Louis was one of five children of Albert von Rothschild (1844-1911) and his wife Bettina (née Rothschild, 1858-1892). Upon the death of father, Louis became the director of the Vienna branch of the Rothschild bank. Louis was incarcerated by the Nazis in 1938, and only freed in 1939 through the intervention of his brother Alphonse, exiled in Paris, and the release of valuable Rothschild possessions, including art, to the authorities. He fled through Switzerland and South America to the US, where he married Hilda von Auersperg in 1946. Louis de Rothschild died in 1955.