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Provenance

Probably the painting recorded in the posthumous 1638 inventory of Vincenzo Giustiniani [1564-1637], Rome,[1] who may have commissioned it, and probably the painting still recorded in the Palazzo Giustiniani in 1688. Conte Niccolò Soderini [d. 1779], Rome, by 1750; sold by 20 September 1764 for 500 crowns through (James Byres, Rome) to Brownlow Cecil, 9th earl of Exeter [1725-1793],[2] Burghley House, Stamford, Lincolnshire; by inheritance to his nephew, Henry Cecil, 10th earl and 1st marquess of Exeter [1754-1804], Burghley House; by inheritance to his son, Brownlow Cecil, 2nd marquess of Exeter [1795-1867], Burghley House; by inheritance to his son, William Alleyne Cecil, 3rd marquess of Exeter [1825-1895], Burghley House; by inheritance his son, Brownlow Henry George Cecil, 4th marquess of Exeter [1849-1898], Burghley House; by inheritance to his son, William Thomas Brownlow Cecil, 5th marquess of Exeter [1876-1956], Burghley House; by inheritance to his son, David George Brownlow Cecil, 6th marquess of Exeter [1905-1981], Burghley House; sold 1962 to (Wildenstein & Co., Inc., Paris, New York, and London); sold 1963 to NGA.

Exhibition History
1885
Exhibition of the Works of the Old Masters. Winter Exhibition, Royal Academy of Arts, London, 1885, no. 172.
1960
Exposition Nicolas Poussin, Musée du Louvre, Paris, 1960, no. 7, repro.
1969
In Memoriam, Ailsa Mellon Bruce, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 1969, unnumbered checklist.
1982
France in the Golden Age: Seventeenth Century French Paintings in American Collections, Galeries nationales du Grand Palais, Paris; The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; The Art Institute of Chicago, 1982, no. 88, repro.
1988
Poussin: The Early Years in Rome, Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, 1988, no. 68.
1994
Nicolas Poussin, Galeries nationales du Grand Palais, Paris; Royal Academy of Arts, London, 1994-1995, no. 23, repro. (shown only in London in 1995).
1995

Verdi, Richard, et al. Nicolas Poussin, 1594 – 1665. (Exh. cat. Royal Academy of Arts.) London, 1995: 186.
1996
Loan for display with permanent collection, Musée de Grenoble, France, 1996-1997.
2015
Poussin et Dieu, Musée du Louvre, Paris, 2015, no. 8, repro.
Bibliography
1960
Mahon, Denis. “Poussin’s Early Development: An Alternative Hypothesis.” The Burlington Magazine 102, no. 688 (July 1960): 102, 289, 292, 294.
1960
Salerno, L. “The Picture Gallery of Vincenzo Giustiniani, II: The Inventory, Part I.” The Burlington Magazine 102, no. 684 (March 1960): 97.
1961
Thuillier, Jacques. “L’année Poussin.” Art de France 1 (1961): 341
1962
Mahon, Denis. “Poussiniana: Afterthoughts Arising from the Exhibition.” Gazette des Beaux-Arts ser. 6, 60 (July – Aug. 1962): 50-51, 58-61. Reprint New York, 1962.
1963
Haskell, Francis. Patrons and Painters: A Study in the Relations Between Italian Art and Society in the Age of the Baroque. London, 1963: 95
1965
Summary Catalogue of European Paintings and Sculpture. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1965: 105.
1966
Cairns, Huntington, and John Walker, eds. A Pageant of Painting from the National Gallery of Art. 2 vols. New York, 1966: 2:286, color repro.
1967
Blunt, Anthony. Nicolas Poussin: The A. W. Mellon Lectures in the Fine Arts (1958). 2 vols. New York, 1967. Reprint London, 1995: 72-73.
1968
National Gallery of Art. European Paintings and Sculpture, Illustrations. Washington, 1968: 93, repro.
1969
Badt, Kurt. Die Kunst des Nicolas Poussin. 2 vols. Cologne, 1969: 1:573.
1974
Blunt, Anthony. “The Complete Poussin.” Review of Jacques Thuillier, L’opera completa di Poussin. The Burlington Magazine 116, no. 861 (Dec. 1974): 762
1974
Thuillier, Jacques. L’opera completa di Poussin. Milan, 1974. French ed., Tout l’oeuvre peint de Poussin. Paris, 1974: 116.
1975
European Paintings: An Illustrated Summary Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1975: 274, repro.
1980
Wild, Doris. Nicolas Poussin. 2 vols. Zürich, 1980: 2: no. 27.
1984
Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington. Rev. ed. New York, 1984: 314, no. 414, color repro.
1985
European Paintings: An Illustrated Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1985: 319, repro.
1985
Wright, Christopher. Poussin Paintings. A Catalogue Raisonné. London, 1985: 170.
1988
Oberhuber, Konrad. Poussin, The Early Years in Rome: The Origins of French Classicism. New York, 1988: 207.
1990
Mérot, Alain. Nicolas Poussin. New York, 1990: 49-50.
1996
Standring, Timothy. "Poussin et le Cardinal Massimi." In Nicolas Poussin (1594 – 1665): Actes du colloque organisée au musée du Louvre, 19 – 21 oct., 1994. Ed. Alain Mérot. Paris, 1996: 1: 371.

1998
Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane. "Virgin/Virginity." In Encyclopedia of Comparative Iconography: Themes Depicted in Works of Art. Edited by Helene E. Roberts. 2 vols. Chicago, 1998: 2:905.
1998
Blessed Art Thou Among Women: Reflections on Mary in Our World Today. New York, 1997: 52, repro.
1998
Mahon, Denis. Nicolas Poussin: i primi anni romani. Milan, 1998: 152.
2004
Hand, John Oliver. National Gallery of Art: Master Paintings from the Collection. Washington and New York, 2004: 183, no. 143, color repro.
2005
Baillio, Joseph, et al. The Arts of France from François Ier to Napoléon Ier. A Centennial Celebration of Wildenstein's Presence in New York. Exh. cat. Wildenstein & Co., Inc., New York, 2005: 50, fig. 6, 71 (not in the exhibition).
2009
Conisbee, Philip, et al. French Paintings of the Fifteenth through the Eighteenth Century. The Collections of the National Gallery of Art Systematic Catalogue. Washington, D.C., 2009: no. 82, 374-379, color repro.
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