Completed in 1914, The Aero may have been the painting that Marsden Hartley described in a letter to his dealer, Alfred Stieglitz, the previous year: “I have one canvas ‘Extase d’Aéroplane’ if it must have a title—it is my notion of the possible ecstasy or soul state of an aéroplane if it could have one.” The artist was thrilled when he saw zeppelins, or huge airships, flying overhead. Both Europeans and Americans keenly followed advances in aviation, and Germany was swept by “zeppelin fever.” In the years leading up to the outbreak of World War I, potential rivals were concerned that Germany would build an air fleet capable of bombarding its enemies and transporting troops to distant places, even New York City. Yet Hartley did not address the potential danger; instead he presents an exuberant interpretation of one of the greatest inventions of the modern era.
Hartley lived in Berlin from May 1913 to December 1915, a period interrupted only by a four-month trip to New York from November 1913 to March 1914. Hartley’s imagery from this time has been widely acknowledged as constituting one of the most original new visual languages of modern art that emerged during the first two decades of the 20th century. Hartley combined the influences of fauvism, cubism, and German expressionism with his own mystical vision to create colorful abstract compositions that reflect his fascination with modern life in Berlin, especially the German military. The Aero is an energetic, colorful abstract painting that registers the influences of avant-garde art movements and alludes to one of the most revolutionary technological advances of the time.
Marsden Hartley first visited Berlin for three weeks in January 1913, accompanied by German friends that he had met in Paris. He was enchanted by the city, which he considered “without question the finest modern city in Europe,”
Hartley to Alfred Stieglitz, Feb. 1, 1913, quoted in James Timothy Voorhees, ed., My Dear Stieglitz: Letters of Mardsen Hartley and Alfred Stieglitz, 1912–1915 (Columbia, SC, 2002), 54.
After returning to Berlin from his New York interlude, he embarked on the Amerika series, a set of four paintings that incorporate Native American imagery. With the outbreak of the war in August 1914, Hartley reverted to painting festive German military subjects. The tragic battlefield death of his close friend, the Prussian officer Lieutenant Karl von Freyburg, on October 7, 1914, inspired him to begin the famous 12-painting War Motif series. Many of these works, such as the well-known Portrait of a German Officer
On the 1916 exhibition at 291, see Bruce Robertson, “Letters to the Dead,” in Modern Art in America: Alfred Stieglitz and His New York Galleries, ed. Sarah Greenough (Washington, DC, 2001), 228–241.
Hartley is thought to have completed The Aero in 1914, sometime after his return from New York and before Freyburg’s death. He mentioned such a subject as early as May 1913 in a long letter to Stieglitz. In the letter, Hartley describes how the “military life adds so much in the way of a sense of perpetual gaiety here in Berlin. It gives the stranger like myself the feeling that some great festival is being celebrated always.” He avows his intention “to establish myself in the ultra modern scheme here and this is all possible now with Kandinsky and Marc and their group.” Later in the same letter Hartley notes that he had been told: “I succeed in bringing mysticism and art together for the first time in modern art—that each canvas is a picture for itself and there the ideas present themselves after. This is my desire—to make a decorative harmony of color & form using only such color and such form as seems fitting to the subject in hand.” The artist then refers to a painting that may well have been The Aero: “I have one canvas ‘Extase d’Aéroplane’ if it must have a title—it is my notion of the possible ecstasy or soul state of an aéroplane if it could have one.”
All quotes in this paragraph come from Hartley to Stieglitz, week of May 18, 1913, quoted in James Timothy Voorhees, ed., My Dear Stieglitz: Letters of Mardsen Hartley and Alfred Stieglitz, 1912–1915 (Columbia, SC, 2002), 76–77.
Hartley was a keen follower of recent advances in aviation, mentioning zeppelins in three letters to Stieglitz. On a postcard of June 1913 he wrote how the “Hansa or the Victoria Luise Luftschiffs pass overhead so majestically and so close that you see people waving their handkerchiefs.” On October 18, 1913, Hartley mentioned the explosion of a naval zeppelin the previous day that had killed 27 people in Johannisthal, 10 miles outside Berlin. A year later, in a letter of June 1914, he remarked that “the Luftschiff L.V. has just passed over us here as I write—a fascinating thing which transports one somehow every time one sees any of them.”
Hartley to Alfred Stieglitz, June 28, 1913, Oct. 18, 1913, and June 30, 1914, quoted in James Timothy Voorhees, ed., My Dear Stieglitz: Letters of Mardsen Hartley and Alfred Stieglitz, 1912–1915 (Columbia, SC, 2002), 87, 114, and 149. Both the LZ-11 Viktoria-Luise (named after Kaiser Wilhelm II’s only daughter) and the LZ-13 Hansa were civilian passenger airships that flew for the Deutsche Luftschiffahrts-Aktiengesellschaft (DELAG), or German Airship Transportation Corporation Ltd., that was established in 1909 as an offshoot of the Zeppelin Company. Both were requisitioned by the military at the outbreak of World War I. The third zeppelin Hartley mentioned cannot be identified. Stephen Gregory, in an e-mail dated August 31, 2013, to Franklin Kelly at the National Gallery of Art, emphasized the October 1913 zeppelin disaster as the most likely source for the prominent red fireball in The Aero.
