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People in the Key Set

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Learn more about the friends, family members, and colleagues whom Alfred Stieglitz photographed throughout his career. Follow the links to see all Key Set photographs in which that person appears.

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Anderson, Sherwood (1876–1941)

Author of Winesburg, Ohio (1919), The Triumph of the Egg (1921), Horses and Men (1923), and Beyond Desire (1932), Sherwood Anderson met Stieglitz and O’Keeffe when he moved to New York in 1922. In 1924 Anderson dedicated A Story-Teller’s Story to Stieglitz, writing that the photographer “had been more than a father to so many puzzled, wistful children in the arts in this big, noisy, growing and groping America.”

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Bauschmied, Paula (dates unknown)

Paula [Bauschmied?], who lived in Munich, was Stieglitz’s lover when he was a student in Germany in the 1880s. The two had a daughter, Elsa Bauschmied, whom Stieglitz supported financially until she died giving birth in 1912 (Georgia O’Keeffe to the law firm of Lowenstein, Pitcher, Spence, Hotchkiss, Amann & Parr, 19 January 1956, private collection).

Bernheim, Ralph (1876–?)

A pianist and composer, Ralph Bernheim was the nephew of sculptor and Stieglitz family friend Moses Ezekiel.

Bluemner, Oscar (1867–1938)

Born in Prenzlau, Germany, Oscar Bluemner immigrated to the United States in 1892. He began to frequent 291 in 1910 and was so deeply influenced by the 1911 Paul Cézanne exhibition that he abandoned his profession as an architect and traveled in Europe for a year and a half to study the latest developments in art. His work was included in the 1913 Armory Show and the 1916 Forum Exhibition of Modern American Painters at the Anderson Galleries. In 1915 Stieglitz gave him a one-person show at 291. In 1928 Stieglitz exhibited Bluemner’s paintings at the Intimate Gallery, proclaiming him to be “the first painter to introduce red in America, the first who really dared to paint red” (18 December 1926, in Herbert J. Seligmann, Alfred Stieglitz Talking [New Haven, 1966], 118).

Bly, George Albert (1854–1936)

George Albert Bly was the gardener at Lake George.

Bonner, Maggie Foord (1865–1946)

Maggie Foord Bonner was the daughter of John Foord, an editor at the New York Times. John Foord was friends with Stieglitz’s father, Edward, and the two families became close in the 1880s.

Boursault, Yvonne (b. 1921)

Yvonne Boursault is the daughter of George Boursault and longtime Stieglitz assistant Marie (Rapp) Boursault. The family visited Lake George during the summer of 1923.

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Caffin, Charles Henry (1854–1918)

Born in England and educated at Oxford University, the art critic Charles Henry Caffin immigrated to the United States in 1897. He soon began writing articles on photography in the New York Evening Post and later the New York Sun. His 1901 book Photography as a Fine Art was praised as one of the first serious works on the aesthetics of the medium by an art critic. A regular contributor to Camera Work throughout its entire run (1903–1917), Caffin wrote more articles for the periodical than anyone else.

Cane, Florence (1882–1952)

A painter who lived in Westport, Connecticut, Florence Cane and her husband, Melville, were supporters of Stieglitz, O’Keeffe, and Arthur Dove. Her own paintings were exhibited at the Anderson Galleries in 1922.

Carles, Arthur B. (1882–1952)

A close friend of Edward Steichen and a member of his secessionist group, the New Society of American Artists in Paris, Arthur B. Carles studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts from 1901 to 1907. Through Steichen’s patronage, Carles was included in the March 1910 exhibition at 291, The Younger American Painters, praised in Camera Work as a presentation of the “common disciples of Matisse” (30 [April 1910], 54). Stieglitz exhibited twenty-six landscapes, still lifes, and figure studies by Carles at 291 from 17 January to 3 February 1912. Carles taught at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts from 1917 to 1925 and remained close to Stieglitz into the 1920s.

Cramer, Konrad (1883–1963)

Born in Würzburg, Germany, in 1888, Konrad Cramer immigrated to the United States in 1911. He studied painting at the Academy of Fine Arts in Karlsruhe and spent time in Munich, where he met several of the artists associated with Der Blaue Reiter. Cramer moved to Woodstock, New York, and most likely met Stieglitz shortly thereafter. In the 1930s he abandoned painting and devoted himself to photography.

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Dasburg, Andrew (1887–1979)

Like so many of the American modernists, Andrew Dasburg studied at the Art Students League of New York and spent time in Paris where he saw the work of Paul Cézanne, Pablo Picasso, and Henri Matisse. After his return to the United States in 1910 he settled in Woodstock, New York, and with his friend Konrad Cramer began to visit 291. Although Dasburg’s work was included in both the 1913 Armory Show and the 1916 Forum Exhibition of Modern American Painters at the Anderson Galleries, Stieglitz never exhibited his work at 291.

