Travels Across Russia: 1889

J. Guthrie Watson’s ‘A Journey Across Russia’ Album

Among the many 19th-century photograph albums in the Department of Image Collections at the National Gallery of Art is this large volume of images collected by an English traveler, J. Guthrie Watson (c. 1850–1913), which documents his 1889 journey across the Russian Empire from Warsaw, Saint Petersburg, and Moscow to Crimea and the Caucasus. Images from this trip through what is now Ukraine, Georgia, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan include views of local people and numerous sites of historic importance.

The arrangement and order of the photographs in the album (followed here) may suggest Guthrie’s route. It is possible he traveled on the Trans-Caspian Railway that follows the path of the Silk Road through much of western Central Asia. Its construction began in 1879 during the expansion of the Russian Empire and arrived in Uzbekistan in 1888, the year before Watson embarked on his trip.

 

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    This oversized album with J. Guthrie Watson’s initials in gilt on the cover was likely assembled upon his return to England. Although it is not certain how many of the views in this album were photographed by Watson himself, in 1899 he exhibited a collection of photographs at the Anthropological Institute in London. The following images are albumen prints, unless otherwise specified.

    Cover

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    A member of the Conservative Club in London, Watson appears to have been a former military officer and was, in his words, “well acquainted with the Caucasus (particularly that portion known as Circassia).”

    Hand-colored portrait of J. Guthrie Watson, the collector and possibly the photographer of some the images here, in ceremonial Cossack dress.

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    Saint Petersburg, Russia
    Alexander Column, 1830–1834, designed by Auguste Ricard de Montferrand (1786–1858).

    View of the monument to Alexander I (1777–1825) with the Winter Palace in background.

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    Tsarskoe Selo, Russia
    Catherine Palace, 1748–1756, designed by Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli (c. 1700–1771)

     

    Tsarskoe Selo was an imperial residence south of Saint Petersburg.

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    Peterhof, Russia
    Estate, Great Palace, 1714–1752, designed by Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli

    Peterhof was an imperial residence in Saint Petersburg.

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    Tsarskoe Selo, Russia
    Catherine Palace, 1748–1756, designed by Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli

     

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    Warsaw, Poland
    Łazienki Palace, 1764–1795, designed by Domenico Merlini (b. 1730/1731–1797)

    The Kingdom of Poland was subsumed into the Russian Empire in 1867. By the end of the 19th century, Warsaw had become the third-largest city of the empire after Saint Petersburg and Moscow. The Łazienki Palace (or Water Palace), originally built 1683–1689 from designs by Dutch-born Polish architect Tylman van Gameren, was entirely remodeled by Domenico Merlini in 1764–1795.

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    Saint Petersburg, Russia
    Cathedral of Saint Isaac, 1818–1858, designed by Auguste Ricard de Montferrand

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    Saint Petersburg, Russia
    Cathedral of the Kazan Mother of God, 1801–1811, designed by Andrey Voronikhin (1759–1814)

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    Saint Petersburg, Russia
    View of Nevsky Prospect with Anichkov Bridge, 1841–1842, rebuilt 1906–1908. Sculptures of The Horse Tamers by Pyotr Karlovich Klodt (1805–1867). View also shows Belosselsky-Belozersky Palace, 1747

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    Saint Petersburg, Russia
    View of Nevsky Prospect

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    Moscow, Russia
    Kremlin, panorama (heavily hand-colored)

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    Moscow, Russia
    Kremlin, Cathedral of Christ the Savior (hand-colored)
    Designed 1832 by Konstantin Thon (1794–1881), built 1839–1860, demolished 1931, rebuilt 1994–2000

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    Moscow, Russia
    Kremlin, Cathedral of Christ the Savior (hand-colored)
    Designed 1832 by Konstantin Thon (1794–1881), built 1839–1860, demolished 1931, rebuilt 1994–2000

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    Moscow, Russia
    Cathedral of the Intercession on the Moat (Saint Basil) (hand-colored)
    Designed 1555–1561 by Barma (active c. 1555–1560) and Posnik Yakovlev (active c. 1550–1562) 

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    Moscow, Russia
    Panorama, Red Square with the Cathedral of the Intercession on the Moat, the Redeemer’s Gate, and monument to Minin and Pozharsky (hand-colored)

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    Moscow, Russia
    Chambers of the Romanov Boyars (hand-colored)

    This 17th-century birthplace of the founder of the Romanov dynasty, Tsar Michael I, was restored by order of Tsar Alexander II and opened as a museum in 1859.