Interpreting each of the various motifs in this colorful abstract composition is difficult considering Hartley’s avowed intention to create “a decorative harmony of color & form as seems fitting to the subject in hand.” Moreover, in part because he was worried about the way the largely anti-German public would receive them, Hartley discouraged viewers from speculating about the meaning of his Berlin abstractions by claiming that “the forms are only those which I have observed casually from day to day. There is no hidden symbolism whatsoever in them; there was no slight intention of that anywhere.”
The text is from the artist’s statement in the catalog for the exhibition of 40 of Hartley’s Berlin paintings (including The Aero) at Stieglitz’s 291 gallery that was held from April 4 to May 22, 1916. The catalog was reprinted as “Hartley’s Exhibition,” Camera Work 48 (Oct. 1916): 12, and is quoted in Gail Levin, “Hidden Symbolism in Marsden Hartley’s Military Pictures,” Arts Magazine 54 (Oct. 1979): 154. Of course it is now recognized that many of the War Motif series paintings do indeed contain symbols that allude to Freyburg.
Gail R. Scott, Marsden Hartley (New York, 1988), 49.
The Aero, like most of Hartley’s Berlin paintings, reflects his close ties to the Der Blaue Reiter painters. These artists,
Gail Levin, “Marsden Hartley’s ‘Amerika’: Between Native American and German Folk Art,” American Art Review 5, no. 2 (Winter 1993): 122.
Although Der Bleue Reiter provided Hartley with the philosophical and technical means to pursue his own aesthetic desires, his fascination with aviation found its closest parallel in the French cubist
Hartley to Alfred Stieglitz, March 13, 1913, quoted in James Timothy Voorhees, ed., My Dear Stieglitz: Letters of Mardsen Hartley and Alfred Stieglitz, 1912–1915 (Columbia, SC, 2002), 65.
For a discussion of Hartley’s relationships with Der Blaue Reiter artists and Delaunay, see Gail Levin, “Marsden Hartley and the European Avant-Garde,” Arts 54 (Sept., 1979), 158–163.
Gail Levin has speculated that The Aero was intended as an allusion to the German Imperial Navy Zeppelin L-2 that exploded during a test flight on October 17, 1913—an accident that Hartley specifically mentioned in a letter to Stieglitz.
Hartley to Alfred Stieglitz, Oct. 18, 1913, quoted in James Timothy Voorhees, ed., My Dear Stieglitz: Letters of Mardsen Hartley and Alfred Stieglitz, 1912–1915 (Columbia, SC, 2002), 114. Gail Levin, “Hidden Symbolism in Marsden Hartley’s Military Pictures,” Arts Magazine 54 (Oct. 1979): 158.
Patricia McDonnell, “‘Portrait of Berlin’: Marsden Hartley and Urban Modernity in Expressionist Berlin,” in Marsden Hartley, ed. Elizabeth Mankin Kornhauser (Hartford, CT, 2002), 51.
Robert Wohl, A Passion for Wings: Aviation and the Western Imagination 1908–1918 (New Haven, CT, 1994), 44–45, 71–72.
One of the best-known novels of this genre was The War in the Air (1908) by H. G. Wells, who conjured up alarming visions of German airships destroying the American fleet in the North Atlantic and laying waste to New York City. We know Hartley was familiar with the author because, shortly after the outbreak of World War I, he discussed recent events in a letter to Stieglitz, commenting that “even H. G. Wells is a fair prophetic authority.”
Hartley to Alfred Stieglitz, Sept. 2, 1914, quoted in James Timothy Voorhees, ed., My Dear Stieglitz: Letters of Mardsen Hartley and Alfred Stieglitz, 1912–1915 (Columbia, SC, 2002), 157.
September 29, 2016
The artist; (sale, Anderson Galleries, New York, 17 May 1921, probably no. 46, as Pre-War Pageant); Hamilton Easter Field [1873-1922], Brooklyn, and Ogunquit, Maine; by inheritance to Robert Laurent [1890-1970], Brooklyn and Ogunquit, Maine; his estate; purchased 15 October 1970 by NGA.
- [Marsden Hartley exhibition], 291 Gallery, New York, 1916.
- Marsden Hartley, John Herron Art Museum (now the Indianapolis Museum of Art), 1951, no. 1, as The Aero, Pre-War.
- The Collection of Robert and Mimi Laurent and the Field Foundation Collection, Indiana University Art Museum, Bloomington; Colby College Art Museum, Waterville, Maine, 1965, no. 37.
