Argand lamp: An oil lamp patented by Swiss inventor Ami Argand in the 1780s. A tubular wick that draws air inside a glass chimney increases the amount of light provided by this oil lamp to 6 to 10 times that of a candle. The term is also used by collectors to refer to a type of lamp operating on the Argand principle, and which feeds oil from a central fount to a burner mounted on an arm.
Astral lamp: An Argand-principle lamp designed with a flattened, circular reservoir (usually for whale oil) that minimizes the shadow the lamp casts on the table.
Bow horse: A rocking horse with rockers in the shapes of bows used in archery.
Carding machine: Carding, or brushing wool to clean and align the fibers before it can be spun into yarn, was originally done with combs by hand. By the late 18th century, however, inventors had created water-powered mechanisms that accomplished this step with increased speed and efficiency.
Ingraincarpet: A flat-woven carpet made of ingrain wool (yarn dyed before being spun or woven) and having a reversed-color design on either side. It was the principal type of carpet woven in America throughout the 19th century.
Pembroke table: A small, four-legged table with drop leaves and often one or more drawers. The origin on the name (perhaps from Pembroke, Wales) is unconfirmed, but the form seems to have gained popularity in the second half of the 18th cenutry.
Rainbow wallpaper: Based on a printing technique developed by an Alsatian company around 1820, wallpapers with blended color effects were called irise in Europe and "rainbow papers" in America. The alternating bands of dark and light of the same color, overprinted with an additional design, displayed color-shading effects similar to those seen in the carpets of the same era.
Sinumbra lamp: A modified astral lamp (one having a ring-shaped reservoir) that is often tall in form to maximize its lighting effects. It was popular in the first half of the 19th century.
Venetian carpet: A simple type of flat-woven floor covering, home- or professionally made, generally in yard-wide strips, and limited to striped or checked designs. The term "Venetian" carpet is of uncertain origin, but does not appear to have any connection to the city of Venice.