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She was the daughter of a wealthy Florentine banker, and her portrait—the only painting by Leonardo da Vinci in the Americas—was probably commissioned about the time of her marriage at age 16. Leonardo himself was only about six years older. The portrait is among his earliest experiments with the new medium of oil paint; some wrinkling of the surface shows he was still learning to control it. Still, the careful observation of nature and subtle three–dimensionality of Ginevra's face point unmistakably to the new naturalism with which Leonardo would transform Renaissance painting. Ginevra is modeled with gradually deepening veils of smoky shadow—not by line, not by abrupt transitions of color or light.

Other features of Ginevra's portrait reveal young Leonardo as an innovator. He placed her in an open setting at a time when women were still shown carefully sheltered within the walls of their family homes, with landscapes glimpsed only through open windows. The three–quarter pose, which shows her steady reserve, is among the first in Italian portraiture, for either sex.

At some time in the past, probably because of damage, the panel was cut down by a few inches along the bottom, removing Ginevra's hands. A drawing by Leonardo survives that suggests their appearance—lightly cradled at her waist and holding a small sprig, perhaps a pink, a flower commonly used in Renaissance portraits to symbolize devotion or virtue. Ginevra's face is framed by the spiky, evergreen leaves of a juniper bush, the once–brighter green turned brown with age. Juniper refers to her chastity, the greatest virtue of a Renaissance woman, and puns her name. The Italian for juniper is ginepro.

The vast majority of female portraits were commissioned on one of two occasions: betrothal or marriage. Wedding portraits tend to be made in pairs, with the woman on the right side. Since Ginevra faces right, this portrait is more likely to have commemorated her engagement. Her lack of obvious finery, however, is somewhat surprising. Jewels, luxurious brocades, and elaborate dresses were part of dowry exchanges and displayed a family’s wealth.


Princes of Liechtenstein in Vienna and later Vaduz, principality of Liechtenstein, probably by 1712 but certainly by 1733, the date of a red wax seal, bearing the Liechtenstein arms, on the reverse;[1] purchased 10 February 1967 by NGA.[2]

