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Dave (c. 1801–1870s), later recorded as “David Drake,” was an enslaved African American potter who lived and worked most of his life in the Edgefield district of South Carolina. Active between the 1820s and his emancipation in 1865, Dave was one of the many enslaved African Americans who produced alkaline-glazed stoneware containers in the region, which became an important center of ceramic production in the South. In addition to his extraordinary talents at working clay, he is recognized for signing his works boldly with the name “Dave” and especially for inscribing many of them with poetry, often using rhyming couplets. He did this openly at a time when many state laws criminalized teaching enslaved people to read and write. The National Gallery of Art has acquired one of the largest surviving storage jars created by Dave.

Featuring two gracefully curving handles under the rim, the vessel is inscribed with one of Dave’s characteristic couplets as well as the date and his signature: “I made this out of number, & cross '  ' / if you do not lisen at the bible you’ll be lost / L.m. march 25th 1859 / Dave.”  The date “1859” is inscribed a second time, more lightly, below the “9” of the main inscription. The meaning of the first line of the couplet is uncertain but could express the great faith or suffering that Dave invested in making the pot. It is one of his latest known poem jars, which range in date from 1834 to 1863. His most ambitious poem jars tend date to 1856 when he was working for his last enslaver, Lewis Miles, who operated a factory known as Stony Bluff. The letters “L.m.” on this jar refer to Miles. Probably used to store meats—the opening sealed with parchment and wax—it is one of about 40 recorded poem jars by Dave.

This is the first work known to be made by an artist while they were enslaved to enter the National Gallery’s collection. It is also the first ceramic vessel to be purchased (rather than donated) for the collection.


Inscribed on exterior: I made this out of number, & cross [two short vertical strokes] / if you do not lisen at the bible you’ll be lost--
Inscribed on exterior, opposite shoulder: L.m. march 25th 1859 / Dave / [inscribed more lightly below full date] 1859


Mrs. Little Berry Stovall (born Mary Lou Harwell) (1871-1963), Apalachee, GA, and Madison, GA; [1] probably by descent to her son Hampton Harwell Stovall (1903-1981), Moore County, NC; by descent to his son Hampton Harwell Stovall, Jr., Southern Pines, NC; by gift to the Madison-Morgan Cultural Center, Madison, GA, in 1992; purchased 2023 by NGA.

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