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(Van Diemen Gallery, Berlin).[1] Acquired 1926 in Berlin by Karl Rössler, until 1947.[2] (Van Diemen-Lilienfeld Galleries, New York); sold 1950 Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York;[3] gift 1952 by exchange to NGA.

Exhibition History

Exposition d'Art flamand ancien, Antwerp, 1930, no. 53, as Pieter Bruegel the Elder.
A Collector's Cabinet, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 1998, no. 19.
Die Flämische Landschaft 1520-1700, Kulturstiftung Ruhr, Villa Hügel, Essen; Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna 2003-2004, no. 31, repro.

Technical Summary

The transfer to plywood took place before 1936. According to Gluck the original support was poplar. Sometime shortly after 1932 several figures in the foreground, which seem to have been later additions, were removed.[1] It is likely that the painting was transferred at the same time. There are extensive, evenly scattered insect exit holes in the paint and ground layers and no sign in either of horizontal join lines. Poplar is more susceptible to insect damage and worm tunneling than oak and is more likely to exist as a single piece of wood the size of this painting. There are scattered losses of varying sizes throughout, but the actual extent of abrasion is difficult to gauge under the thick varnish. There are repainted losses in the upper and lower left corners and along the right and bottom edges. Extensive later glazes are found in the sky at the upper left and to a lesser extent in the upper right and in the foreground landscape. Underdrawing in what appears to be brown paint is visible with the naked eye. The only underdrawing revealed by infrared reflectography is in the mountain at the far right.

[1] Glück 1936, no. 2, gives the support as plywood and cites the owner's statement that the painting was originally on poplar. The reproduction shows the picture with the extra figures removed. Michel 1932,130, fig. 3, reproduces the painting with the figures present.


Michel, Edouard. Bruegel. Paris, 1931: 75, pl. 46.
Glück, Gustav. Bruegels Gemälde. Vienna (1937 ed.): 93, no. 81.
Michel, Edouard. "Hypothèses sur quelques peintures flamandes à propos de Bruegel le Vieux." Gazette des Beaux-Arts 7 (1932): 132, fig. 3.
De Tolnay, Charles. Pierre Bruegel l'Ancien. Brussels, 1935: 97, no. 56.
Glück, Gustav. Das Bruegel Buch. Vienna, 1936: no. 2, repro. 10, 20.
Wetering, Cornelis van de. Die Entwicklung der niederländischen Landschaftsmalerei vom Anfang des 16. Jahrhunderts bis zur Jahrhundertmitte. Berlin, 1938: 79, pl. 5 (diagram).
Glück, Gustav. Pieter Bruegel the Elder. London, 1951: 9, 17, no. 2, repro. (also Vienna, 1951).
Paintings and Sculpture from the Kress Collection Acquired by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation 1945-1951. Introduction by John Walker, text by William E. Suida. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1951: 202, no. 89, repro., as Landscape with the Martyrdom of St. Catherine of Alexandria by Pieter Bruegel, the Elder.
Gudlaugsson, S. J. "Het Errera-schetsboek en Lucas van Valckenborch." Oud Holland 74 (1959): 129.
Paintings and Sculpture from the Samuel H. Kress Collection. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1959: 290, repro., as by Pieter Bruegel, the Elder.
Summary Catalogue of European Paintings and Sculpture. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1965: 21, as by Pieter Bruegel, the Elder.
Bianconi, Piero. The Complete Paintings of Bruegel. New York, 1967: 87, no. 2, repro. 88.
Gandolfo, Giampaolo et al. National Gallery of Art, Washington. Great Museums of the World. New York, 1968: 113.
Klein, H. Arthur, and Mina Klein. Peter Bruegel the Elder. Artist of Abundance. New York, 1968: 184.
Koch, Robert A. Joachim Patinir. Princeton, 1968: 9.
National Gallery of Art. European Paintings and Sculpture, Illustrations. Washington, 1968: 14, repro., as by Pieter Bruegel the Elder.
Franz, Heinrich Gerhard. Niederländische Landschaftsmalerei im Zeitalter des Manierismus. 2 vols. Graz, 1969: 2: fig. 189.
Wied, Alexander. "Lucas van Valckenborch." Jahrbuch der kunsthistorischen Sammlungen des allerhöchsten Kaiserhauses (Jahrbuch der kunsthistorischen Sammlungen in Wien) 31 (1971): 137.
European Paintings: An Illustrated Summary Catalogue (National Gallery of Art). Washington, 1975: 50-51, repro., as by Pieter Bruegel the Elder
Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington. New York, 1975: no. 192, repro.
Eisler, Colin. Paintings from the Samuel H. Kress Collection: European Schools Excluding Italian. Oxford, 1977: 91-93, fig. 90, text fig. 16, as Landscape with Scenes from the Life of St. Catherine of Alexandria.
Wied, Alexander. Bruegel. Translated by Anthony Lloyd. London, 1980: 12, fig. 13.
Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington. Rev. ed. New York, 1984: 168, no. 186, color repro.
European Paintings: An Illustrated Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1985: 32, repro.
Hand, John Oliver and Martha Wolff. Early Netherlandish Painting. The Collections of the National Gallery of Art Systematic Catalogue. Washington, 1986: 3-6, repro. 2.

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