Exhibition History
Meisterwerke aus den Sammlungen des Fürsten von Lichtenstein, Kunstmuseum, Lucerne, 1948, no. 103.
[Exhibition of paintings lent by the Prince of Liechtenstein], National Gallery, London, 1951, no cat.
In Memoriam, Ailsa Mellon Bruce, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 1969, unnumbered checklist.
Virtue and Beauty: Leonardo's 'Ginevra de' Benci' and Renaissance Portraits of Women, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 2001-2002, no. 16, color repro.
Bode, Wilhem von. Die Fürstlich Liechtenstein'sche Galerie in Wien. Vienna, 1896: 63-65, no. 32, plate.
Walker, John. "Ginevra de'Benci by Leonardo da Vinci." Studies in the History of Art 1 (1967): 1-38.
European Paintings and Sculpture: Illustrations (Companion to the Summary Catalogue, 1965). Washington, 1968: 65, no. 2326, repro.
Brachert, Thomas. "A Distinctive Aspect in the Painting Technique of the Ginevra de'Benci and of Leonardo's Early Works." Studies in the History of Art (1969-70): 84-104, repro.
European Paintings: An Illustrated Summary Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1975: 192, repro.
King, Marian. Adventures in Art: National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. New York, 1978: 23, pl. 3 and 4.
Shapley, Fern Rusk. Catalogue of the Italian Paintings. 2 vols. Washington, 1979: 1:251-255, 2:pl. 171, 171A.
Watson, Ross. The National Gallery of Art, Washington. New York, 1979: 33, pl. 16.
Alsop, Joseph. The Rare Art Traditions: The History of Art Collecting and Its Linked Phenomena Wherever These Have Appeared. Bollingen series 35, no. 27. New York, 1982: 17, fig. 5.
Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington. Rev. ed. New York, 1984: 98, no. 63, color repro., 101.
European Paintings: An Illustrated Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1985: 226, repro.
Lippincott, Kristen. "The Genesis and Significance of the Fifteenth-century Italian Impresa." In Chivalry in the Renaissance. Edited by Sydney Anglo. Woodbridge, UK and Rochester, NY, 1990: 73.
Circa 1492: Art in the Age of Exploration. Exh. cat. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 1991-1992: no. 169, repro. (the painting was not in the exhibition).
Gibson, Eric. "Leonardo's 'Ginevra de' Benci:' The Restoration of a Renaissance Masterpiece." Apollo 133 (March 1991): 161-165.
Gingold, Diane J. and Elizabeth A.C. Weil. The Corporate Patron. New York, 1991: 10, color repro.
Kopper, Philip. America's National Gallery of Art: A Gift to the Nation. New York, 1991: 258, 262, color repros.
Bull, David. "Two Portraits by Leonardo: Ginevra de'Benci and the Lady with an Ermine." Artibus et Historiae 25 (1992): 67-83, repro.
National Gallery of Art, Washington. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1992: 20, repro.
Semenzato, Camillo. Genio e botteghe: L'arte nell'Europa tra medio evo ed etá Moderna. Milan, 1992: 64-65, color repro.
Goffen, Rona. Titian's Women. New Haven and London, 1997: no. 31, repro.
Hohenstatt, Peter. Leonardo da Vinci: 1452-1519. Translated by Fiona Hulse. Cologne, 1998: 28, 32, repros.
Kirsh, Andrea, and Rustin S. Levenson. Seeing Through Paintings: Physical Examination in Art Historical Studies. Materials and Meaning in the Fine Arts 1.. New Haven, 2000: 134-135, color fig. 125-126.
Nutall, Paula. "'Lacking Only Breath': Italian Responses to Netherlandish Portraiture." In Borchert, Till-Holger. The Age of Van Eyck: The Mediterranean World and Early Netherlandish Painting 1430-1530. Exh. cat. Groeningemuseum, Bruges, 2002. London, 2002: 202, 207 fig. 230.
Boskovits, Miklós, David Alan Brown, et al. Italian Paintings of the Fifteenth Century. The Systematic Catalogue of the National Gallery of Art. Washington, 2003: 357-369, color repro.
Hand, John Oliver. National Gallery of Art: Master Paintings from the Collection. Washington and New York, 2004: 28-31, no. 22, color repros.
Hartt, Frederick and David G. Wilkins. History of Italian Renaissance Art: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, 2006: 453-454, color fig. 16.14.
Rosenberg, Pierre. Only in America: One Hundred Paintings in American Museums Unmatched in European Collections. Milan, 2006: 16, 17, color fig. 14.
Fagnard, Laure. Léonard de Vinci en France: collections et collectionneurs (XVème – XVIIème siècles). Rome: Bretschneider, 2009: 73.
Gariff, David, Eric Denker, and Dennis P. Weller. The World's Most Influential Painters and the Artists They Inspired. Hauppauge, NY, 2009: 30, color repro.
Radke, Gary M., et al. Leonardo da Vinci and the Art of Sculpture. Exh. cat. High Museum of Art, Atlanta; The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles. New Haven and London, 2009: 39-40, fig. 16, 61 n. 73.
Rubin, Patricia. "Understanding Renaissance Portraits." In The Renaissance Portrait from Donatello to Bellini ed. Keith Christiansen and Stefan Weppelmann. Exh. cat. Berlin 2011. New York, 2011: 17, color fig. 7.
Syson, Luke. "The Rewards of Service: Leonardo da Vinci and the Duke of Milan." In Leonardo da Vinci: Painter at the Court of Milan. Exh. cat. London, 2011. London, 2011: 47-48, color fig. 31.
Dempsey, Charles. The Early Renaissance and Vernacular Culture. Cambridge, Mass.: vii, 36-42, 101, fig. 4.
Elam, Caroline. "Art and Cultural Identity in Lorenzo de' Medici's Florence." In Florence (Artistic Centers of the Italian Renaissance) edited by Francis Ames-Lewis. Cambridge, 2012: xii, 5, 238, color pl. 30.
Wise, Michael Z. "The Prince's Treasures." ArtNews 111, no. 4 (April 2012): 95.
Campbell, Stephen J. and Michael W. Cole. Italian Renaissance Art. New York, 2013: 250-251, color fig. 9.20.
Harris, Neil. Capital Culture: J. Carter Brown, the National Gallery of Art, and the Reinvention of the Museum Experience. Chicago and London, 2013: 68-86, 181, 231, 399, 409, 519 n.12, 520 n. 16, repro.
"Vasari and the National Gallery of Art." National Gallery of Art Bulletin 48 (Spring 2013): 14, repro.
Walmsley, Elizabeth. "Technical images and painting technique in Leonardo's portrait of Ginevra de' Benci." In Leonardo Da Vinci and Optics: Theory and Pictorial Practice. Edited by Francesca Fiorani and Alessandro Nova. Kunsthistorisches Institut in Florenz, Max-Planck-Institut. Studi e Ricerche 10. Venice, 2013: 54-77, fig. 1, fig. 2 (infrared reflectogram composite), fig. 3 (X-radiograph composite), figs. 4-8 (details).
Esterow, Milton. “From $126 to $75 Million.” Artnews 113, no. 5 (May 2014): 39, color repro.
Collareta, Marco. "Nouvelles études sur le paragone entre les arts." Perspective: actualité en histoire de l’art 2015, no. 1 (julliet 2015): 154-155, fig. 2.
Jenkins, Mark. "Important Piece of The City's Art Puzzle." Washington Post 139, no. 97 (March 11, 2016): 17, color repro.
Explore This Work

If the poet says that he can inflame men with love..the painter has the power to do the same…in that he can place in front of the lover the true likeness of one who is beloved, often making him kiss and speak to it.

Leonardo da Vinci

Flawless chalk-white skin, porcelain-fine features, and a reserved, somewhat impenetrable expression reflect the refinement of the 16-year-old Ginevra de' Benci. Like most portrait subjects of the Renaissance, she was from a wealthy family, and educated. She was also known as a poet and learned conversationalist. Young women of the time were expected to comport themselves with dignity and modesty. Virtue was prized and guarded, and a girl’s beauty was thought to be a sign of goodness. Portraitists were expected to enhance—as needed—a woman’s attractiveness according to the period's standards of beauty.