- Marsden Hartley: A Retrospective Exhibition, Bernard Danenberg Galleries, Inc., New York, 1969, no. 6, repro.
- Marsden Hartley, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Art Institute of Chicago; Amon Carter Museum of Western Art, Fort Worth; University Art Museum, Berkeley, 1980-1981, no. 22, pl. 80.
- Dictated by Life: Marsden Hartley's German Paintings and Robert Indiana's Hartley Elegies, Frederick R. Weisman Art Museum, Minneapolis; Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago; Art Museum at Florida International University, 1995, no. 2, repro. (shown only in Minneapolis).
- Abstraction in the Twentieth Century: Total Risk, Freedom, Discipline, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, 1996, no. 57, repro.
- Modern Art and America: Alfred Stieglitz and His New York Galleries, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 2001, no. 69, repro.
- Marsden Hartley: American Modernist, Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art, Hartford; The Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C.; The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, 2003-2004, no. 15, repro.
- Marsden Hartley: The German Paintings 1913-1915, Neue Nationalgalerie, Berlin; Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 2014, unnumbered catalogue, repro.
- Levin, Gail. “Hidden Symbolism in Marsden Hartley’s Military Pictures.” Arts Magazine 54 (October 1979): 158, fig. 8.
- American Paintings: An Illustrated Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1980: 170, repro.
- Wilmerding, John. American Masterpieces from the National Gallery of Art. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 1980: 17, no. 57, color repro.
- Williams, William James. A Heritage of American Paintings from the National Gallery of Art. New York, 1981: 215, color repro. 217.
- Walker, John. National Gallery of Art, Washington. Rev. ed. New York, 1984: 574, no. 879, color repro.
- Scott, Gail R. Marsden Hartley. New York, 1988: 46-49, pl. 34.
- Wilmerding, John. American Masterpieces from the National Gallery of Art. Rev. ed. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 1988: 174, no. 64, color repro.
- American Paintings: An Illustrated Catalogue. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1992: 194, repro.
- Southgate, M. Therese. The Art of JAMA: One Hundred Covers and Essays from The Journal of the American Medical Association. St. Louis, 1997: 190-191, 215, color repro.
- Kirsh, Andrea, and Rustin S. Levenson. Seeing Through Paintings: Physical Examination in Art Historical Studies. Materials and Meaning in the Fine Arts 1. New Haven, 2000: 250-251, color fig. 261.
- Modern Art and America: Alfred Stieglitz and His New York Galleries. Exh. cat. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 2001: no. 69.
- Kornhauser, Elizabeth Mankin, et al. Marsden Hartley. Exh. cat. Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art, Hartford; The Phillips Collection, Washington; Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, 2002-2003. New Haven and London, 2002. no. 15, repro.
- Hand, John Oliver. National Gallery of Art: Master Paintings from the Collection. Washington and New York, 2004: 410-411, no. 343, color repro.
- Scholz, Dieter, ed. Marsden Hartley: The German Paintings 1913-1915 Exh. cat. Neue Nationalgalerie, Berlin; Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Berlin, Los Angeles, and New York, 2014: 95 repro., 205.
- National Gallery of Art. Highlights from the National Gallery of Art, Washington. Washington, 2016: 278, repro.
The painting is executed on a plain, coarse-weave, medium-weight fabric that has been lined with wax to a plain-weave, medium-weight, auxiliary fabric support. The painting has no ground, but the fabric has been primed with a moderately thick layer of light gray paint that forms the background of the design. The exposed areas of the background paint appear to have been mixed with white before drying, altering the initial priming color, which remains its original darker gray color beneath the design elements. The main elements of the composition are applied in fairly thick, heavily textured paint. Some areas, particularly the whites and light yellow, are characterized by lively brushwork and moderate impasto. A thin layer of charcoal or black paint may be observed scumbled at the edges of many design elements, indicating that the composition was drawn before the paint was applied. An artist-constructed frame consisting of a simple wooden liner painted with an extension of the composition is attached to the painting.
The initial examination report of 1987 indicates that the painting was in good condition with numerous small, filled, and retouched losses scattered throughout. However, in a conservation treatment of the painting in 2001 it was noted that many of the major design elements had been repainted by another hand long after the completion of the painting. During this 2001 treatment, the non-original overpaint was removed, revealing some abrasion that had occurred in a previous cleaning. Although the goal of the 2001 treatment was to return the painting to its original, unvarnished state, the retouching required to compensate for previous damage and some blanching that occurred as a result of the overpaint removal necessitated locally varnishing some areas with a nearly invisible synthetic varnish. The rest of the painting was left unvarnished.
Stephen Kornhauser and Ulrich Birkmaier, “Marsden Hartley’s Materials and Working Methods,” in Marsden Hartley, ed. Elizabeth Mankin Kornhauser (Hartford, CT, 2002), 270.