Gemini G.E.L. Online Catalogue Raisonné, National Gallery of Art HOME SEARCH GUIDE ESSAY GLOSSARY CREDITS


In its present form, the Gemini G.E.L. online catalogue raisonné represents the works published by Gemini G.E.L. from 1966, the year it was established, through 2005. Because numerous works have been published by this thriving, energetic workshop since 2005, the catalogue should be seen as a work in progress, with further images and catalogue entries to be added as they are compiled.

The catalogue has a number of features and characteristics relevant to its organization that should be kept in mind. First, the images shown online are not always the impression held in the National Gallery's Gemini G.E.L. Archive but may be an equivalent proof. Secondly, Gemini compiles documentation sheets that correspond to each published edition. These records, which have been kept since the workshop was founded, have been the primary information source for all catalogue raisonné entries.

The data derived from Gemini documentation sheets has been reviewed, organized, and transcribed into the following fields for the National Gallery's online catalogue raisonné:

Catalogue Number
This number consists of two or three figures separated by decimal points (example: 35.36.7). The "Artist Number" is first and the initial group was assigned alphabetically to entries referring to works until 1996. New artists who worked at Gemini between 1996 and 2005 have been alphabetized and assigned higher numbers above the original sequence. The second number is the chronological publication order within the artist's Gemini G.E.L. oeuvre. This order was determined from the "Gemini Publication Sequence Number (formerly the Old Gemini Catalogue Number)," which provided the model. A third number following a second decimal point indicates that the work is accompanied by more than one image representing either (1) a multiple-component work with parts documented singly, as in a portfolio, or (2) an edition of variant works made up of different titles.

The name of the artist collaborating with the Gemini shop has been entered "first name" then "last name."

Entries include series titles only when applicable. Absence of a series title indicates that the work is not from a series formally designated by the artist.

The name of the work as designated by the artist.

Start Date
This represents the year in which collaboration with Gemini G.E.L. on the edition was begun. This date is almost always reflected in the two-digit prefix in the "Gemini Work Number." The start date specifically stated on the documentation sheet was selected for this field over the "Gemini Work Number" prefix date.

Signature Date
This is the year the work was signed by the artist. The information was taken from Gemini G.E.L. documentation sheets and/or from the signature on the work. If the field is empty, the reason for the irregularity is described in "Notes on Dates." If a work was signed in more than one session in different years, then the earliest signature date is listed. In this case, the inclusive dates as well as the specifics of signing can be found in the "Notes on Dates" field.

Publication Date
This is the year the edition was made available from the Gemini shop. Since a work cannot be published until approved and signed by the artist, the "Signature Date" is considered the "Publication Date" when the edition was signed later than the recorded publication date.

Notes on Dates
This field justifies irregularities and records supplemental information about any of the three date fields.

Gemini Work Number
This is the number assigned by Gemini to each publication project at its inception. The figure consists of a letter prefix that refers to the initials (or abbreviation) of an artist's name, the last two digits of the year the project was begun (see variations described above in "Start Date"), and a dash followed by an identification number.

Gemini Publication Sequence Number (formerly Old Gemini Catalogue Number)
These numbers reflect the chronological order in which Gemini G.E.L. made the published editions available. The publication order has been assigned regardless of which artist produced the work.

National Gallery of Art (NGA) Accession Number
One example from each edition published by Gemini G.E.L. is intended for the National Gallery of Art's Gemini G.E.L. Archive. All works that enter the National Gallery's collection are assigned an accession number. This identifier is comprised of three numbers separated by decimal points. The first section represents the year of acquisition by the National Gallery of Art; the second section represents the number of the gift within the year; and the third section represents the number of the particular work within the gift (example: 1981.5.130).

This field indicates the media used to create the print or edition sculpture. The number of colors in the print, as well as the number of components that make up the work, are recorded here.

Colors or Sequence
This field represents the order in which the colors were applied to a print or the construction sequence of the print or edition sculpture. This enumeration strictly follows the original description recorded on the original Gemini G.E.L. documentation sheet. For print entries, the numbers represent the order that the colors, or matrices, were used. If applicable, the parenthetical notation that follows each color refers to the composition of the matrix that was employed. When all colors have been applied by the same kind of matrix, the parenthetical notation is placed at the beginning of the entry. Other details relevant to the process of each step may be included in a parenthetical notation such as "(stone - tusche)." Multiple segments of information are separated by dashes. In addition, where several colors have been be applied from a plate in a single step, the colors will appear separated by slashes as in "black/brown."

Dimensions of works are given in centimeters, height preceding width followed by depth, with inches in parentheses. Centimeters have been converted from inches recorded on the Gemini documentation sheets. In the case of prints, sheet dimensions are given.

Weight, as recorded on the Gemini documentation sheets, is given in pounds. If the documentation sheet provided weight in metric units, the measurement was converted to pounds.

Notes on Dimensions
Diameter of a work, if appropriate, is recorded here. If a work comprises multiple parts, the dimensions for the individual parts are described in this field as well as the specific relationship between the dimensions.

The particular kind of support on which the print is realized, which, unless otherwise noted, is paper. Papers are described to the fullest extent possible. Available information is listed in the following order: manufacturer, paper name, and descriptions.

The specific numbers and kinds of impressions produced by Gemini for the project. Abbreviations for the various kinds of prints are given, and each is defined in the "Glossary of Impressions."

Fabrication Notes
Details about the creation of the work are included in this field.

Collaboration and Supervision
The individuals who assisted the artist and/or supervised the production of the work.

Experimentation and Development
Individuals who did special experimentation with materials and processes in order to develop the work.

Processing and Proofing
The individuals responsible for checking over the finished works in order to insure that they meet the standard of the edition or prototype.

Edition Printing
The individuals responsible for printing the edition.

Edition Production
The individuals responsible for the fabrication of three-dimensional works.

This field provides useful background information about the work and its production that does not fit in the above fields. Information about variations in numbers and kinds of proofs, as well as variations in color, size, materials, and support are covered here. If applicable, specific details about the installation of a work are included. Examples of other information that may be featured in this section include the names of collaborators who worked in very specific and/or limited roles as well as the mention of prints that were published to benefit causes.


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