Why was this young woman’s likeness painted? One possibility is that the commission was occasioned by her betrothal. Ginevra married Luigi Niccolini in 1474. Another likelihood reflects a cultural phenomenon of the Italian Renaissance period—platonic love affairs between well-mannered gentlemen and ladies. Such affairs, often conducted from afar, focused on effusive literary expressions that displayed the courtier’s and lady’s sophistication.

Wreath of Laurel, Palm, and Juniper

Leonardo da Vinci, Wreath of Laurel, Palm, and Juniper with a Scroll inscribed Virtutem Forma Decorat [reverse], c. 1474/1478

Ginevra is known to have had several admirers who composed poetry in her honor and entreated her to share own verse with them. Among them was Lorenzo de’Medici, whose elite family was known for its art patronage. Even more significant to Ginevra was Bernardo Bembo, the Venetian ambassador to Florence. It may have been he who commissioned her portrait to celebrate—and substitute for—the object of his admiration and esteem. The painting’s reverse side, Wreath of Laurel, Palm, and Juniper with a Scroll inscribed Virtutem Forma Decorat, is an image of Ginevra’s emblem or impresa and offers another kind of “portrait.” The central juniper, ginepro in Italian, a cognate of Ginevra’s name and thus her symbol, also represents chastity. The palm (right) stands for moral virtue, while the laurel (left) indicated artistic or literary inclinations. Palm and laurel also appear in Bembo’s emblem, and infrared examination of the painting’s layers has also revealed Bembo’s motto, Virtus et honor (virtue and honor), painted beneath Ginevra’s scrolling motto which encircles all three elements and means “Beauty adorns virtue.”

An early work, completed when Leonardo was 21, the painting shows an incipient genius and was revolutionary in the history of painting. One of Leonardo’s contemporaries wrote that he “painted Ginevra d’Amerigo Benci with such perfection that it seemed to be not a portrait but Ginevra herself.”  Its lifelike and forthright portrayal broke with conventions of earlier Renaissance portraiture of women, including a preference for the more detached profile view. Ginevra de’ Benci is one of the first known three-quarter-view portraits in Italian art. She eyes the viewer directly. The planes of her face subtly modeled, she may have “come to life” before viewers in a fashion more vivid than any other painting they had seen before.

About the Artist

Although few paintings by Leonardo exist in the world today, among them are the best-known and most highly revered paintings in the Western tradition: the Mona Lisa (Musée du Louvre, Paris) and The Last Supper (Sante Maria della Grazie, Milan). Despite these high achievements in painting, Leonardo would likely still be known to us today for his extraordinarily versatile intellect and creative mind. Equally skilled as a sculptor, architect, urban planner, inventor, anatomist, military strategist, and visionary who anticipated the invention of aircraft, submarines, and other technologies centuries before their invention, he was among the most influential figures of the Renaissance in Europe.

Leonardo was born in 1452 in the Italian village of Anchiano, near Vinci, his namesake. His parents never married—his mother, Caterina, was spurned by his father, Ser Piero da Vinci, as she was from a lower social class. Leonardo was raised by his father’s well-to-do family of landowners and notaries and lived in his grandfather’s home. In 1469 Leonardo accompanied his father to Florence to become apprenticed in the workshop of Andrea del Verrocchio, the leading sculptor there. By 1472, he was an accredited painter and member of Compagnia di San Luca, or St. Luke’s Guild, a professional society to which artists belonged. Around 1482, Leonardo left Florence for Milan where he created The Last Supper and became the most celebrated painter of the day. In 1499, he returned to Florence by necessity, as Milan had fallen to the invading armies of the French king Louis XII. There, he painted his Mona Lisa and Virgin and Child with Saint Anne (both in the Musée du Louvre). Leonardo was sought after and worked for a number of patrons around Italy including Ludovico Sforza, ruler of Milan; the French governor of Milan, Charles II d’Amboise; as architect and engineer for the Borgias in Urbino; and for Giuliano de'Medici in Rome.  Leonardo may have met the French king Francis I, who was visiting Italy in 1515, saw Leonardo’s work, and invited him to serve as painter and architect in his court. Leonardo da Vinci died in France on May 2, 1519.

Words of the Artist

If the painter wishes to see beauties that charm him it lies in his power to create them, and if he wishes to see monstrosities that are frightful, buffoonish, or ridiculous, or pitiable he can be lord and god thereof; if he wants to produce inhabited regions or deserts or dark and shady retreats from the heat, or warm places in cold weather, he can do so.

—Leonardo da Vinci

Poem inspired by Ginevra de' Benci

May Ginevra shed tears as you go, Bembo.
May she desire long delays and
Beseech the Gods above that
Every difficulty may hinder your journey.
And may she wish that the kindly stars
With adverse winds and heavy storms
Prevent your departure

—Alessandro Bracessi

Related Resources

Slideshow: More Works by Leonardo da Vinci