Filippo and Francancesco Negroli, Italian, c. 1510–1579 and c. 1522–1600
Helmet (Burgonet) of Emperor Charles V, Milan, 1545
embossed and gold-damascened steel
Patrimonio Nacional, Real Armería, Madrid

This masterpiece of the Negroli workshop was made from a single sheet of steel that was hammered out from the underside in a technique known as embossing or repoussée (French for "pushed out"). A Turkish soldier with bound arms arches over the top of the helmet, while two female figures personifying Fame and Victory grasp his mustache. The scene symbolizes victory over Islam and Charles’ role as defender of the Christian faith. The inscription compares him to "Invincible Caesar."