Davidson, Donald (1878–1948)

When Stieglitz first met Donald Davidson in 1917 he was helping to establish a victory garden at Oaklawn, the Stieglitz family homestead at Lake George. Shortly thereafter, on 22 August 1917 Stieglitz wrote to O’Keeffe that Davidson had “made a great impression upon me—impression as a human.—A lank sinewy figure—eye glasses—spectacles—middle-aged—a firm expression around the mouth—We met up there—and I don’t know why—but we talked for about fifteen minutes—I don’t know what brought it about—But it was very wonderful—that meeting. Life—War—Society—Plant Life—the universe—We understood each other—He’s unmarried—Scotch descent—Riches once upon a time in the family—It was very human that meeting—the most human thing that’s happened to me in some time—He seemed drawn to me & I to him—Queer—Perhaps I’m not quite as dead as I imagine I must be” (Alfred Stieglitz/Georgia O’Keeffe Archive, Yale Collection of American Literature). In 1919 Davidson married Stieglitz’s niece Elizabeth Stieglitz, and both became deeply involved in Hinduism.

Davidson, Elizabeth Margery (“Peggy”) (1919–1995)

Elizabeth Margery (“Peggy”) Davidson was the daughter of Stieglitz’s niece Elizabeth and her husband Donald Davidson.

Davidson, Elizabeth Stieglitz (1897–1956)

Stieglitz’s niece and the wife of Donald Davidson, Elizabeth Stieglitz Davidson was the daughter of Stieglitz’s brother Leopold and his wife Lizzie. She and her husband were close to Stieglitz and O’Keeffe.

Davidson, Sue (b. 1922)

Sue Davidson (Lowe) is the daughter of Stieglitz’s niece Elizabeth and her husband Donald Davidson.

Demuth, Charles (1883–1935)

Between 1904 and 1914 the Philadelphia-trained painter Charles Demuth made three long trips to Paris, where he became familiar with the latest developments in modern European art. He began to visit 291 as early as 1909 but did not meet Stieglitz until 1912 when Marsden Hartley urged him to introduce himself. Stieglitz included Demuth’s work in the 1925 Seven Americans exhibition at the Anderson Galleries and thereafter mounted frequent shows of his paintings and watercolors at the Intimate Gallery and An American Place. Demuth drew great sustenance from the photographer’s support. As O’Keeffe later noted, “Stieglitz was probably a bit of a steadying hand on [Demuth’s] shoulder. They had a faith in common that neither found too often elsewhere” (as quoted in Emily Farnham, Charles Demuth: Behind a Laughing Mask [Norman, 1971], 166).

de Zayas, Marius (1880–1961)

Caricaturist, modernist theoretician, and later gallery director, Marius de Zayas immigrated to the United States from his native Mexico in 1907. He soon met Stieglitz who exhibited his work at 291 in 1909, 1910, and 1913. Although de Zayas was initially perplexed by many developments in modern art, after a year in Paris (1910–1911) he became one of its most vocal champions and one of 291’s most articulate theoreticians. He also extensively discussed the relationship of photography to the new art and published a series of articles on this subject in Camera Work in 1913 and in 291 in 1915. De Zayas helped organize several exhibitions at 291, including the Pablo Picasso show in 1911 and the African art show in 1914. In 1915 he founded the Modern Gallery as a commercial offshoot of 291.

Dove, Arthur (1880–1946)

Stieglitz met Arthur Dove in late 1909 or early 1910 and exhibited his work in The Younger American Painters at 291 in March 1910. The Exhibition of Paintings by Arthur G. Dove, held at 291 from 27 February to 12 March 1912, was Dove’s first one-person show. Stieglitz began to promote Dove’s art actively in the early 1920s, mounting almost yearly exhibitions at the Intimate Gallery from 1925 to 1929, and at An American Place from 1929 until their deaths in 1946. The two became extremely close. In a letter to Stieglitz on 9 December 1934 Dove remarked that “Christ, Einstein, and Stieglitz” were among the “few great ones” (Alfred Stieglitz/Georgia O’Keeffe Archive, Yale Collection of American Literature).

Duchamp, Marcel (1887–1968)

The French painter, sculptor, and celebrated intellectual Marcel Duchamp first came to the United States in 1915 when he fled war-torn Europe. He met Stieglitz that year and the two had intermittent contact until the mid-1930s.

Dudley, Katharine (1884–1963)

Katharine Dudley was a teacher and artist who may have met O’Keeffe through their association with the Columbia University Teachers College.