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    Sergiyev Posad, Russia
    Panorama, Trinity-Sergius Monastery, 15th–18th centuries (hand-colored lithograph)

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    Moscow, Russia
    Kremlin, Spassky Tower, 1491; upper tower added 1624–1625
    Designed by Pietro Antonio Solari (c. 1440 or c. 1450–1493), Bazhen Ogurtsov (active first half 17th century),  and Christopher Galloway (active 1624–1645)

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    Moscow, Russia
    Kremlin, Tsar Bell, casting begun 1735, damaged 1737, mounted on pedestal 1836

    The Tsar Bell (Tsarsky Kolokol III or Royal Bell) resides on the grounds of Moscow’s Kremlin. The first two Tsar Bells were destroyed by fire; this third bell was also damaged in a fire, during casting. It remained in the casting pit for nearly a century until it was raised in 1836 by French architect Auguste Ricard de Montferrand and placed on a stone pedestal. It has never rung.

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    Moscow, Russia
    Panorama, Kremlin

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    Probably Moscow, Russia
    View of a troika, the characteristically Russian three-horse carriage

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    Sergiyev Posad, Russia
    Panorama, Trinity-Sergius Monastery, 15th–18th centuries (colored lithograph)

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    Unidentified monastery (colored lithograph)

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    Sergiyev Posad, Russia
    Savior-Bethany Monastery, Church of the Transfiguration (colored lithograph).

    This early 19th-century church was demolished by the Soviets, and rebuilt beginning 2007

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    Kiev, Ukraine
    Panorama, Monastery of the Caves, 11th and 18th centuries (colored lithograph)

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    Saints of the Pechersk Lavra from the Monastery of the Caves, Kiev, Ukraine (chromolithograph)

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    Dormition of the Virgin from the Monastery of the Caves, Kiev, Ukraine (chromolithograph)

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    Kiev, Ukraine
    Saint Michael's Monastery, 12th century, rebuilt 18th century, demolished 1930s, reconstructed and reopened 1999 (colored lithograph)

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    Silver shrine of Saint Barbara from Saint Michael's Monastery, Kiev, Ukraine

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    Icon of Saint Michael from Saint Michael's Monastery, Kiev, Ukraine

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    Kiev, Ukraine
    Saint Michael's Monastery with police station and law courts at left

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    Kiev, Ukraine
    Panorama, Monastery of the Caves, 11th and 18th centuries

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    Kiev, Ukraine
    Cathedral of Saint Sophia, c. 1037–1060, with monument to Bohdan Khmelnitsky at extreme right (cyanotype)

    Bohdan Khmelnytsky was a hetman (head of state) of the Zaporozhian Cossacks who liberated Kiev from Polish rule and is regarded as the father of the Ukraine.

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    Kiev, Ukraine
    Saint Vladimir, late 19th century (cyanotype)

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    Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
    View from the Kremlin

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    Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
    View of upper town and Kremlin

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    Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
    Panorama, Chinese rows of the Nizhny Novgorod Fair, 1817–1825, designed by Auguste Ricard de Montferrand. The Cathedral of the Transfiguration of the Savior is visible in the center background.

    The Nizhny Novgorod Fair succeeded the Makaryev Fair, an annual commercial event which attracted international goods from all over Central Asia, Persia, and India. From the mid-16th century, the fair was held July to September at the Makaryev Monastery on the Volga River. In 1816, the fairgrounds were destroyed by fire and the fair moved to Nizhny Novgorod. Although damaged during the revolution and closed in 1929, the fair was revived in 1990.

