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Probably the painting recorded in the posthumous 1638 inventory of Vincenzo Giustiniani [1564-1637], Rome,[1] who may have commissioned it, and probably the painting still recorded in the Palazzo Giustiniani in 1688. Conte Niccolò Soderini [d. 1779], Rome, by 1750; sold by 20 September 1764 for 500 crowns through (James Byres, Rome) to Brownlow Cecil, 9th earl of Exeter [1725-1793],[2] Burghley House, Stamford, Lincolnshire; by inheritance to his nephew, Henry Cecil, 10th earl and 1st marquess of Exeter [1754-1804], Burghley House; by inheritance to his son, Brownlow Cecil, 2nd marquess of Exeter [1795-1867], Burghley House; by inheritance to his son, William Alleyne Cecil, 3rd marquess of Exeter [1825-1895], Burghley House; by inheritance his son, Brownlow Henry George Cecil, 4th marquess of Exeter [1849-1898], Burghley House; by inheritance to his son, William Thomas Brownlow Cecil, 5th marquess of Exeter [1876-1956], Burghley House; by inheritance to his son, David George Brownlow Cecil, 6th marquess of Exeter [1905-1981], Burghley House; sold 1962 to (Wildenstein & Co., Inc., Paris, New York, and London); sold 1963 to NGA.

Exhibition History

Exhibition of the Works of the Old Masters. Winter Exhibition, Royal Academy of Arts, London, 1885, no. 172.
Exposition Nicolas Poussin, Musée du Louvre, Paris, 1960, no. 7, repro.
In Memoriam, Ailsa Mellon Bruce, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 1969, unnumbered checklist.
France in the Golden Age: Seventeenth Century French Paintings in American Collections, Galeries nationales du Grand Palais, Paris; The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; The Art Institute of Chicago, 1982, no. 88, repro.
Poussin: The Early Years in Rome, Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, 1988, no. 68.
Nicolas Poussin, Galeries nationales du Grand Palais, Paris; Royal Academy of Arts, London, 1994-1995, no. 23, repro. (shown only in London in 1995).

Verdi, Richard, et al. Nicolas Poussin, 1594 – 1665. (Exh. cat. Royal Academy of Arts.) London, 1995: 186.
Loan for display with permanent collection, Musée de Grenoble, France, 1996-1997.
Poussin et Dieu, Musée du Louvre, Paris, 2015, no. 8, repro.


Mahon, Denis. “Poussin’s Early Development: An Alternative Hypothesis.” The Burlington Magazine 102, no. 688 (July 1960): 102, 289, 292, 294.
Salerno, L. “The Picture Gallery of Vincenzo Giustiniani, II: The Inventory, Part I.” The Burlington Magazine 102, no. 684 (March 1960): 97.
Thuillier, Jacques. “L’année Poussin.” Art de France 1 (1961): 341.
Mahon, Denis. “Poussiniana: Afterthoughts Arising from the Exhibition.” Gazette des Beaux-Arts ser. 6, 60 (July – Aug. 1962): 50-51, 58-61. Reprint New York, 1962.
Haskell, Francis. Patrons and Painters: A Study in the Relations Between Italian Art and Society in the Age of the Baroque. London, 1963: 95.
Summary Catalogue of European Paintings and Sculpture. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1965: 105.
Cairns, Huntington, and John Walker, eds. A Pageant of Painting from the National Gallery of Art. 2 vols. New York, 1966: 2:286, color repro.
Blunt, Anthony. Nicolas Poussin: The A. W. Mellon Lectures in the Fine Arts (1958). 2 vols. New York, 1967. Reprint London, 1995: 72-73.
Gandolfo, Giampaolo et al. National Gallery of Art, Washington. Great Museums of the World. New York, 1968: 66, color repro.
National Gallery of Art. European Paintings and Sculpture, Illustrations. Washington, 1968: 93, repro.
Badt, Kurt. Die Kunst des Nicolas Poussin. 2 vols. Cologne, 1969: 1:573.
Blunt, Anthony. “The Complete Poussin.” Review of Jacques Thuillier, L’opera completa di Poussin. The Burlington Magazine 116, no. 861 (Dec. 1974): 762.
Thuillier, Jacques. L’opera completa di Poussin. Milan, 1974. French ed., Tout l’oeuvre peint de Poussin. Paris, 1974: 116.
European Paintings: An Illustrated Summary Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1975: 274, repro.
Wild, Doris. Nicolas Poussin. 2 vols. Zürich, 1980: 2: no. 27.
Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington. Rev. ed. New York, 1984: 314, no. 414, color repro.
European Paintings: An Illustrated Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1985: 319, repro.
Wright, Christopher. Poussin Paintings. A Catalogue Raisonné. London, 1985: 170.
Oberhuber, Konrad. Poussin, The Early Years in Rome: The Origins of French Classicism. New York, 1988: 207.
Mérot, Alain. Nicolas Poussin. New York, 1990: 49-50.
Standring, Timothy. "Poussin et le Cardinal Massimi." In Nicolas Poussin (1594 – 1665): Actes du colloque organisée au musée du Louvre, 19 – 21 oct., 1994. Ed. Alain Mérot. Paris, 1996: 1: 371.

Apostolos-Cappadona, Diane. "Virgin/Virginity." In Encyclopedia of Comparative Iconography: Themes Depicted in Works of Art. Edited by Helene E. Roberts. 2 vols. Chicago, 1998: 2:905.
Blessed Art Thou Among Women: Reflections on Mary in Our World Today. New York, 1997: 52, repro.
Mahon, Denis. Nicolas Poussin: i primi anni romani. Milan, 1998: 152.
Hand, John Oliver. National Gallery of Art: Master Paintings from the Collection. Washington and New York, 2004: 183, no. 143, color repro.
Baillio, Joseph, et al. The Arts of France from François Ier to Napoléon Ier. A Centennial Celebration of Wildenstein's Presence in New York. Exh. cat. Wildenstein & Co., Inc., New York, 2005: 50, fig. 6, 71 (not in the exhibition).
Conisbee, Philip, et al. French Paintings of the Fifteenth through the Eighteenth Century. The Collections of the National Gallery of Art Systematic Catalogue. Washington, D.C., 2009: no. 82, 374-379, color repro.

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