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Cardinal Joseph Fesch [1763-1839], Rome, after 1815;[1] (his sale, Palazzo Ricci, Rome, 17 March 1845 and days following, no. 1009, as by Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione); purchased by (Alessandro Aducci).[2] Reginald Cholmondely, Condover Hall, by 1876;[3] (his sale, Christie, Manson & Woods, London, 6 March 1897, no. 66, as by Velázquez); bought by Martin Colnaghi for Sir John Charles Robinson [1824-1913], London,[4] buying for Sir Francis Cook, 1st Bt. [1817-1901], Doughty House, Richmond, Surrey; by inheritance to his son, Sir Frederick Lucas Cook, 2nd Bt. [1844-1920], Doughty House; by inheritance to his son, Sir Herbert Frederick Cook, 3d Bt. [1868-1939], Doughty House;[5] by inheritance to his son, Sir Francis Ferdinand Maurice Cook, 4th Bt. [1907-1978], Doughty House, and Cothay Manor, Somerset; sold February 1948 to (Gualtiero Volterra, London) for (Count Alessandro Contini Bonacossi, Florence);[6] purchased March 1949 by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York;[7] gift 1961 to NGA.

Exhibition History

Wrexham, Wales, 1876, no. 2, as by Velasquez.
Royal Academy of Arts, London, 1879, no. 162, as by Velasquez.
Guildhall, London, 1901, no. 133, as by Velasquez.
Exhibition of Spanish Old Masters in Support of National Gallery Funds and for the Benefit of the Sociedad de Amigos del Arte Espagnola, Grafton Galleries, London, 1913-1914, no. 6, as 17th Century Spanish, possibly Francisco Herrera the Younger.
Italian Still Life Painting from Three Centuries, National Academy of Design, New York; Philbrook Art Center, Tulsa; Dayton Art Institute, 1983, no. 35 (cat. by John Spike).
Kunst in der Republik Genua 1528-1815, Schirn Kunsthalle Frankfurt, 1992, no. 68, repro.

Technical Summary

The support is a loose, uneven plain-weave fabric, prepared with a warm red-brown ground. The background was sketched in first with reserves left for the still-life composition, which was worked up in layers wet-over-dry, and with scumbles and glazes, although some passages were painted wet-into-wet. The paint consistency varies from liquid and thin to moderate impasto in the highlights. X-radiographs reveal that the design was executed precisely with no artist's changes.

The tacking margins have been removed, but cusping is visible on all four edges. There are small losses scattered throughout and some minor abrasion, which is concentrated in the lower quarter. Discolored varnish was removed and the painting was restored by Mario Modestini in 1948.


Curtis, C. B. Velázquez and Murillo. London, 1883: 36, no. 81, as related to but not securely attributable to Velázquez
Robinson, J. C. "The Bodegones and Early Works of Velazquez." The Burlington Magazine 10 (1906): 178, as by Velázquez.
Robinson, J. C. "The Bodegones and Early Works of Velazquez II." The Burlington Magazine 11 (1907): 39-40, repro., as by Velázquez.
Borenius, Tancred. "Two Still-Life Pictures by Murillo (?)" The Burlington Magazine 24 (1913): 74, repro., as possibly by Murillo.
Mayer, August. "Über einige Velazquez zu unrecht zugeschriebene Stilleben und Genrebilder." Monatshefte für Kunstwissenschaft 9 (1915): 126, pl. 35, fig. 3, as by Mariano Nani.
Bodkin, T. "New Attributions to Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione." The Burlington Magazine 48 (1926): 264-265, pl. II-c, as by Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione.
Longhi, Roberto. "Un momento importante nella storia della 'natura morte." Paragone 1 (1950): 39.
Sterling, Charles. La nature morte de l'antiquité à nos jours. Paris, 1952: 56.
Paintings and Sculpture from the Samuel H. Kress Collection. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1959: 225, repro.
De Logu, Giuseppe. La natura morta italiana. Bergamo, 1962: 48, 171, fig. 106.
Ottani, Anna. La natura morta italiana. Exh. cat. Palazzo Reale, Naples, 1964: 108.
Summary Catalogue of European Paintings and Sculpture. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1965: 134.
National Gallery of Art. European Paintings and Sculpture, Illustrations. Washington, 1968: 121, repro.
Castelnovi, Gian Vittorio. "La pittura nella prima metà del Seicento dall'Ansaldo a Orazio De Ferrari." In Colette Bozzo Dufour (vol. 1) and Gianfranco Bruno (vol. 2), eds. La pittura a Genova e in Liguria. 2 vols. Genoa, 1970-1971: 2(1971):165.
Torriti, Piero. "La natura morta e il paesaggio." In Colette Bozzo Dufour (vol. 1) and Gianfranco Bruno (vol. 2), eds. La pittura a Genova e in Liguria. 2 vols. Genoa, 1970-1971: 2(1971):336-338, fig. 220 (2nd ed. 1987).

Fredericksen, Burton B., and Federico Zeri. Census of Pre-Nineteenth Century Italian Paintings in North American Public Collections. Cambridge, Mass., 1972: 209.
Shapley, Fern Rusk. Paintings from the Samuel H. Kress Collection: Italian Schools, XVI-XVIII Century. London, 1973: 93, fig. 170.
European Paintings: An Illustrated Summary Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1975: 360, repro.
Longhi, Roberto. "Progetti di lavoro di Roberto Longhi: Genova pittrice." Paragone 349 (1979): 18, pl. 95.
Shapley, Fern Rusk. Catalogue of the Italian Paintings. 2 vols. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1979: 1:516-517; 2:pl. 361.
Salerno, Luigi. La natura morta italiana 1560-1805/Still Life Painting in Italy. Rome, 1984: 148.
European Paintings: An Illustrated Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1985: 418, repro.
Cottino, Alberto. "Anton Maria Vassallo." In La natura morta in Italia 1989: 1:134, fig. 137.
Griseri, Adreina. "La natura morta in Liguria." In La natura morta in Italia 1989: 1:114.
Krawietz, Clara. "Un itinierario nell'opera pittorica di Anton Maria Vassallo." Arte Documento 3 (1989): 190, fig. 19.
Newcome, Mary. "Anton Maria Vassallo." In La pittura in Italia. Edited by Mina Gregori and Erich Schleier. 2 vols. Rev. ed. Milan, 1989: 2:915.
Gavazza, Ezia. La pittura in Liguria. Il secondo seicento. Genoa, 1990: color pl. 48, 275, 436.
Bocchi, Gianluca, and Ulisse Bocchi, eds. Naturalia. Nature morte in collezioni pubbliche e private. Exh. cat. Galleria d'Orlane, Casalmaggiore, Turin, 1992: 78.
Lodi, Letizia. "Antonio Maria Vassallo." In Gavazza, Ezia, and Giovanni Rotondi Terminiello, eds. Genova nell'Età barocca. Exh. cat. Palazzo Spinola; Palazzo Reale, Genoa. Bologna, 1992: 282.
De Grazia, Diane, and Eric Garberson, with Edgar Peters Bowron, Peter M. Lukehart, and Mitchell Merling. Italian Paintings of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. The Collections of the National Gallery of Art Systematic Catalogue. Washington, D.C., 1996: 323-327, color repro. 325.

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