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    Odessa, Ukraine
    Panorama   

    Odessa was founded at the order of Russian Empress Catherine the Great in 1794. Its development was cultivated by Duc de Richelieu, who fled to Russia during the French Revolution and was appointed by Tsar Alexander I as the governor-general of the Crimea and governor of Odessa from 1803 to 1814.

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    Odessa, Ukraine
    Nicholas Boulevard with the monument to Pushkin

    The great poet Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (1799–1837) is considered the originator of modern Russian literature.

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    Odessa, Ukraine
    Opera theater, 1884–1887, designed by G. Gelmer (active 1880s) and Ferdinand Fellner (1847–1916) 

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    Sevastopol, Ukraine
    Panorama

    The Siege of Sevastopol (September 1854–September 1855) was the last major military action of the Crimean War.

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    Sevastopol, Ukraine
    The British memorial complex with guard’s monument on Cathcart's Hill, 1854–1856

     

     

    This cemetery commemorated the Allied dead from the Crimean War Siege of Sevastopol and was largely destroyed during World War II.

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    Yalta, Ukraine
    Panorama with Hôtel de Russia

     

    Yalta, on the north coast of the Black Sea in Crimea, became a popular resort for Russian nobility in the 19th century. Tsar Alexander III and later Nicholas II built palaces in the area, and literary luminaries Leo Tolstoy and Anton Chekhov also resided there.

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    Balaclava, Ukraine
    Panorama

    Balaclava was the site of the 1854 Crimean War battle that included the fateful “Charge of the Light Brigade,” immortalized in the poem by Alfred, Lord Tennyson.

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    Novorossiysk, Russia
    Panorama, harbor

    Ceded to Russia in 1829 after the Russo-Turkish War, the port of Novorossiysk was the capital of the Black Sea Governorate.

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    Novorossiysk, Russia
    Panorama of piers for loading grain

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    Novorossiysk, Russia
    Panorama of ship struggling against the Bora, the violent wind off the Black Sea

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    Sukhum Kaleh, Georgia
    Panorama near Batum

    By 1810, Russia claimed Sukhum Kaleh (Sukhumi) as a base in the northwest Caucasus.

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    Tbilisi, Georgia
    Panorama with floating water mills on Kura River (right foreground)

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    Tbilisi, Georgia
    Panorama

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    Tbilisi, Georgia
    Panorama

    Georgia joined the Russian Empire in 1801, with Tbilisi (Tiflis) becoming a governorate. As improved transportation connected Tbilisi to other cities in the Caucasus and Russia, Tbilisi reemerged as a cultural center, and was often visited by Leo Tolstoy, Pushkin, and other artists and statesmen.

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    Borjomi, Georgia
    Panorama with the Grand Duke’s summer residence

    After Georgia became part of the Russian Empire, this town southwest of Tbilisi, in the Lesser Caucasus, became a popular spa resort and home to Grand Duke Michael Nicolaievich, the governor general of Transcaucasia.

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    Mount Elbrus, Georgia
    Panorama

    Mount Elbrus is the highest peak in the Russian Caucasus, and the highest mountain in Europe.

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    Mount Kabarjin, Georgia
    Panorama of Kobi village

     
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    Mount Kazbek, Georgia
    Panorama

    Mount Kazbek is highest peak of Eastern Georgia.

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    Pyatigorsk, Russia
    Cathedral Square with statue of Lermontov

    This Russian settlement in the Caucasus was founded in the late 18th century and by 1803 had become a popular mineral springs resort. The statue shown here is of Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov, the Russian writer, poet, and painter who had been exiled to serve in the Russian cavalry in the Caucasus and was killed in a duel here in Pyatigorsk in 1841.

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    Vladikavkaz, Russia
    Panorama

    Russia established a fort at Vladikavkaz in the Caucasus in 1784. The city is now the capital of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, Russia.

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    Mount Ararat, Turkey
    Panorama with a regiment of Cossacks

    Mount Ararat on the Turkey-Iran border is the highest peak in Turkey. Judeo-Christian tradition identifies the mountains of Ararat as the spot where Noah's ark came to rest.

