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Filippino Lippi was the son of the painter Fra Filippo Lippi, who was undoubtedly the boy's first master. After his father died in 1469, he became a pupil of Botticelli, who had a profound influence on his style. In fact, the Washington portrait comes so close to Botticelli's style that there has been considerable disagreement among scholars as to exactly which artist was responsible for it. Although it has been attributed more often to Botticelli than to Filippino, most recent authors are now agreed that it is by the younger painter. In 1483 or 1484, Filippino was assigned the task of finishing Masaccio's great frescoes in the Brancacci Chapel in Florence. This portrait bears a great resemblance to a young man portrayed there by Filippino.

During the Gothic era and early Renaissance, donors of a painting would often be portrayed as tiny figures praying at the lower edge of a painting, as in Crivelli's Madonna Enthroned with Donor. During the Renaissance a new interest in the individual, in human character and feeling, gave rise to the genre of portraiture as an artistic expression. Filippino's likeness of an unknown sitter shows a young man dressed in the typically plain costume of a well-to-do Florentine of the time.


(Stefano Bardini [1836-1922], Florence), in the later 1880s; purchased 1890 by Prince Johann II von Liechtenstein [1840-1929], Vienna;[1] by descent to Prince Franz I von Liechtenstein [1853-1938], Vienna; (M. Knoedler & Co., New York and London), c. 1920; Mr. and Mrs. Frank D. Stout, Chicago, by 1924;[2] consigned November 1930 by Mrs. Stout to (M. Knoedler & Co., New York and London);[3] sold November 1930 to Andrew W. Mellon, Pittsburgh and Washington, D.C.; deeded 30 March 1932 to The A.W. Mellon Educational and Charitable Trust, Pittsburgh;[4] gift 1937 to NGA.

Exhibition History

Loan Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Frank D. Stout, Art Institute of Chicago, 1924, no cat., illustrated in AIC Bulletin, September 1924: 76, as Young Man in Red Cap by Alessandro Botticelli.
Florence and its Painters: From Giotto to Leonardo da Vinci, Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, Munich, 2018-2019.


Bode, Wilhelm von. “Die Fürstlich Liechtenstein’schl Galerie in Vien der Bilder Italienischen Meister.” Die Graphischen Künste 15 (1892): 94-98, as by Botticelli.
Ulmann, Hermann. Botticelli. Munich, 1893: 51-52, as by Botticelli.
Bode, Wilhem von. Die Fürstlich Liechtenstein'sche Galerie in Wien. Vienna, 1896: repro., as by Botticelli.
Berenson, Bernard. “Amico di Sandro” Gazette des Beaux-Arts 41 (1899): 466 (part 1); 29, 30, 33, repro. (part 2), as by Amico di Sandro.
Berenson, Bernard. The Florentine Painters of the Renaissance, 2nd ed. New York and London, 1900: 98, as by Amico di Sandro.
Plunkett, George N. Sandro Botticelli. London, 1900: 99, as by Botticelli.
Berenson, Bernard. The Study and Criticism of Italian Art. London, 1901: 63, as by Amico di Sandro.
Venturi, Adolfo. Storia dell’arte italiana. 11 vols. Milan, 1901-1940: 7(1911):642-643, as by Botticelli (?).
Davey, Richard. Botticelli. New York and London, 1903: xv, as by Botticelli.
Schaeffer, Emil. Das Florentiner Bildnis. Munich, 1904: 110, repro., as by Amico di Sandro.
Suida, Wilhelm. Die Gemäldegalerie der K.K. Akademie der bildenden Künste. Die Sammlungen Kiechtenstein, Czernin, Harrach und Schönbornbuchheim. Stuttgart, Berlin, and Leipzig, 1904: 71, repro., as by Botticelli.
Reinach, Salomon. Répertoire de peintures du moyen âge et de la Renaissance (1280-1580). 6 vols. Paris, 1905-1923: 1(1905):365, repro., as Attributed to Botticelli.