Duncan, Charles (1887? –1952)

A painter and poet, Charles Duncan studied in Europe around 1909 and may have met Stieglitz through his friendship with John Marin or Charles Demuth. Stieglitz showed his work at 291 in an Exhibition of Drawings by Georgia O’Keeffe of Virginia; Watercolors and Drawings by Charles Duncan of New York; and Oils, by René Lafferty of Philadelphia, from 23 May to 5 July 1916. A contributor to both Camera Work and Marcel Duchamp’s publication Blind Man, Duncan may also have encouraged Stieglitz to exhibit Duchamp’s work at 291. In the 1920s Duncan supported himself as a sign painter, writing to Stieglitz that “young life slips away as I dance on scaffolds to the heavy turns of loaded brushes” (2 October 1920, Alfred Stieglitz/Georgia O’Keeffe Archive, Yale Collection of American Literature).

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Edelsohn, Rebecca (“Becky”) (1892–1973)

Rebecca (“Becky”) Edelsohn (sometimes spelled Edelson) was a well-known anarchist agitator and younger colleague of Emma Goldman.

Encke, Erdmann (1843–1896)

When Stieglitz first entered the Technische Hochschule, Berlin, in the winter semester, 1882, he lived with Erdmann Encke, a sculptor and amateur photographer who made the monument of Queen Louise in the Tiergarten, Berlin. His brother, Fedor, had lived with the Stieglitz family in New York in 1877.

Engelhard, Agnes Stieglitz (1869–1952)

The fifth of Edward and Hedwig Werner Stieglitz’s children, Agnes Stieglitz later married George Herbert Engelhard, a lawyer, and bore a child, Georgia Engelhard.

Engelhard, Georgia (1906–1986)

Stieglitz was close to his niece Georgia Engelhard, the daughter of his sister Agnes and her husband George Engelhard. As part of a series of exhibitions of children’s art at 291, he showed her work in 1916. As she grew older, her earthy sense of humor, daring spirit, and athletic nature endeared her also to O’Keeffe who granted “Georgia Minor” or “The Kid,” as the family called her, the rare privilege of accompanying her on painting expeditions. An amateur photographer and internationally recognized equestrian, Engelhard also became a celebrated mountain climber.

Eugene, Frank (1865–1936)

A founding member of the Photo-Secession, Frank Eugene (born Frank Eugene Smith in New York City) studied painting at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts, Munich. After his return to the United States in 1894 he worked as a stage designer and portrait painter and learned how to photograph. In 1907 Eugene was appointed to the staff of the Institute of Photography in Munich-Schwabing and in 1913 to the chair of nature photography at the Royal Academy of Graphic Arts, Leipzig.

Ezekiel, Moses (1844–1917)

An American-born sculptor who studied in Berlin at the Royal Academy of Art, Moses Ezekiel lived with the Stieglitz family both at their home in New York and on vacation in Lake George in 1878.

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Foord, Barbara (1871–1959)

Barbara Foord was the younger sister of Maggie Foord Bonner and daughter of John Foord, who was friends with Stieglitz’s father. In 1912 she married Stieglitz’s cousin Herbert Small.

Frank, Waldo (1889–1967)

An arts critic and coeditor of The Seven Arts (1916–1917), Waldo Frank was the author of Our America (1919) and The Re-Discovery of America: An Introduction to a Philosophy of American Life (1929). He was also one of the editors of America & Alfred Stieglitz, a collection of essays published in 1934 to celebrate Stieglitz’s seventieth birthday.

Freeman, Helen (1886–1960)

A dancer, actress, and writer, Helen Freeman (Corle) probably met Stieglitz and O’Keeffe in the early 1920s through her friendship with Mitchell Kennerley, owner of the Anderson Galleries.

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Gutman, Ernest (1903–1980)

Ernest Gutman was a largely self-taught sculptor. Stieglitz made a portrait of him at An American Place in the spring of 1933.

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Hartley, Marsden (1877–1943)

Shortly after meeting Stieglitz in 1909 Marsden Hartley emphatically declared that he would “have a show at 291 or nowhere.” Stieglitz, who believed in Hartley’s work because, as he wrote, “I felt a spirit I liked—or rather thought very worthwhile,” gave the Maine-born artist his first exhibition at 291 that spring (26 October 1923, Alfred Stieglitz/Georgia O’Keeffe Archive, Yale Collection of American Literature). Stieglitz subsequently raised funds to enable Hartley to travel extensively in Europe from 1912 through 1915, resulting in some of the most accomplished art of his career. For the next twenty-eight years Stieglitz continued to promote Hartley’s work, exhibiting it at the Intimate Gallery in the 1920s and at An American Place in the 1930s. Yet the tenor of Stieglitz’s remarks also reflects their troubled relationship. Hartley depended greatly on Stieglitz for financial support, and chafed that other artists were more celebrated. In 1937 Hartley and Stieglitz severed their professional relationship.

