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George Peter Alexander Healy

American, 1813 - 1894

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George Peter Alexander Healy was born in Boston on July 15, 1813, the first of five children of William Healy, an Irish immigrant and captain of a merchant vessel, and his wife Mary Hicks. Healy showed an early artistic interest: by 1830 the self-taught painter had opened a portrait studio from which he hoped to help to support his family. Although commissions were at first sparse, young Healy received important encouragement from Thomas Sully (1783-1872)) who advised him to make painting his profession. His fortunes also improved in 1831 when Mrs. Harrison Gray Otis, a leader in Boston society, granted him permission to paint her portrait and recommended his talents to other potential patrons.

In 1834 Healy went to France where he studied with Baron Antoine-Jean Gros (1771-1835). A year later he traveled through Italy, visiting museums and churches in the company of Lady and Sir Arthur Faulkner who soon provided his introduction to London society. It was in England that Healy met and, in 1839, married Louisa Phipps. The couple settled in Paris where Healy embarked upon the beginning of a long and happy marriage and thriving career. His diplomatic and affable demeanor, together with his obvious skill, brought him tremendous success throughout Europe and the United States. Prolific, as well as talented, he had by 1867 produced more than six hundred portraits. The constant stream of commissions included dignified, imposing portraits of such celebrated figures as Pope Pius IX and Queen Elizabeth of Romania, the latter of whom developed a warm friendship with Healy and his family.

Although Healy, sometimes accompanied by his wife, traveled to the United States several times during the 1840s and early 1850s, it was not until 1856 that the entire family settled in America. They took up residence in the booming city of Chicago, which Healy used as a base for his work in Boston, Philadelphia, New Orleans, and other cities. During the Civil War years he often traveled to Washington to paint military figures and members of the President's cabinet. The family returned to Europe in 1867, but George Healy crossed the Atlantic many times over the following years in order to fill commissions. In 1892 Healy, his wife, and one daughter returned to Chicago. The artist died in that city on June 24, 1894. [This is an edited version of the artist's biography published in the NGA Systematic Catalogue]

Artist Bibliography

Healy, George P. A. Reminiscences of a Portrait Painter. Chicago, 1894. Reprint. New York, 1970.
de Mare, Marie. G.P.A. Healy, American Artist. New York, 1954.
Lewison, Florence. "G.P.A. Healy, 1815[sic]-1894, A Success at Home and Abroad." American Artist 32 (December 1968): 54-59, 69-73.
Kelly, Franklin, with Nicolai Cikovsky, Jr., Deborah Chotner, and John Davis. American Paintings of the Nineteenth Century, Part I. The Collections of the National Gallery of Art Systematic Catalogue. Washington, D.C., 1996: 298.

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