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Upper center in red ink: Deum time, et mandata eius observa, hoc enim est o[m]nis HOMO. Ecc[us] 12. (“Fear God, and keep his commandments: for this is the whole duty of man.” Ecclesiastes 12:13) (Latin Vulgate Bible); center right in gold ink: III.; lower center in gold: Non est ingenus nomine hominis: qui veluinum diem / totum velit esse in voluptate. Cic
Facing page:
Upper center in red ink: Conscidit me vulnere super vulnus: Irruit in me / quasi GIGAS.Job 16. (“He breaks me with breach upon breach, he runs upon me like a giant.” Job 16:15) (Latin Vulgate Bible); lower center in black ink: Ad subitas tracum volucres, nubemq[ue] sonoram, / PYGMEVS parvus currit bellator in armis: / Mox impar hosti, raptusq[ue] per Aera curuis / unguibus, a saena fertur grue.


Emperor Rudolph of Austria; Lessing J. Rosenwald, Alverthorpe, PA; gift to NGA, 1987.

Exhibition History

A Collector's Cabinet, National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1998, no. 76.
From Botany to Bouquets: Flowers in Northern Art, National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1999, no. 45, as Iris from Animalia Rationalia et Insecta (Ignis).
Deceptions and Illusions: Five Centuries of Trompe l'Oeil Painting, National Gallery of Art, Washington, 2002-2003, no. 30, as Ignis (Animalia Rationalia et Insecta) Plate 47.

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