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    Erzurum, Turkey
    Panorama with the Citadel

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    Baku, Azerbaijan
    Panorama of town and port

    In 1813, Persia ceded Baku and most of the Caucasus to Russia. Located on the Absheron Peninsula on the west side of the Caspian Sea, Baku today is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan.

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    Baku, Azerbaijan
    View of the quai

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    Baku, Azerbaijan
    Panorama of Black Town, showing petroleum refineries

    The Baku area was rich in oil and, by the beginning of the 20th century, produced nearly half of the world’s supply.

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    Baku, Azerbaijan
    Panorama of a petroleum spout

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    Russian lady in Circassian dress

    Circassia was a nation that spanned the east Black Sea coast between Crimea and the Caucasus. By 1864, this area had been overrun by the Russian Empire—the population decimated and the few survivors refugees in the Ottoman Empire.

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    Circassian man and woman

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    Circassian lady

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    Woman of Mingrelia

    Mingrelia was a principality in western Georgia that was conquered by and subsumed into Russia in 1857.

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    Georgian woman

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    Tartar woman

    Tartar (or Tatar) peoples descended from the Mongols of the Golden Hoard. Crimean Tartars became part of the Turkic-speaking Muslim Crimean Khanate on the Crimean peninsula, now Ukraine. After 1783, when Russia annexed the Crimean Khanate, many Tartars were massacred, exiled to Siberia, or fled as refugees to the Ottoman Empire.

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    Armenian woman

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    Georgian carriage

  • Travels Across Russia: 1889 J. Guthrie Watson’s ‘A Journey Across Russia’ Album /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/Watson's_Russia/a96_pl_71.jpg

    “King of Dagestan”

    Dagestan (or Daghestan) in the north Caucasus came under Russian authority in 1803, although resistance to imperial authority continued sporadically throughout the 19th century. Today, Dagestan is a Russian republic.

  • Travels Across Russia: 1889 J. Guthrie Watson’s ‘A Journey Across Russia’ Album /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/Watson's_Russia/a96_pl_72.jpg

    Krasnovodsk, Turkmenistan
    Panorama

    In 1869, imperial Russia established a fort in Krasnovodsk. Since 1993 called Türkmenbaşy (or Turkmenbashi), this city on the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea was the western terminus of the Trans-Caspian Railway and an important transportation center.

  • Travels Across Russia: 1889 J. Guthrie Watson’s ‘A Journey Across Russia’ Album /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/Watson's_Russia/a96_pl_73.jpg

    Uzun-Ada, Turkmenistan

    This Caspian island seaport was the original starting point of the Trans-Caspian Railway (later moved to Krasnovodsk).

  • Travels Across Russia: 1889 J. Guthrie Watson’s ‘A Journey Across Russia’ Album /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/Watson's_Russia/a96_pl_74.jpg

    Ashgabat, Turkmenistan
    Caravanserai

    Ashgabat, or Ashkhabad, situated between the Kara Kum desert and the Kopet Dag mountain range, is the capital of Turkmenistan. Founded in 1881, the town was ceded to Russia by Persia after the Battle of Geok Tepe.

  • Travels Across Russia: 1889 J. Guthrie Watson’s ‘A Journey Across Russia’ Album /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/Watson's_Russia/a96_pl_75.jpg

    Ashgabat, Turkmenistan
    Ice house

  • Travels Across Russia: 1889 J. Guthrie Watson’s ‘A Journey Across Russia’ Album /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/Watson's_Russia/a96_pl_76.jpg

    Merv, Turkmenistan
    Panorama, village of Baba Khan

     

     

    Merv was a major oasis-city on the historic Silk Road. Located near today's Mary in Turkmenistan, it has been inhabited since the third millennium BC.

