1687–1753), and Johann Michael Ludwig Rohrer (1683–1732). Destroyed March 1, 1945; later restored.

    This central staircase by Balthasar Neumann, although damaged, did survive and was rebuilt.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/52-a16-pl-5-cor.jpg

    Bruchsal (Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany). Schloss. 1722–1725 by Maximilian von Welsch (1671 –1745), Anselm Frans Freiherr von Ritter zu Grunstein (1692–1765), Balthasar Neumann (1687–1753), and Johann Michael Ludwig Rohrer (1683–1732). Destroyed March 1, 1945; later restored.

    Comparative views.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/53-a16-pl-5b-cor.jpg

    Bruchsal (Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany). Schloss. 1722–1725 by Maximilian von Welsch (1671 –1745), Anselm Frans Freiherr von Ritter zu Grunstein (1692 –1765), Balthasar Neumann (1687 –1753), and Johann Michael Ludwig Rohrer (1683 –1732). Destroyed March 1, 1945; later restored.

    View of undamaged Schloss Tower, before bombardment.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/54-a16-pl-5a-cor.jpg

    Bruchsal (Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany). Schloss. 1722–1725 by Maximilian von Welsch (1671–1745), Anselm Frans Freiherr von Ritter zu Grunstein (1692–1765), Balthasar Neumann (1687 –1753), and Johann Michael Ludwig Rohrer (1683–1732). Destroyed March 1, 1945; later restored.

    View of Schloss Tower, showing war damage.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/55-a16-pl-6-cor.jpg

    Karlsruhe (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Grossherzogliches Schloss. (Badisches Landesmuseum). 1715–1719 by Jacob Friedrich von Batzendorf (act. 1712–1722). Rebuilt 1749–1781 by Leopold Retti (1705–1751), Balthasar Neumann, Louis-Philippe de La Guépière (1715–1773), and Albrecht Friedrich von Kesslau (act. 1737–1785). Severely damaged in 1944, rebuilt 1955–1966, outer facade restored, and interior redesigned into modern exhibition spaces.

    Comparative views.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/56-a16-pl-6b-cor.jpg

    Karlsruhe (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Grossherzogliches Schloss. (Badisches Landesmuseum). 1715–1719 by Jacob Friedrich von Batzendorf (act. 1712–1722). Rebuilt 1749–1781 by Leopold Retti (1705–1751), Balthasar Neumann, Louis-Philippe de La Guépière (1715–1773), and Albrecht Friedrich von Kesslau (act. 1737–1785). Severely damaged in 1944, rebuilt 1955–1966, outer facade restored, and interior redesigned into modern exhibition spaces.

    View of exterior, before bombardment. 

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/57-a16-pl-6a-cor.jpg

    Karlsruhe (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Grossherzogliches Schloss. (Badisches Landesmuseum). 1715–1719 by Jacob Friedrich von Batzendorf (act. 1712–1722). Rebuilt 1749–1781 by Leopold Retti (1705–1751), Balthasar Neumann, Louis-Philippe de La Guépière (1715–1773), and Albrecht Friedrich von Kesslau (act. 1737–1785). Severely damaged in 1944, rebuilt 1955–1966, outer facade restored, and interior redesigned into modern exhibition spaces.

    View of exterior, after bombardment. 

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/58-a16-pl-7-cor.jpg

    Karlsruhe (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Grossherzogliches Schloss. (Badisches Landesmuseum). 1715 –19 by Jacob Friedrich von Batzendorf (act. 1712–1722). Rebuilt 1749–1781 by Leopold Retti (1705–1751), Balthasar Neumann, Louis-Philippe de La Guépière (1715–1773), and Albrecht Friedrich von Kesslau (act. 1737–1785). Severely damaged in 1944, rebuilt 1955–1966, outer facade restored, and interior redesigned into modern exhibition spaces.

    Comparative views.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/59-a16-pl-7b-cor.jpg

    Karlsruhe (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Grossherzogliches Schloss. (Badisches Landesmuseum). 1715–1719 by Jacob Friedrich von Batzendorf (act. 1712–1722). Rebuilt 1749–1781 by Leopold Retti (1705–1751), Balthasar Neumann, Louis-Philippe de La Guépière (1715–1773), and Albrecht Friedrich von Kesslau (act. 1737–1785). Severely damaged in 1944, rebuilt 1955 –1966, outer facade restored, and interior redesigned into modern exhibition spaces.

    View of exterior, before bombardment. 