Gebhart, Émile. Sandro Botticelli. Paris, 1907: 39, repro., as by Botticelli.
Rusconi, Arturo Jahn. Sandro Botticelli. Bergamo, 1907: 6, 201, repro., as by Botticelli (?).
Crowe, Joseph Archer, and Giovanni Battista Cavalcaselle. A New History of Painting in Italy, from the II to the XVI Century. 3rd edition. 3 vols. Ed. Edward Hutton. London, 1908-1909: 2(1909): 415 n., as by Amico di Sandro.
Höss, Karl. Fürst Johann II von Liechtenstein und die Bildende Kunst. Vienna, 1908: 37.
Berenson, Bernard. The Florentine Painters of the Renaissance, 3rd ed. London, 1909: 101, as by Amico di Sandro.
Kroeber, Hans Timotheus. Die Einzelporträts des Sandro Botticelli. Leipzig, 1911: 9-11, 38, pl. 22, as by Botticelli.
Preyer, David Charles. The Art of Vienna Galleries, Giving a Brief History of the Public and Private Galleries of Vienna, with a Critical Description of the Paintings Contained Therein. Boston, 1911: 209-210, repro., as by Botticelli.
Ward, James. A History of Methods of Ancient and Modern Painting. 3 vols. London, 1920: 3:35, as by Botticelli.
Bode, Wilhelm von. Botticelli. Berlin, 1921: 106, 109, repro., as by Botticelli.
Escher, Konrad. Die Malerei des 14. bis 16. Jahrhunderts in Mittel- und Unteritalien. Vol. 1. Berlin, 1922: 158, as by Botticelli.
Gebhart, Émile. Sandro Botticelli. 2nd ed. Paris, 1922: 105-106, 242, as by Botticelli.
Marle, Raimond van. The Development of the Italian Schools of Painting. 19 vols. The Hague, 1923-1938: 12(1931):64, as by Botticelli.
Schmarsow, August. Sandro Botticelli. Dresden, 1923: 54, pl. 29, as by Botticelli.
Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago 18, no. 6 (September 1924): 76, repro.
W. A. P. “Loan Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Frank D. Stout.” Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago 18, no. 7 (October 1924): 90.
Bode, Wilhelm von. Botticelli. English edition. Berlin, 1925: 86, repro., as by Botticelli.
Bode, Wilhelm von. Botticelli. Des Meister Werke. Stuttgart, 1926: 44, repro., as by Botticelli.
Berenson, Bernard. Italian Pictures of the Renaissance. Oxford, 1932: 287.
Venturi, Lionello. Italian Paintings in America. 3 vols. New York and Milan, 1933: 2:pl.251, as by Botticelli.
Scharf, Alfred. Filippino Lippi. Vienna, 1935: 38, 112, cat. 65, pl. 135.
Berenson, Bernard. Pitture italiane del rinascimento. Milan, 1936: 246.
Cortissoz, Royal. An Introduction to the Mellon Collection. Boston, 1937: 16-17.
Venturi, Lionello. Botticelli. New York and Vienna, 1937: 12, repro., as by Botticelli.
Mesnil, Jacques. Botticelli. Paris, 1938: 225-226, pl. 16, as by Botticelli.
Neilson, Katharine B. Filippino Lippi, a Critical Study. New York, 1938: 23, as by Amico di Sandro.
Preliminary Catalogue of Paintings and Sculpture. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1941: 105, no. 20.
Richter, George M. “The New National Gallery in Washington.” The Burlington Magazine 78 (June 1941): 177.
Book of Illustrations. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1942: 239, repro. 130.
Paintings and Sculpture from the Mellon Collection. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1949 (reprinted 1953 and 1958): 23, repro.
Einstein, Lewis. Looking at Italian Pictures in the National Gallery of Art. Washington, 1951: 44 n. 1.
Oertel, Robert. “Review. Alfred Scharf, Filippino Lippi.” Kunstchronik 4 (February 1951): 37, as by Botticelli.