  • Travels Across Russia: 1889 J. Guthrie Watson’s ‘A Journey Across Russia’ Album /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/Watson's_Russia/a96_pl_77.jpg

    Merv, Turkmenistan
    Panorama

  • Travels Across Russia: 1889 J. Guthrie Watson’s ‘A Journey Across Russia’ Album /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/Watson's_Russia/a96_pl_78.jpg

    Merv, Turkmenistan
    Panorama, bazaar

  • Travels Across Russia: 1889 J. Guthrie Watson’s ‘A Journey Across Russia’ Album /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/Watson's_Russia/a96_pl_79.jpg

    “Uzbek residence of Fairchaikh Tchylek”

  • Travels Across Russia: 1889 J. Guthrie Watson’s ‘A Journey Across Russia’ Album /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/Watson's_Russia/a96_pl_80.jpg

    Khiva, Uzbekistan
    Itchan Kala, Kunya-Ark (Citadel), gate of the walled city, 1686–1888

    Khiva (or Khorezm) became a quasi-independent protectorate of the Russian Empire after 1873.

  • Travels Across Russia: 1889 J. Guthrie Watson’s ‘A Journey Across Russia’ Album /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/Watson's_Russia/a96_pl_81.jpg

    Khiva, Uzbekistan
    New Kiosk of the Khan

  • Travels Across Russia: 1889 J. Guthrie Watson’s ‘A Journey Across Russia’ Album /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/Watson's_Russia/a96_pl_82.jpg

    Khiva, Uzbekistan
    Tash Khauli Palace, 1830–1838

  • Travels Across Russia: 1889 J. Guthrie Watson’s ‘A Journey Across Russia’ Album /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/Watson's_Russia/a96_pl_83.jpg

    Khiva, Uzbekistan
    Kalta Minor minaret, 1851–1855

    Begun under the rule of Mohammed Amin Khan and left unfinished upon his death, this minaret was intended to be twice as tall, tapering to a domed gallery. Kalta-Minor means “short minaret.”

  • Travels Across Russia: 1889 J. Guthrie Watson’s ‘A Journey Across Russia’ Album /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/Watson's_Russia/a96_pl_84.jpg

    Bukhara, Uzbekistan
    Panorama

    Bukhara (or Bokhara), on the Silk Road in Uzbekistan, has long been a center of trade, scholarship, culture, and religion.

  • Travels Across Russia: 1889 J. Guthrie Watson’s ‘A Journey Across Russia’ Album /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/Watson's_Russia/a96_pl_85.jpg

    Bukhara, Uzbekistan
    Street scene

  • Travels Across Russia: 1889 J. Guthrie Watson’s ‘A Journey Across Russia’ Album /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/Watson's_Russia/a96_pl_86.jpg

    Bukhara, Uzbekistan
    Citadel (Ark), Palace of the Emir, 16th century

  • Travels Across Russia: 1889 J. Guthrie Watson’s ‘A Journey Across Russia’ Album /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/Watson's_Russia/a96_pl_87.jpg

    Khotoun, Uzbekistan
    Daya Fortress, between Khiva and Samarkand

  • Travels Across Russia: 1889 J. Guthrie Watson’s ‘A Journey Across Russia’ Album /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/Watson's_Russia/a96_pl_88.jpg

    Darganata, Turkmenistan
    Fortress, between Khiva and Samarkand

  • Travels Across Russia: 1889 J. Guthrie Watson’s ‘A Journey Across Russia’ Album /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/Watson's_Russia/a96_pl_89.jpg

    Samarkand, Uzbekistan
    View from the Citadel

    Samarkand, on the Silk Road to China, is today the second-largest city in Uzbekistan. In the 14th century it was the capital of the empire of Timur (Tamerlane). Russia conquered the city in 1868 and by 1886 Samarkand became the capital of Russian Turkestan.

  • Travels Across Russia: 1889 J. Guthrie Watson’s ‘A Journey Across Russia’ Album /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/Watson's_Russia/a96_pl_90.jpg

    Samarkand, Uzbekistan
    Panorama, Saddler’s Street

  • Travels Across Russia: 1889 J. Guthrie Watson’s ‘A Journey Across Russia’ Album /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/Watson's_Russia/a96_pl_91.jpg

    Samarkand, Uzbekistan
    Panorama

  • Travels Across Russia: 1889 J. Guthrie Watson’s ‘A Journey Across Russia’ Album /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/Watson's_Russia/a96_pl_92.jpg

    Samarkand, Uzbekistan
    Madrasah Khodja Akhcar, 1632

  • Travels Across Russia: 1889 J. Guthrie Watson’s ‘A Journey Across Russia’ Album /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/Watson's_Russia/a96_pl_93.jpg

    Samarkand, Uzbekistan
    Bibi-Khanym Mosque, 1399

     Bazaar Day.