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/60-a16-pl-7a-cor.jpg

    Karlsruhe (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Grossherzogliches Schloss (Badisches Landesmuseum). 1715 –19 by Jacob Friedrich von Batzendorf (act. 1712–1722). Rebuilt 1749–1781 by Leopold Retti (1705–1751), Balthasar Neumann, Louis-Philippe de La Guépière (1715–1773), and Albrecht Friedrich von Kesslau (act. 1737–1785). Severely damaged in 1944, rebuilt 1955 –1966, outer facade restored, interior redesigned into modern exhibition spaces.

    View of exterior, after bombardment. 

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/61-a16-pl-8-cor.jpg

    Karlsruhe (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Schloss Gottesaue (now University of Music Karlsruhe). 1588–1599. Severely damaged in 1944, rebuilt 1982–1989.

    Comparative views. 

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/62-a16-pl-8b-cor.jpg

    Karlsruhe (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Schloss Gottesaue (now University of Music Karlsruhe). 1588–1599. Severely damaged in 1944, rebuilt 1982–1989.

    View taken before bombardment. 

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/63-a16-pl-8a-cor.jpg

    Karlsruhe (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Schloss Gottesaue (now University of Music Karlsruhe). 1588–1599. Severely damaged in 1944, rebuilt 1982–1989.

    Exterior view after bombardment. 

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/64-a16-pl-9-cor.jpg

    Karlsruhe (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Zeughaus. Built 1777–1779 as a hunting armory, it was converted in 1804 into a military depot. After World War I, the buildings became part of the part of a Transport Museum at the University of Karlsruhe. In 1944, at the end of World War II, the arsenal burned to its foundations. Rebuilt in the mid-1950s, the former armory is now again used by the University of Karlsruhe.

    Comparative views. 

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/65-a16-pl-9b-cor.jpg

    Karlsruhe (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Zeughaus. Built 1777–1779 as a hunting armory, it was converted in 1804 into a military depot. After World War I, the buildings became part of the part of a Transport Museum at the University of Karlsruhe. In 1944, at the end of World War II, the arsenal burned to its foundations. Rebuilt in the mid-1950s, the former armory is now again used by the University of Karlsruhe.

    Before bombardment.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/66-a16-pl-9a-cor.jpg

    Karlsruhe (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Zeughaus. Built 1777–1779 as a hunting armory, it was converted in 1804 into a military depot. After World War I, the buildings became part of the part of a Transport Museum at the University of Karlsruhe. In 1944, at the end of World War II, the arsenal burned to its foundations. Rebuilt in the mid-1950s, the former armory is now again used by the University of Karlsruhe.

    After destruction.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/67-a16-pl-10-cor.jpg

    Pforzheim (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Schloss und Stiftskirche St. Michael. Late 11th, 13th, and 15th centuries. Severely damaged in 1944, later rebuilt.

    Comparative view. Lower left, before bombardment. Upper right, after.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/68-a16-pl-10b-cor.jpg

    Pforzheim (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Schloss und Stiftskirche St. Michael. Late 11th, 13th, and 15th centuries. Severely damaged in 1944, later rebuilt.

    Overall view taken before bombardment.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/69-a16-pl-10a-cor.jpg

    Pforzheim (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Schloss und Stiftskirche St. Michael. Late 11th, 13th, and 15th centuries. Severely damaged in 1944, later rebuilt.

    Overall view after bombardment.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/70-a16-pl-11-cor.jpg

    Pforzheim (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Schloss und Stiftskirche St. Michael. Late 11th, 13th, and 15th centuries. Severely damaged in 1944, later rebuilt.

    View of south side of church, after bombardment.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/71-a16-pl-12-cor.jpg

    Pforzheim (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Schloss und Stiftskirche St. Michael. Late 11th, 13th, and 15th centuries. Severely damaged in 1944, later rebuilt.

    View of exterior of apse, after bombardment.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/72-a16-pl-13-cor.jpg

    Pforzheim (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Schloss und Stiftskirche St. Michael. Late 11th, 13th, and 15th centuries. Severely damaged in 1944, later rebuilt.

    View of interior of nave and choir, after bombardment.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/73-a16-pl-14-cor.jpg

    Pforzheim (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Martinskirche (Altstadtkirche). 11th century, nave rebuilt 1823–1824, west tower added 1874. Severely damaged 1944, rebuilt 1965–1967 and 1990–1992.

     Comparative views.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/74-a16-pl-14b-cor.jpg

    Pforzheim (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Martinskirche (Altstadtkirche). 11th century, nave rebuilt 1823–1824, west tower added 1874. Severely damaged 1944, rebuilt 1965–1967 and 1990–1992.