Hasemann, Wilhelm Gustav Friedrich (1850–1913)

Wilhelm Gustav Friedrich Hasemann was a German artist who met Edward Stieglitz in Karlsruhe in 1881, perhaps through their mutual friend, the artist Fedor Encke. Shortly after their first meeting Hasemann sent Edward Stieglitz a drawing on a postcard that so pleased the American he asked Hasemann to send him similar cards on a regular basis. Edward Stieglitz subsequently helped Hasemann build a studio in Gutach (Leopold Stieglitz to Georgia O’Keeffe, 3 September 1946, Alfred Stieglitz/Georgia O’Keeffe Archive, Yale Collection of American Literature). Alfred Stieglitz visited Hasemann in Gutach in the spring of 1882, and the entire Stieglitz family vacationed there in the summer of 1882. Stieglitz again visited in 1894.

Haviland, Paul Burty (1880–1950)

Paul Burty Haviland, the French-born son of the director of the Haviland china company in Limoges, was one of Stieglitz’s most important supporters and coworkers at 291. He first visited 291 in 1908 to see the Auguste Rodin exhibition and later served as an associate editor of Camera Work. His close connections with the Parisian art community helped facilitate several exhibitions including the 1911 Pablo Picasso show. Inspired by Stieglitz and others, he also learned how to photograph. Shortly before Haviland returned to France in 1915, Stieglitz wrote: “if 291 as it stands to-day means anything to any one it is because Paul B. Haviland at a critical time, then but a comparative stranger to me, felt the desire intensely enough to create an opportunity for me to work” (Stieglitz to Paul Burty Haviland, 27 January 1915, private collection, copy in NGA files).

Herrmann, Eva (1901–1978)

Eva Herrmann was the daughter of Stieglitz’s college roommate, the painter Frank Simon (“Sime”) Herrmann, and his wife Anna.

Herrmann, Frank Simon (“Sime”) (1866–1942)

The son of a New York brewery owner, Frank Simon (“Sime”) Herrmann was a childhood friend of Stieglitz’s. He studied at the City College of New York and the Munich Academy. An amateur photographer and member of the Munich Secession, he and Stieglitz traveled together in Europe in the 1880s. He also accompanied Stieglitz and his first wife Emmy to Katwijk aan Zee in 1894. Although Herrmann did not return permanently to the United States until 1919, he and Stieglitz remained close throughout their lives.

Herzig, Katherine (dates unknown)

Katherine Herzig was Hedwig Werner Stieglitz’s nurse in the early 1920s.

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Kalonyme, Louis (1901–1961)

Louis Kalonyme was an art critic and a frequent visitor to Lake George in the 1920s and 1930s.

Keiley, Joseph T. (1869–1914)

A Wall Street lawyer who lived in Brooklyn, Joseph T. Keiley was one of Stieglitz’s closest colleagues from 1898 to 1914. An amateur photographer, he collaborated with Stieglitz on the refinement of the glycerin process for local development of platinum prints. Stieglitz enlisted Keiley’s help as associate editor first of Camera Notes and later Camera Work. Keiley steadfastly supported Stieglitz’s endeavors until his death in 1914, even though he had little sympathy with modern European art.

Kerfoot, John Barrett (1865–1927)

A literary critic for Life magazine, amateur photographer and member of the Camera Club of New York, and contributor to Camera Notes, John Barrett Kerfoot became an associate editor of Camera Work in 1905. He wrote many humorous, often satiric articles until the demise of the journal in 1917. Along with several others, he also regularly contributed funds to help pay the rent for 291.

Kirnon, Hodge (1891–1962)

The Montserrat-born elevator operator at 291 from 1912 to 1917, Hodge Kirnon contributed to the 1914 special issue of Camera Work devoted to the question “What Is 291?” He wrote, in part: “I have found in ‘291’ a spirit which fosters liberty, defines no methods, never pretends to know, never condemns, but always encourages those who are daring enough to be intrepid; those who feel a just repugnance towards the ideals and standards established by conventionalism” (Camera Work 47 [July 1914], 16). After World War I Kirnon became a leading figure in the New Negro movement in Harlem, where he edited and published The Promoter.

Koeniger, Ellen (1897–?)

Ellen Koeniger (Morton), the niece of photographer Frank Eugene, visited Lake George in 1916.

Kreymborg, Alfred (1883–1966)

Editor for the poetry magazine Others (1915–1919) and author of Troubadour: An Autobiography (1925), Alfred Kreymborg was a poet, playwright, and critic. In the summer of 1925 Kreymborg and his wife Dorothy spent several weeks at Lake George.

Kreymborg, Dorothy (“Dot”) (1894–1977)

Dorothy (“Dot”) Kreymborg frequently collaborated with her husband Alfred Kreymborg, including performing puppet plays that he authored.