  • Travels Across Russia: 1889 J. Guthrie Watson’s ‘A Journey Across Russia’ Album /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/Watson's_Russia/a96_pl_94.jpg

    Samarkand, Uzbekistan
    Cathedral, 19th century

  • Travels Across Russia: 1889 J. Guthrie Watson’s ‘A Journey Across Russia’ Album /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/Watson's_Russia/a96_pl_95.jpg

    Samarkand, Uzbekistan
    Shah-i-Zinda Necropolis, 9th–14th centuries

  • Travels Across Russia: 1889 J. Guthrie Watson’s ‘A Journey Across Russia’ Album /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/Watson's_Russia/a96_pl_96.jpg

    Samarkand, Uzbekistan
    Shah-i-Zinda Necropolis, viewed from the bazaar

  • Travels Across Russia: 1889 J. Guthrie Watson’s ‘A Journey Across Russia’ Album /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/Watson's_Russia/a96_pl_97.jpg

    Probably near Samarkand, Uzbekistan
    Race course  

  • Travels Across Russia: 1889 J. Guthrie Watson’s ‘A Journey Across Russia’ Album /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/Watson's_Russia/a96_pl_98.jpg

    “Balachonpaky Village on the Orek Vay Tchylek.”

  • Travels Across Russia: 1889 J. Guthrie Watson’s ‘A Journey Across Russia’ Album /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/Watson's_Russia/a96_pl_99.jpg

    Samarkand, Uzbekistan
    Khuja Khidr Mosque on the Tashkent Road

  • Travels Across Russia: 1889 J. Guthrie Watson’s ‘A Journey Across Russia’ Album /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/Watson's_Russia/a96_pl_100.jpg

    Sart village, probably in Uzbekistan

  • Travels Across Russia: 1889 J. Guthrie Watson’s ‘A Journey Across Russia’ Album /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/Watson's_Russia/a96_pl_101.jpg

    Sart children

    At the time this album was compiled, Russians used the term Sart to denote any of the settled peoples of Turkestan.

  • Travels Across Russia: 1889 J. Guthrie Watson’s ‘A Journey Across Russia’ Album /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/Watson's_Russia/a96_pl_102.jpg

    Sart outdoor dress

  • Travels Across Russia: 1889 J. Guthrie Watson’s ‘A Journey Across Russia’ Album /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/Watson's_Russia/a96_pl_103.jpg

    Sart woman

  • Travels Across Russia: 1889 J. Guthrie Watson’s ‘A Journey Across Russia’ Album /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/Watson's_Russia/a96_pl_104.jpg

    Teke Turkoman women

    The Teke are one of the main Turkmen tribes. After the 1881 battle of Geok Tepe, in which the Teke were defeated, Turkmenistan became a part of the Russian Empire.

  • Travels Across Russia: 1889 J. Guthrie Watson’s ‘A Journey Across Russia’ Album /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/Watson's_Russia/a96_pl_105.jpg

    Musicians of the Khan of Khiva

    The Khans of Khiva descended from Genghis Khan. In 1873, the Khanate of Khiva was became a Russian protectorate.

  • Travels Across Russia: 1889 J. Guthrie Watson’s ‘A Journey Across Russia’ Album /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/Watson's_Russia/a96_pl_106.jpg

    Turkoman Cavalry
    The renowned horsemen of Central Asia

  • Travels Across Russia: 1889 J. Guthrie Watson’s ‘A Journey Across Russia’ Album /content/dam/ngaweb/features/slideshows/Library_ImageCollections_Features/Watson's_Russia/a96_pl_107.jpg

    Ram fight

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