lower center on the tablet of the pedestal: CLAVDIA CASTA FVI NEC VVLGVS CREDIDIT AMEN / ET TAMEN ID QVOD ERAM TESTIS MIHI PRORA PROBAVIT / CONSILIVM ET VIRTVS SVPERANT MATERQVE DEORVM / ALMA PLACET POPVLO ET PER ME HVNC ORATA TVETVR (I was Claudia the chaste, but men trusted not in my troth. And yet that which I was, the prow proved as my witness. Prudence and virtue triumph, and the Mother of the Gods [Cybele], she, the gracious one, is pleasing to the people and protects them when invoked through me)
Probably commissioned by the Piccolomini family, Siena. art market, Florence, c. 1850/1860; Louis Charles Timbal [1821-1880], Paris; sold 1872 with his collection to Gustave Dreyfus [1837-1914], Paris; his heirs; purchased 1930 with the entire Dreyfus collection by (Duveen Brothers, Inc., London and New York); purchased 15 December 1936 by The A.W. Mellon Educational and Charitable Trust, Pittsburgh; gift 1937 to NGA.
- Exhibition of Italian Renaissance Art, Wadsworth Atheneum and Morgan Memorial, Hartford, 1932, no. 16, as The Vestal Virgin, Claudia Quinta.
- Francesco di Giorgio e il Rinascimento a Siena 1450-1500, Chiesa di Sant'Agostino, Siena, Italy, 1993, no. 103b, repro.
- Renaissance Sienna: Art for a City, National Gallery, London, 2007-2008, no. 72, repro.
- Mayer, August L. "Die Sammlung Gustave Dreyfus." Pantheon 7 (January 1931):17, repro.
- Duveen Brothers. Duveen Pictures in Public Collections of America. New York, 1941: nos. 121-122, repros.
- Preliminary Catalogue of Paintings and Sculpture. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1941: 128, 139-140, no. 12.
- Book of Illustrations. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1942: 239, repro. 158.
- Paintings and Sculpture from the Mellon Collection. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1949 (reprinted 1953 and 1958): 18, repro.
- Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. New York, 1963 (reprinted 1964 in French, German, and Spanish): 300, repro.
- Summary Catalogue of European Paintings and Sculpture. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1965: 97.
- National Gallery of Art. European Paintings and Sculpture, Illustrations. Washington, 1968: 85, repro.
- European Paintings: An Illustrated Summary Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1975: 254, repro.
- Shapley, Fern Rusk. Catalogue of the Italian Paintings. 2 vols. Washington, 1979: 1:345-347; 2:pl. 252.
- European Paintings: An Illustrated Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1985: 293, repro.
- Chelazzi Dini, Giulietta, Alessandro Angelini, and Bernardina Sani. Sienese Painting From Duccio to the Birth of the Baroque. New York, 1997: 318-319.
- Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane. "Virgin/Virginity." In Encyclopedia of Comparative Iconography: Themes Depicted in Works of Art. Edited by Helene E. Roberts. 2 vols. Chicago, 1998: 2:905.
- Boskovits, Miklós, David Alan Brown, et al. Italian Paintings of the Fifteenth Century. The Systematic Catalogue of the National Gallery of Art. Washington, 2003: 536-539, color repro.
- Hand, John Oliver. National Gallery of Art: Master Paintings from the Collection. Washington and New York, 2004: 38, no. 27, color repro.