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Lauer, Clara (1877–?)

Clara Lauer was Katherine (“Kitty”) Stieglitz’s governess.

Laurvik, John Nilsen (1877–1953)

Born in Norway, John Nilsen Laurvik, an art and photography critic who contributed many articles to Camera Work and other periodicals, was also a member of the Photo-Secession. His own work was featured in an Exhibition of Caricatures in Charcoal by Mr. Marius de Zayas; and Autochromes by Mr. J. Nilsen Laurvik, held at 291 from 4 to 16 January 1909.

Linthicum, Lotta (1874–1952)

Stieglitz met Lotta Linthicum, an up-and-coming actor, aboard the SS Bourgogne en route to Europe in 1894.

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Marin, John (1870–1953)

Stieglitz met John Marin in June 1909, although he had exhibited the young artist’s work at 291 in April 1908. At their first meeting Stieglitz praised Marin’s most recent modernist experiments and encouraged him to explore new ideas by promising to exhibit any work Marin might produce. For more than thirty-five years, Stieglitz regularly fulfilled this promise. Although they had very different personalities—Marin was boyish, with a laconic sense of humor; Stieglitz was serious and sharp-witted—the two were very close. Their relationship was one of “mutual admiration,” one critic wrote in 1926, “expressed by silent loyalty on the part of the noncommunicative Marin,” but “widely heralded by Mr. Stieglitz, who seems never to feel happier than when praising the genius of Marin” (Forbes Watson, “New York Exhibitions,” Arts 10 [December 1926], 347).

Maurer, Alfred (1868–1932)

In 1908 Edward Steichen asked Alfred Maurer to join his secessionist group, the New Society of American Artists in Paris, and in 1909 selected fifteen of Maurer’s oil sketches to be shown at 291, describing them to Stieglitz as “certainly howlers as color [that] ought to make the people that kicked at Matisse feel ashamed of themselves” (undated [Winter 1908], Alfred Stieglitz/Georgia O’Keeffe Archive, Yale Collection of American Literature). Although Maurer’s work was included in the 1910 exhibition of The Younger American Painters at 291, Stieglitz never gave him a one-person show. In the last number of Camera Work (49/50 [June 1917], 34) Stieglitz announced his intention to exhibit Maurer’s work at 291, but the gallery closed that same month.

Mellquist, Jerome (1906–1963)

A frequent visitor to Lake George and An American Place, Jerome Mellquist was a critic and author of The Emergence of an American Art (1942), which celebrated the accomplishments of Stieglitz and the artists associated with him.

Menshausen, Richard (1878–1960)

Richard Menshausen worked for the Stieglitz family at the Lake George house several days a week.

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Naumburg, Margaret (1890–1983)

Margaret Naumburg, first wife of Waldo Frank, founded the Walden School in New York. She and Frank visited Lake George in the summer of 1920.

Nikhilananda, Swami (1895–1973)

Swami Nikhilananda, the head of the Hindu Center in New York and a friend of Stieglitz’s niece Elizabeth Stieglitz Davidson, was a guest at Lake George for the entire summer of 1937.

Norman, Dorothy (1905–1995)

A writer, photographer, social activist, and supporter of An American Place, Dorothy Norman was Stieglitz’s lover from 1931 until his death in 1946.

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Obermeyer, Joseph (1865–1943)

Joseph Obermeyer and Stieglitz studied together at the Technische Hochschule, Berlin, and on their return to the United States they went into business together at the Heliochrome Engraving Company. Obermeyer was the brother of Stieglitz’s first wife Emmy.

O’Brien, Frances (1904–1990)

Frances O’Brien was a painter, critic, and teacher who wrote for The Nation. She visited Lake George in August 1926.

Of, George F. (1876–1954)

A framemaker whose consummate craftsmanship and elegant designs were admired by Stieglitz, O’Keeffe, and many of the artists associated with them, George F. Of was also a painter. His work was included in the 1916 Forum Exhibition of Modern American Paintings at the Anderson Galleries. Of made frames for Stieglitz, O’Keeffe, and others associated with his galleries well into the 1940s.

O’Keeffe, Claudia (1899–1984)

Following her mother’s death in 1916, Georgia O’Keeffe cared for her youngest sister, Claudia O'Keeffe, then a teenager. Claudia lived with Georgia when she taught art in Canyon, Texas, from 1916 to 1918 and subsequently moved to New York. Claudia later moved to Beverly Hills and taught nursery school.