Cairns, Huntington, and John Walker, eds., Great Paintings from the National Gallery of Art. New York, 1952: 32, color repro.
Berti, Luciano, and Umberto Baldini. Filippino Lippi. Florence, 1957: 78, cat. 28.
Salvini, Roberto. “Botticelli e Filippino.” In Cesare Brandi, et. al. Saggi su Filippino Lippi. Florence, 1957: 68, pl. 36, as by Botticelli.
Salvini, Roberto. Tutta la pittura del Botticelli, 2 vols. Milan, 1958: 1:51-52, as by Botticelli.
The National Gallery of Art and Its Collections. Foreword by Perry B. Cott and notes by Otto Stelzer. National Gallery of Art, Washington (undated, 1960s): 23, repro. 20.
Lugt, Frits. Le dessin italien dans les collections hollandaises. Exh. cat., Institut Néerlandais, Paris, 1962: 40.
Berenson, Bernard. Italian Pictures of the Renaissance: Florentine School, 2 vols. London, 1963: 1:111.
Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. New York, 1963 (reprinted 1964 in French, German, and Spanish): 300, repro.
Summary Catalogue of European Paintings and Sculpture. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1965: 75.
Cairns, Huntington, and John Walker, eds. A Pageant of Painting from the National Gallery of Art. 2 vols. New York, 1966: 1:54, color repro.
Mandel, Gabriel. The Complete Paintings of Botticelli. Milan and New York, 1967: 91, cat. 54, as by Botticelli.
National Gallery of Art. European Paintings and Sculpture, Illustrations. Washington, 1968: 66, repro.
Fredericksen, Burton B., and Federico Zeri. Census of Pre-Nineteenth Century Italian Paintings in North American Public Collections. Cambridge, MA, 1972: 106, 645.
European Paintings: An Illustrated Summary Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1975: 194, repro.
Ragghianti, Carlo L., and Gigetta Dalli Regoli. Firenze 1470-1480. Disegni dal modello. Pollaiolo, Leonardo, Botticelli, Filippino. Pisa, 1975: 109, repro., as by Botticelli or Filippino Lippi.
Lightbown, Ronald. Botticelli: Life and Work. 2 vols. Berkeley, CA, 1978: 2:208, cat. F5.
Shapley, Fern Rusk. Catalogue of the Italian Paintings. 2 vols. Washington, 1979: 1:247-258; 2:pl. 173.
Watson, Ross. The National Gallery of Art, Washington. New York, 1979: 27, pl. 9.
Scalia, Fiorenza, and Cristina de Benedictis. Il Museo Bardini: A Firenze. Milan, 1984: 121.
Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington. Rev. ed. New York, 1984: 97, no. 58, color repro.
European Paintings: An Illustrated Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1985: 228, repro.
Horne, Herbert. H. Alessandro Filipepi commonly called Sandro Botticelli, Painter of Florence. Appendix III: Catalogue of the works of Sandro Botticelli, and of his disciples and imitators, together with notices of those erroneously attributed to him in the public and private collections of Europe and America. Ed. Caterina Caneva. Florence, 1987: 10-11, as School of Botticelli.
Baldini, Umberto. Botticelli. Florence, 1988: 271.
Pons, Nicoletta. Botticelli: catalogo completo. Milan, 1989: 102, cat. 165, as Attributed to Botticelli.
Berti, Luciano, and Umberto Baldini. Filippino Lippi, 2nd ed. Florence, 1991: 51, 175.
Kopper, Philip. America's National Gallery of Art: A Gift to the Nation. New York, 1991: 67-69, color repro.
National Gallery of Art. National Gallery of Art, Washington. New York, 1992: 24, repro.
Wieczorek, Uwe, ed. Fünf Jahrhunderte Italienische Kunst aus dem Sammlungen des Fürsten von Liechtenstein: Sammlungen des Fürsten von Liechtenstein. Exh. cat., Liechtensteinische Staatliche Kunstsammlung, Vaduz, 1994: 12.
