lower center, last digit illegible: T. Cole / 183[?]
 The catalogue lists the painting as "dated 1833," although the entry states the painting is signed and dated "1835." The provenance given is in error; the painting was confused with Francis Alexander's painting
The artist [1801-1848]; his estate, until 1857; Robert M. Olyphant [1824-1918], New York, by 1867; (his sale, by Robert Somerville at Chickering Hall, New York, 18-19 December 1877, 1st day, no. 64, as The Hurricane); Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington; acquired 2014 by the National Gallery of Art.
- Society of British Artists, Suffolk Street Gallery, London, Spring 1831.
- Possibly Eighth Annual Exhibition, National Academy of Design, New York, 8 May - 6 July 1833, no. 49, as A Tornado in the Wilderness.
- Artists' Fund Society of New York, Sixth Annual Exhibition at the National Academy of Design, National Academy of Design, New York, 1865, no. 210, as The Storm.
- Centennial Loan Exhibition of Paintings, Selected from the Private Art Galleries, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1876, no. 241.
- Exhibition of American Retrospective Art, World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893, no. 2810, as The Tornado.
- Extended loan for use by The Louise Home, National Cathedral School for Girls, Washington, 18 December 1916 - 3 December 1934.
- Survey of American Paintings, Department of Fine Arts, Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, 24 October - 15 December 1940, no. 106, as Tornado.
- The Works of Thomas Cole, 1801-1848, Albany Institute of History and Art, 1 November - 15 December 1941, unnumbered checklist, as The Tornado.
- Thomas Cole: One Hundred Years Later, Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, 1948-1949, no. 25, repro., as The Tornado.
- The Romantic Century, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, 22 June - 9 September 1963.
- Thomas Cole: Paintings by an American Romanticist, Baltimore Museum of Art, 26 January - 28 February 1965, no. 13, as The Tornado.
- Jasper F. Cropsey, 1823-1900: A Retrospective View of America's Painter of Autumn, J. Millard Tawes Fine Arts Center, University of Maryland Art Gallery, College Park, 2 February - 3 March 1968, repro., as Tornado.
- Thomas Cole, Memorial Art Gallery of the University of Rochester; Munson-Williams-Proctor Institute, Utica; Albany Institute of History and Art; Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, 1969, no. 28, repro., as Tornado.
- The Beckoning Land, Nature and the American Artist: a Selection of Nineteenth Century Paintings, High Museum of Art, Atlanta, 17 April - 13 June 1971, no. 14, repro., as Tornado.
- Wilderness, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, 9 October - 14 November 1971, no. 72, as Tornado (organized by the National Endowment for the Arts).
- The American Landscape Tradition, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, 31 January - 31 August 1978, unpublished checklist.
- Salvator Rosa in America, Wellesley College Art Museum, 20 April - 5 June 1979, no. 79, repro., as Tornado.
- La Pintura de los Estados Unidos de Museos de la Ciudad de Washington, Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes, Mexico, 15 November 1980 - 6 January 1981, unnumbered catalogue, repro., as Tornado.
- Thomas Cole: Landscape into History, National Museum of American Art, Washington; Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford; New-York Historical Society, 1994-1995, unnumbered checklist, as A Tornado in the Wilderness.
Exhibition History Notes
 Ellwood C. Parry III, in The Art of Thomas Cole, Newark, 1988: 132, wrote that the painting exhibited at the National Academy of Design in 1833 was not this painting, but rather a version of the same subject that the artist sent to his friend Francis Alexander in 1835, which Parry identifies as The Whirlwind, currently unlocated.
- Cash, Sarah, ed. Corcoran Gallery of Art: American Paintings to 1945. Washington, 2011: 30, 292, repro.
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