O’Keeffe, Georgia (1887–1986)

Acclaimed artist Georgia O’Keeffe met Stieglitz at 291 in 1916. They became lovers in 1918 and were married in 1924. Stieglitz frequently exhibited O’Keeffe’s work at his New York galleries, and O’Keeffe was a major photographic subject for Stieglitz; he made 331 photographs of her—what he called a composite portrait—over their time together. Their relationship cooled in the late 1920s and early 1930s: O’Keeffe, operating more independently, started spending summers in New Mexico, and Stieglitz began an affair with a much-younger Dorothy Norman. Though their relationship was often tempestuous, the two remained married and close until Stieglitz’s death in 1946. O’Keeffe was intimately involved in distributing the works in Stieglitz’s estate—his and those by others—to museums in the United States and abroad.

O’Keeffe, Ida Ten Eyck (1889–1961)

Ida Ten Eyck O’Keeffe, one of Georgia’s younger sisters, was a frequent visitor to Lake George in the 1920s. Like her sister, Ida had studied painting at Columbia University Teachers College. She gave up her career as an art teacher to become a nurse.

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Picabia, Francis (1879–1953)

Stieglitz and Francis Picabia first met when the flamboyant French painter and his wife Gabrielle Buffet-Picabia came to the United States in 1913 for the Armory Show. Declaring that their “wonderful intelligence made both of them a constant source of pleasure,” Stieglitz exhibited Picabia’s most recent studies of New York (Stieglitz to Arthur B. Carles, 11 April 1913, Alfred Stieglitz/Georgia O’Keeffe Archive, Yale Collection of American Literature). Picabia’s return trip in 1915 was both more productive and more complex. He became fascinated with biomorphic and mechanistic imagery and further explored these ideas in a series of innovative abstract portraits published in the avant-garde periodical 291, where he depicted Stieglitz as a broken camera. Thereafter their friendship cooled, although Stieglitz showed his work again in 1928 at the Intimate Gallery.

Prosser, Frank (“Bucky”) (1923–2015)

Frank (“Bucky”) Prosser was the son of Margaret Prosser, who managed the house at Lake George from 1927 to 1946.

Prosser, Margaret (1888–1970)

Margaret Prosser managed the house at Lake George from 1927 to 1946.

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Raab, Fritz (1849–1927)

A doctor, amateur painter, and photographer, Fritz Raab practiced medicine in Bohemia, Vienna, and the United States. A friend of Frank Eugene and Edward Steichen, Raab may have met Stieglitz at a health resort in Merano, Italy. In 1907 Stieglitz was a guest at Raab’s house in Tutzing, Bavaria.

Raab, Sophie (1885–1958?)

Sophie Raab was a stepdaughter of Stieglitz’s friend Fritz Raab.

Randolph, Anson Davies Fitz (1820–1896)

A New York bookseller specializing in religious works, Anson Davies Fitz Randolph owned a summer house in Lake George.

Rapp, Marie (b. 1894)

A young voice student, Marie Rapp worked as Stieglitz’s secretary at 291 from 1911 to 1917, when the gallery closed. She married George Boursault, son of a member of the Photo-Secession, and they, with their young daughter Yvonne, visited Stieglitz and O’Keeffe at Lake George in the early 1920s.

Rhoades, Katharine Nash (1885–1965)

A painter and poet who began to visit 291 around 1910, Katharine Nash Rhoades was a contributor to both Camera Work and 291. Her work was shown at 291 in an Exhibition of Paintings by Marion H. Beckett, of New York, and Paintings by Katharine N. Rhoades, of New York, held from 27 January to 22 February 1915. In the fall of 1915 Rhoades moved to Washington, DC, where she helped the collector Charles Freer establish the Freer Gallery of Art, now part of the Smithsonian Institution.

Rosenfeld, Paul (1890–1946)

Paul Rosenfeld was a close friend of Stieglitz from 1916 until his death in 1946. A critic and author of Musical Portraits: Interpretations of Twenty Modern Composers (1920), Port of New York: Essays on Fourteen American Moderns (1924), and Men Seen: Twenty-Four Modern Authors (1925), Rosenfeld also wrote By Way of Art: Criticisms of Music, Literature, Painting, Sculpture, and the Dance (1928).

Ross, Cary (1902–1951)

Cary Ross began working at the Museum of Modern Art in 1929 and subsequently became a frequent visitor to An American Place. Stieglitz photographed Ross and Louis Kalonyme when they visited Lake George in late August or early September 1932. In the 1930s Ross gave several Stieglitz photographs to the Cleveland Museum of Art (1935) and Baltimore Museum of Art (1939).

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Schubart, Dorothy Obermeyer (1893–1985)

Dorothy Obermeyer Schubart, a painter married to Stieglitz’s nephew William Howard Schubart, visited Lake George often.

Schubart, Selma Stieglitz (1871–1957)

Selma Stieglitz Schubart was Alfred Stieglitz’s younger sister.

