The Galerie van Diemen was first established in Berlin, c. 1918, with branches later opening in The Hague, Amsterdam and New York. The galleries were managed by Directors Eduard Plietzsch (from 1919-1935) and Kurt Benedict (from 1923-1933), who ran establishments under the names of van Diemen, Berlin, and Dr. Benedict & Co., Berlin, respectively. The establishments, as well as two other galleries, Altkunst Antiquitäten and Dr. Otto Burchard & Co., were under an umbrella organization, the Margraf Concern, owned by Albert Loeske until 1929, when it passed to long time employees Jacob and Rosa Oppenheimer. Initially specializing in Dutch painting, in 1922 the Galerie van Diemen organized the first important Russian Avant-Garde exhibition to be held in Europe since the 1917 Revolution. In 1935 the Berlin branches (van Diemen, Dr. Benedict & Co., Dr. Otto Burchard & Co.; Altkunst Antiquitäten) were liquidated by order of the Nazis, with sales organized by Graupe on 25 January and 26 April. The New York branch became associated at about that time with the Lilienfeld Gallery, originally established in Germany by Karl Lilienfeld (b. 1885) and was known until the mid-1960s under the name van Diemen-Lilienfeld.