Raphael, The Massacre of the Innocents, recto, c. 1510
This study is for an engraving by Marcantonio Raimondi, who became the principal engraver of Raphael's work. It is believed to be the first collaboration between the two artists. The dotted outlines at the center indicate that the composition was transferred from an earlier drawing by means of pouncing. By this method powdered charcoal is dusted through pinholes, made in the outlines of the original drawing, onto another sheet.