Seligmann, Herbert J. (1891–1984)

Critic, poet, essayist, and photographer Herbert J. Seligmann was a close friend and associate of Stieglitz from the late 1910s through the 1920s. In the 1920s he transcribed numerous conversations and remarks by Stieglitz and published them in Alfred Stieglitz Talking (1966).

Small, Flora (1878–1927)

Stieglitz’s cousin, Flora Small was the daughter of Ida Werner (sister of Hedwig Werner Stieglitz) and Martin Small.

Small, Herbert (1881–1931)

Stieglitz’s cousin, Herbert Small was the son of Hedwig Werner Stieglitz’s younger sister, Ida Werner Small.

Small, Ida Werner (1850–1928)

Ida Werner Small was the sister of Stieglitz’s mother, Hedwig Werner Stieglitz.

Steichen, Edward (1879–1973)

A celebrated pictorial photographer and Stieglitz protégé, Edward Steichen worked closely with Stieglitz organizing exhibitions of European modernist art at 291. Stieglitz exhibited Steichen’s photographs annually from 1906 to 1910 and reproduced them frequently in Camera Work. Their friendship cooled as Stieglitz embraced a more modernist photo aesthetic in the years before World War I. Stieglitz thoroughly disapproved of Steichen’s turn to editorial and commercial photography in the 1920s and 1930s, which further strained their relationship. They eventually reconciled, and after Stieglitz’s death in 1946, Steichen, at Georgia O’Keeffe’s request, treated more than 150 of Stieglitz’s palladium prints that had become discolored over time.

Stein, Leo (1872–1947)

In 1909 Edward Steichen took Stieglitz to 27, rue de Fleurus, the home Leo Stein shared with his sister Gertrude. Stieglitz later recalled he was “spellbound” by Leo’s monologue on modern art, but had no recollection of Gertrude, whose articles on Pablo Picasso and Henri Matisse he subsequently published in Camera Work in 1912 (Dorothy Norman, Alfred Stieglitz: An American Seer [New York, 1973], 111). When Leo moved to New York in 1915 he became a frequent visitor to 291.

Stieffel, Jacobina (1833–1925)

Jacobina Stieffel was the mother of Anna Stieffel (Mrs. Julius Stieglitz) and Elizabeth Stieffel (Mrs. Leopold Stieglitz).

Stieglitz, Edward (1833–1909)

Born Ephraim in 1833 in Hannoversch Münden, Germany, Alfred Stieglitz’s father changed his name to Edward Stieglitz when he immigrated to the United States in 1848. He was a successful supplier of woolen cloth to stores throughout the East Coast and was able to retire in 1881 at forty-eight. An amateur artist, he also collected art and supported several painters and sculptors, including Moses Ezekiel and Fedor Encke.

Stieglitz, Emmeline (“Emmy”) Obermeyer (1873–1953)

Nine years younger than Stieglitz, Emmeline (“Emmy”) Obermeyer, sister of his friend and Berlin colleague Joseph Obermeyer, was the daughter of a successful Brooklyn brewer. She and Stieglitz were married in 1893 and she gave birth to their only child, Katherine (“Kitty”), in 1898. They divorced in 1924.

Stieglitz, Hedwig Werner (1844–1922)

Alfred Stieglitz’s mother, Hedwig Werner Stieglitz, was born in Offenbach, Germany, immigrated to the United States in the early 1850s, and married Edward Stieglitz in 1862. Although the family made fun of her malapropisms, she had a deep love of literature, music, and the visual arts. Of her six children, her firstborn, Alfred, was her favorite.

Stieglitz, Julius (1867–1937)

One of Alfred Stieglitz’s twin younger brothers (with Leopold), Julius Stieglitz was a renowned chemist at the University of Chicago and an amateur photographer.

Stieglitz, Katherine (“Kitty”) (1898–1971)

Born in 1898, Katherine (“Kitty”) Stieglitz was the only child of Alfred Stieglitz and his first wife, Emmy. She graduated from Smith College in 1921 and married Milton Sprague Stearns in 1922. After giving birth to a son, Milton Sprague Stearns Jr., in 1923, she suffered a postpartum depression from which she never recovered. She remained institutionalized until her death.

Stieglitz, Leopold (1867–1956)

One of Stieglitz’s twin younger brothers (with Julius), Leopold Stieglitz was a prominent New York physician who often cared for his older brother.

Strand, Paul (1890–1976)

Paul Strand’s innovative photographs were first exhibited at 291 in 1916 and reproduced in the last number of Camera Work in 1917. Throughout the late 1910s and 1920s the younger photographer was one of Stieglitz’s most ardent champions and valued supporters. Their friendship cooled in the early 1930s, however, as Strand increasingly used his art to effect social and political changes.