Fossi, Gloria. “Virtù terrene e ‘bellezze dell’animo.’ Ritratti nella Firenze del Quattrocento.” In Gloria Fossi, ed. Il Ritratto: gli artisti, i modelli, la memoria. Florence, 1996: 58, fig. 87.
Goldner, George R., and Carmen Bambach, et. al. The Drawings of Filippino Lippi and His Circle. Exh. cat. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1997: 138.
Southgate, M. Therese. The Art of JAMA: One Hundred Covers and Essays from The Journal of the American Medical Association. St. Louis, 1997: 36-37, color repro.
Del Bravo, Carlo. ”Filippino e lo Stoicismo.” Artibus et historiae 19, no. 37 (1998): 68, fig. 1.
Fahy, Everett. Dipinti, disegni, miniature, stampe: L'Archivio storico fotografico di Stefano Bardini. Florence, 2000: 43, 212, 409, no. 336.
Boskovits, Miklós, David Alan Brown, et al. Italian Paintings of the Fifteenth Century. The Systematic Catalogue of the National Gallery of Art. Washington, 2003: 166-170, color repro., as by Botticelli.
Metzger, Catherine A. “Artist/Conservator Materials: Portrait of a Youth – A Recent Restoration at the National Gallery of Art.” In Early Italian Paintings: Approaches to Conservation. Proceedings of a Symposium Held at Yale University Art Gallery, April 2002. New Haven and London, 2003: 2003: 233-237.
Hand, John Oliver. National Gallery of Art: Master Paintings from the Collection. Washington and New York, 2004: 19, no. 14, color repro.
Zambrano, Patrizia, and Jonathan Katz Nelson. Filippino Lippi. Milan, 2004: 363, cat. R18, as by Botticelli.
Zöllner, Frank. Botticelli. Munich, London, and New York, 2005: 198, cat. 24, as by Botticelli.
Fahy, Everett. "Early Italian paintings in Washington and Philadelphia." The Burlington Magazine 148, no. 1241 (August 2006): 539, as by Botticelli.
Nelson, Jonathan K. “Review. Botticelli by Alessandro Cecchi; Sandro Botticelli by Frank Zöllner.” Renaissance Quarterly 60, no. 3 (2007): 918, as by Botticelli.
Schumacher, Andreas, et al. Botticelli: Likeness, Myth, Devotion. Exh. cat. Städel Museum, Frankfurt am Main, 2009: 196, fig. 102, as Portrait of a Young Man against a Light Background, by Botticelli.
Zambrano, Patrizia. “…Di naturale tanto bene che non pare che gli manchi se non la parola. Filippino Lippi pittore di ritratti.” In Paula Nuttall, Geoffrey Nuttall, Michael W. Kwakkelstein eds. Filippino Lippi: Beauty, Invention and Intelligence. Leiden, 2020: 159-160, fig. 6.3.
Cecchi, Alessandro. “Gli studi su Botticelli di Roberto Salvini.” In Enrica Neri Lusanna, ed. Roberto Salvini, la Storia dell’arte, l’Europa. Florence, 2021: 228, as Attributed to Botticelli (corresponding illustration shows the wrong painting).
Wheelock, Arthur K., Jr., "In Pursuit of Masterpieces: The National Gallery of Art’s Acquisitions from the Prince of Liechtenstein." Artibus et historiae 42, no. 83 (2021): 313, 314, color fig. 1, 317, 320, 321, 325, 326, fig. 16, 327, 328.
Frosinini, Cecilia, and Rachel McGarry, eds. Botticelli and Renaissance Florence: Masterworks from the Uffizi. Exh. cat. Minneapolis Institute of Arts, 2022: 190.
Rath, Markus. "Grundmuster: Ausdrucksfunktionen des monochromen Hintergrundes im Renaissanceporträt" Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte 87, no. 1 (2024): 97, 115, n. 56.

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