Gemini G.E.L. Online Catalogue Raisonné, National Gallery of Art HOME SEARCH GUIDE ESSAY GLOSSARY CREDITS

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Trial cancellation. This impression is a trial proof made in preparation for a cancellation proof. See C/cancellation proof.

A pattern, often cut from a sheet of metal, used to ensure accuracy in making parts or repeating dimensions in metal, stone, fabric, etc. See cut-out.

transfer paper
In lithography, instead of drawing directly on the stone or plate, the artist can draw on transfer paper, a sheet of paper that has been covered with a soluble surface layer. The transfer is effected by placing the paper face down on the moist stone or plate and passing it through the printing press. This action dissolves the soluble layer thus adhering the greasy drawing to the stone. Advantages include ease of transport and the fact that the image is automatically reversed so that the final result is in the original direction. The transferred image may be easily reworked on the stone.

Trial proof. This impression varies from the edition either in imagery, printing sequence, or fabrication.

TW Graphics clear
A clear-base screenprinting ink used to protect the delicate surfaces of screenprints.

A drawing medium manufactured in liquid and solid states, made from similar ingredients such as lithographic crayons and pencils. Litho tusche can be diluted in water, turpentine, or other solvents to produce a liquid medium for drawing on stone, aluminum plates, transfer paper, acetate, or Mylar. Tusche is also used in creating hand-drawn screenprint stencils. See also wash drawing.


uncalendered paper
In paper manufacture, calendering is the process of smoothing the surface of the paper by pressing it between rollers. Uncalendered papers that are not smoothed in this manner have a rougher texture to varying degrees.


variable edition
The edition is traditionally the body of prints or sculpture identical to the right to print impression or standard used for the edition or prototype. However, artists may embellish prints in editions by hand-working them or by changing the way they are printed from impression to impression. Works of sculpture may also vary within these groups that are called variable editions.

A Kodak trade name for a forerunner of the photocopy machine. Used from the early 1950s into the later 1970s, it functioned through the diffusion transfer of silver salts in undeveloped areas onto a receiving paper. Development of the transferred image produced prints with a generalized brown cast on plain, uncoated paper stock.


wash drawing
In lithography, a drawing made with diluted tusche. This technique gives the artist the freedom to draw spontaneously using a wide range of continuous tones directly on the stone, plate, or transfer paper.

A method of relief printing in which wood is the printing element. The artist's design is either drawn directly on the block of wood or on a sheet of paper that is adhered to its surface. A variety of cutting tools can be used to carve away the non-printing areas. When finished, the image will appear as a network of lines and shapes standing out in relief, which are then inked and printed.

A particular form of woodcut developed in the late eighteenth century. A very hard wood is used, which is end grain rather than the plank wood normally used for woodcuts. As a consequence, a graver, which is similar to the burin used in engraving, is used instead of a knife. The close grain of the woodblock allows the engraver to cut very fine lines, thereby creating images with much greater detail than is possible in woodcut.

Working proof. This impression is one upon which the artist has added work by hand.


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