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In June 1871, Thomas Moran, a gifted young artist working in Philadelphia, boarded a train that would take him to the far reaches of the western frontier and change the course of his career. Just a few months earlier he had been asked to illustrate a magazine article describing a wondrous region in Wyoming called Yellowstone—rumored to contain steam-spewing geysers, boiling hot springs, and bubbling mud pots. Eager to be the first artist to record these astonishing natural wonders, Moran quickly made plans to travel west.

Yellowstone was Moran's ultimate destination in the summer of 1871, but before he reached the land of geysers and hot springs, he stepped off the train in Green River, Wyoming, and discovered a landscape unlike any he had ever seen. Rising above the dusty railroad town were towering cliffs, reduced by nature to their geologic essence. Captivated by the bands of color that centuries of wind and water had revealed, Moran completed a small field study he later inscribed "First Sketch Made in the West." Moran went on to join F. V. Hayden's survey expedition to Yellowstone and complete the watercolors that would later play a key role in the Congressional decision to set the region aside as America's first national park. Over the years, however, the subject Moran returned to repeatedly was the western landscape he saw first—the magnificent cliffs of Green River.

Green River, Wyoming, was a bustling railroad town when Moran arrived in 1871. Three years earlier, Union Pacific construction crews had arrived intent on bridging the river. Their tent camp quickly became a boomtown boasting a schoolhouse, hotel, and brewery. Yet none of these structures appear in Moran's Green River paintings. Even the railroad is missing. Instead, the dazzling colors of the sculpted cliffs and an equally colorful band of Indians are the focus. In a bravura display of artistic license, Moran erased the reality of advancing civilization, conjuring instead an imagined scene of a pre-industrial West that neither he nor anyone else could have seen in 1871. Ten years after his first trip west, Moran completed Green River Cliffs, Wyoming, the most stunning of all his Green River paintings.


lower right, the letters T, Y (for Yellowstone), and M in monogram: TYMORAN. / 1881.


Mr. Clapp, Chicago, or Dr. Williams, Chicago.[1] (Julien Levy Gallery, New York). Frank Glenn [d. 1960], Kansas City, Missouri; purchased by Frederick W. Allsopp [1867-1946], Little Rock; gift 1937 to the Museum of Fine Arts, Little Rock [since 1960, the Arkansas Arts Center]; de-accessioned 1983 and sold through (Ira Spanierman, New York); sold to William I. Koch;[2] (American sale, Christie, Manson & Woods, New York, 30 November 1994, no. 40); Vern Milligan [d. 2012], Denver; gift 2011 to NGA.[3]

Exhibition History

Inter-State Industrial Exposition, Chicago, 1881, no. 401, repro.
A Southern Sampler: American Paintings in Southern Museums [Inaugural Exhibition], Hunter Museum of Art, Chattanooga, 1975, no. 6, as The Cliffs of Green River.
This Land is Your Land, New Jersey State Museum, Trenton, 1976, unnumbered checklist.
Loan to display with permanent collection, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 1986-1992 (lent to other exhibitions during the loan to NGA).
Rendezvous to Roundup: The First One Hundred Years of Art in Wyoming, Buffalo Bill Historical Center, Cody, 1990, pl. 19, as Green River, Wyoming.
The West as America: Reinterpreting Images of the Frontier, 1820-1920, National Museum of American Art, Washington, D.C.; Denver Art Museum; Saint Louis Art Museum, 1991-1992, fig. 216 (shown only in Washington).
European and American Masterpieces from the William I. Koch Collection, Wichita Art Museum, 1992.
Thomas Moran, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.; Gilcrease Museum, Tulsa; Seattle Art Museum, 1997-1998, no. 61, repro.

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