    Exterior, before war damage.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/75-a16-pl-14a-cor.jpg

    Pforzheim (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Martinskirche (Altstadtkirche). 11th century, nave rebuilt 1823–1824, west tower added 1874. Severely damaged 1944, rebuilt 1965–1967 and 1990–1992.

    Exterior view, showing war damage. Photo by Helga Glassner.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/76-a16-pl-15-cor.jpg

    Pforzheim (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Martinskirche (Altstadtkirche). 11th century, nave rebuilt 1823–1824, west tower added 1874. Severely damaged 1944, rebuilt 1965–1967 and 1990–1992.

    Interior, showing war damage.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/77-a16-pl-16-cor.jpg

    Pforzheim (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Martinskirche (Altstadtkirche). 11th century, nave rebuilt 1823–1824, west tower added 1874. Severely damaged 1944, rebuilt 1965–1967 and 1990–1992.

    Details of frescos. Two photographs, joined.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/78-a16-pl-16a-cor.jpg

    Pforzheim (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Martinskirche (Altstadtkirche). 11th century, nave rebuilt 1823–1824, west tower added 1874. Severely damaged 1944, rebuilt 1965–1967 and 1990–1992.

    Detail of fresco fragment.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/79-a16-pl-16b-cor.jpg

    Pforzheim (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Martinskirche (Altstadtkirche). 11th century, nave rebuilt 1823–1824, west tower added 1874. Severely damaged 1944, rebuilt 1965–1967 and 1990–1992.

    Detail of fresco fragment.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/80-a16-pl-17-cor.jpg

    Mannheim (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Schloss. Corps de Logis and church 1720–1730, west wing added 1737–1742, east wing added 1751–1760. Restored 1896–1903, severely damaged 1944, later rebuilt.

    Comparative views.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/81-a16-pl-17b-cor.jpg

    Mannheim (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Schloss. Corps de Logis and church 1720–1730, west wing added 1737–1742, east wing added 1751–1760. Restored 1896–1903, severely damaged 1944, later rebuilt.

    View of facade, before bombardment.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/82-a16-pl-17a-cor.jpg

    Mannheim (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Schloss. Corps de Logis and church 1720–1730, west wing added 1737–1742, east wing added 1751–1760. Restored 1896–1903, severely damaged 1944, later rebuilt.

    View of facade, showing war damage.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/83-a16-pl-18-cor.jpg

    Mannheim (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Jesuitenkirche St. Ignatius und Franz Xavier. Built 1733–1760 from a design by Italian architect Alessandro Galli Bibiena (1686–1748), with interiors decorated by Egid Quirin Asam (1692–1750). Damaged in the Second World War, later reconstructed.

    Comparative views.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/84-a16-pl-18b-cor.jpg

    Mannheim (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Jesuitenkirche St. Ignatius und Franz Xavier. Built 1733–1760 from a design by Italian architect Alessandro Galli Bibiena (1686–1748), with interiors decorated by Egid Quirin Asam (1692–1750). Damaged in the Second World War, later reconstructed.

    Exterior view, before bombardment.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/85-a16-pl-18a-cor.jpg

    Mannheim (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Jesuitenkirche St. Ignatius und Franz Xavier. Built 1733–1760 from a design by Italian architect Alessandro Galli Bibiena (1686–1748), with interiors decorated by Egid Quirin Asam (1692–1750). Damaged in the Second World War, later reconstructed.

    Exterior view, after bombardment.

  • WAR DAMAGE IN BADEN AND WÜRTTEMBERG Monuments Men Albums in the National Gallery of Art, Department of Image Collections /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/monuments-men-albums/86-a16-pl-19-cor.jpg

    Mannheim (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). Rathaus (Kaufhaus). 1701–1711, with tower construction 1701–1707. Attributed to Johann Jacob Rischer (1662–1755). Destroyed 1943, rebuilt 1954–1955.

    View of facade, after bombardment.

At the end of World War II, soldiers of the Monuments, Fine Arts, and Archives (MFAA) section were tasked with inspecting, photographing and documenting war damage of cultural sites across Europe. The images below are from two albums made by MFAA Sgt. Gordon O. Chadwick (1915 –1980). The first album was assembled in December 1945, and shows damage in Württemberg with photographs by Helga Glassner (1911 –1998), Adolf Lazi (1884 –1955), MFAA Lt. Albert C. Koch, Landesamt für Denkmalpflege (German State Office for Monument Preservation) and the Landesbildstelle (German State Agency Image).  The second album, assembled in March 1946, shows damage in Baden with photos of Bruchsal and Pforzheim by Helga Glassner, and other photographs by the Landesdenkmalamt (German State Monument Office), Karlsruhe.

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