Ginevra de' Benci's portrait is two-sided. This is the back, an emblematic portrait of Ginevra. A scroll bears her Latin motto, meaning "Beauty Adorns Virtue." In the emblem's center, a sprig of juniper (in Italian, ginepro) suggests Ginevra's name, while the encircling laurel and palm symbolize her intellectual and moral virtue. The laurel and palm also happened to be the personal emblem of Bernardo Bembo, Venetian ambassador to Florence, whose deep and abiding relationship with Ginevra is revealed in poems dedicated to them. Their platonic friendship was typical of the era and consistent with Ginevra's elite status as the daughter of a wealthy banker. Infrared examination has revealed Bembo's motto "Virtue and Honor" beneath Ginevra's. So it is likely Bembo who ordered the emblematic painting on the verso of the portrait. It is possible, but so far unproven, that he also commissioned the front.
across bottom on scroll, the beginning of a hexameter: VIRTVTEM FOR/MA DECORAT (She adorns her virtue with beauty)
Presumably purchased in Florence by Prince Johann Adam Andreas I von Liechtenstein [1657-1712] before 1712, but certainly in the collection of the Princes of Liechtenstein by 1733, Vienna; by descent to Prince Franz Josef II von und zu Liechtenstein [1906-1989], Vienna and later, Vaduz, Liechtenstein; purchased 10 February 1967 by NGA.
Associated NamesLiechtenstein, Prince Franz Josef II of
Liechtenstein, Prince Josef Johann Adam of
Liechtenstein, Alois I of Prince
Liechtenstein, Johann Adam Andreas I of Prince
Liechtenstein, Prince Alois II of
Liechtenstein, Prince Anton Florian I of
Liechtenstein, Prince Franz I of
Liechtenstein, Prince Franz Josef I of
Liechtenstein, Prince Johann I of
Liechtenstein, Prince Johann II of
Liechtenstein, Prince Johann Nepomuk Karl of
Liechtenstein, Prince Joseph Wenzel of
Liechtenstein, Princes of
- Meisterwerke aus den Sammlungen des Fürsten von Lichtenstein, Kunstmuseum, Lucerne, 1948, no. 103, repro.
- [Exhibition of paintings lent by the Prince of Liechtenstein], National Gallery, London, 1951, no catalogue.
- In Memoriam, Ailsa Mellon Bruce, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 1969, unnumbered checklist.
- Virtue and Beauty: Leonardo's 'Ginevra de' Benci' and Renaissance Portraits of Women, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 2001-2002, no. 16, color repro.
- Walker, John. "Ginevra de'Benci by Leonardo da Vinci." Studies in the History of Art 1 (1967): 4, 12, figs. 2, 10.
- Lippincott, Kristen. "The Genesis and Significance of the Fifteenth-century Italian Impresa." In Chivalry in the Renaissance. Edited by Sydney Anglo. Woodbridge, UK and Rochester, NY, 1990: 73, fig. 16.
- Kirsh, Andrea, and Rustin S. Levenson. Seeing Through Paintings: Physical Examination in Art Historical Studies. Materials and Meaning in the Fine Arts 1. New Haven, 2000: 8-9, fig. 3.
- Hand, John Oliver. National Gallery of Art: Master Paintings from the Collection. Washington and New York, 2004: 28-29, no. 22, color repro.
- Hartt, Frederick, and David G. Wilkins. History of Italian Renaissance Art: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, 2006: 453-454, color fig. 16.15.
- Dempsey, Charles. The Early Renaissance and Vernacular Culture. Cambridge, Mass.: vii, 36, 39, 41, fig. 5.
- Keizer, Joost. Leonardo’s Paradox: Word and Image in the Making of Renaissance Culture. London, 2019: 72.