Strand, Rebecca (“Beck”) Salsbury (1891–1968)

The daughter of the manager of Buffalo Bill’s Wild West show, Rebecca (“Beck”) Salsbury married Paul Strand in 1922 and quickly became close to both Stieglitz and O’Keeffe. Their friendship endured even after her separation and subsequent divorce from Strand in 1932.

Straus, Flora Stieglitz (1865–1890)

Flora Stieglitz Straus was Alfred Stieglitz’s niece, the daughter of Leopold and Elizabeth Stieffel Stieglitz.

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Toomer, Jean (1894–1967)

Author of the acclaimed novel Cane (1923), Jean Toomer visited Stieglitz and O’Keeffe at Lake George in September and October 1925.

Treadwell, Margaret (1906?–1996?)

Margaret Treadwell was a friend of Stieglitz’s niece Georgia Engelhard.

True, Dorothy (1893–1970?)

A painter, Dorothy True was friends with O’Keeffe from their time studying together at the Art Students League of New York (1907–1908) and at Columbia University Teachers College (1914–1915).

Tyrrell, Ethel (1893–1985?)

Ethel Tyrrell was the daughter of Stieglitz’s friend Henry Tyrrell who wrote for the New York World. She visited Lake George in 1926.

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Varnum, Fred (1854?–1924)

Fred Varnum was a coachman and caretaker employed by the Stieglitz family at Lake George for more than thirty years.

Vogel, Hermann Wilhelm (1834–1898)

A highly respected photographic chemist and professor of chemistry and metallurgy at the Technische Hochschule in Berlin, Hermann Wilhelm Vogel discovered how to make photographic plates sensitive to the full spectrum of light. Stieglitz, who was enrolled at the Technische Hochschule from 1882 to 1886, studied with Vogel, whose lectures and publications challenged the young photographer to make some of his most accomplished early work and provided him with an excellent grounding in the chemistry, optics, and techniques of photography.

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Walkowitz, Abraham (1878–1965)

Abraham Walkowitz studied art at both Cooper Union in New York and Académie Julian in Paris. Through his friendship with Marsden Hartley he met Stieglitz in 1912 and became his dedicated assistant at 291 during the war years. He helped organize the first children’s art exhibition at 291 and had four one-person shows there as well. Walkowitz visited Lake George in September 1916, but his friendship with Stieglitz cooled in the late 1910s.

Werner, Adolph (1840?–1919)

Adolph Werner, Hedwig Werner Stieglitz’s cousin, was born in Frankfurt and immigrated to the United States in 1850; he became a professor of German Language and Literature at the City College of New York. Werner encouraged Stieglitz to attend City College in 1879 and later to study in Germany.

Wertheim, Alma Morgenthau (1887–1953)

Alma Morgenthau Wertheim, wife of Maurice, collected O’Keeffe’s work and was a supporter of Stieglitz’s Intimate Gallery. In 1928 Stieglitz donated two portraits of O’Keeffe to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in Wertheim’s name.

Wetzler, Hermann Hans (1870–1943)

Hermann Hans Wetzler was a German American musician, composer, and conductor.

Wetzler, Minnie (1874?–?)

Minnie Wetzler, a concert pianist, was also the sister of Hermann Hans Wetzler.

White, Clarence H. (1871–1925)

In December 1907 Stieglitz and Clarence H. White collaborated on a series of portraits of Mabel Cramer and another woman identified only as Miss Thompson. Four of the sixteen images known were reproduced in Camera Work (see Weston Naef, The Collection of Alfred Stieglitz [New York, 1978], 490–493, nos. 561–580).

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Zoler, Emil (1840–1902)

An artist, anarchist, and Wobbly (as members of the radical Industrial Workers of the World labor union are known), Emil Zoler met Stieglitz through Marsden Hartley in 1909. Although Stieglitz never showed his work, Zoler often visited and helped hang exhibitions at 291, the Intimate Gallery, and An American Place. He was a frequent visitor to Lake George in the 1920s and 1930s.

Zorach, William (1887–1966)

Although best known as a modernist sculptor, William Zorach began his career as a painter, studying at the National Academy of Design in New York and in France from 1910 to 1911. His paintings were included in both the 1913 Armory Show and the 1916 Forum Exhibition of Modern American Painters at the Anderson Galleries. While Stieglitz never exhibited Zorach’s work at 291, the artist remembered his first visit to the gallery (either in 1908 or 1910) as a profoundly moving experience: “I stood long and absorbed ‘291’—the quiet, peaceful little room, the strange and wonderful life revealed to me and the square-faced, bushy-haired man with penetrating eyes that swayed in and swayed out of the doorway. I left feeling I had seen something living, something that would live with me, and that has lived with me” (“291,” Camera Work 47 [July 1914], 38).