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Edgar Degas

Overview

 

Degas was born to an aristocratic family, unusually supportive of his desire to paint. As a young man he was greatly impressed by the disciplined style of neoclassical artist Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, who reportedly advised him to “Draw lines, young man, draw lines.”

Throughout his career Degas stressed the importance of careful composition and strong drawing. He was one of the organizers of the first impressionist exhibition in 1874, and remained influential in the group, but his own work was deliberate and controlled, painted in the studio from sketches, notes, and memory. The impressionists like Monet and Renoir, on the other hand, sought an immediate transcription of the fleeting effects of light and atmosphere.

What he shared with the impressionists was an interest in modern life—in Paris' dance halls and cabarets, its racetracks, its opera and ballet stages. "You need natural life," he told his landscape colleagues, “I, artificial life.” In racehorses and ballet dancers he found the kind of movement that fascinated him most: not free and spontaneous, but precise and disciplined. He also studied the simple, everyday motions of working women: milliners, dressmakers, and laundresses.

Perhaps the language of cinema best describes Degas' work—pans and frames, long shots and closeups, tilts and shifts in focus. Figures are cut off and positioned off center. Sightlines are high and oblique. Degas' interest in photography is revealed in these elements of style, and the flat space, patterned surfaces, and unusual angles of Japanese prints, which enjoyed huge popularity in Paris in the late 1800s, also influenced the artist.

Edgar Degas, French, 1834 - 1917, Self-Portrait with White Collar, c. 1857, oil on paper on canvas, Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon, 1995.47.7

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A man and woman, both with pale, peachy skin, sit on opposite sides of a burgundy-red, low-backed sofa in a room wallpapered with a striped, floral pattern in this vertical painting. To our left, the woman sits with her body facing us, and she looks at us with dark eyes under dark, arched brows. She has an oval face, a straight nose, and her coral-pink lips are closed. The woman’s dark brown hair is parted down the middle, and smoothed and pulled back to the base of her head. Her pinkish-tan dress has a narrow white collar and a full, billowing skirt. A loosely painted, crimson-red shawl wraps around her torso and is pulled over white, puffy sleeves. Also loosely painted, a shell-shaped, tan object to our right could be a fan held in her left hand. To our right and on the far side of the piece of furniture, the man sits on the low back of the chaise-longue, his left knee bent so that thigh, closer to us, rests along the back of the sofa. He turns his face to look at us from the corners of his eyes. He has a rounded nose, and his full, pink lips are closed. He has an auburn-brown beard and his short hair is tousled. He wears a brown coat and charcoal-gray slacks. He rests the hand closer to us against his hip so his elbow juts toward us. To either side of the people and nearly spanning the width of the painting, the arms of the chaise curve upward to about the height of the woman’s shoulders. A loosely painted, ball-like form next to the left arm of the chaise could be a hat or other object on a side table. The wall behind the people extends from the left edge of the painting to just behind the man, and is patterned with evergreen-colored dots to create floral patterns along vertical beige-colored stripes, all against a moss-green background. A golden yellow, vertical line near the left edge of the painting may be the frame of a mirror or painting. Beyond the man, to our right, a doorway opens to another room with mustard-yellow walls with white molding along the ceiling. A ghostly outline in ash-gray suggests a woman wearing a full skirt, long sleeved jacket, and hat in the room beyond. The paint in some areas is thinly applied or scraped away, especially in the people’s clothing.

Degas' family was relatively affluent, so he did not have to rely entirely on sales of his work for financial support. He was thus free to experiment and choose his own subjects; almost all of his portraits depict relatives or friends. He was also able to delay finishing paintings, reworking them until they met his exacting standards. Many times Degas retrieved works he had already delivered so that he could perfect them. Some he never completed.

This unfinished portrait of Degas' sister and her Neapolitan husband is one such example. (The painting was in his studio at the time of his death.) Notice how Thérèse's dress and shawl are undefined masses of color. There, Degas has scraped and rubbed the paint off the canvas. The dark lines indicate changes he intended but never made. The faces, by contrast, are carefully finished, detailed and expressive. Degas hoped to capture his sitters, he said, in "familiar and typical attitudes."

Edgar Degas, French, 1834 - 1917, Edmondo and Thérèse Morbilli, c. 1865, oil on canvas, Chester Dale Collection, 1963.10.125

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Shown from about the ankles up, a woman with ashen, pale skin, wearing a full, silvery-white dress with gray dots, sits on a low-backed white sofa against a pale peach background in this horizontal portrait painting. Just to our left of center, the woman sits with her body angled to our left and she looks in that direction with pale green eyes. Touches of green shade the inner corners of the eyes, and her complexion has a yellowish cast. Her pink lips are closed and her chestnut-brown hair is parted in the middle and pulled back. Her hands rest in her lap with wrists crossed. The dress darkens from eggshell white on the chest and sleeves to nickel gray on the skirt. Charcoal-gray dots create an irregular pattern that becomes looser as it moves down the skirt. Her dress is cinched at the waist with a black sash. The skirt spreads over her settee, which has a low back that angles up on our left. The peach wall behind her takes up the top half of the composition. The painting is created blended brushstrokes, giving it a soft, almost hazy look. The artist’s signature in red appears in the lower right corner: “Degas.”

This portrait of one of the artist's sisters-in-law was painted while Degas was in the United States. His mother had been born in Louisiana, and his younger brothers joined relatives in the family's cotton trade in New Orleans. During a visit there Degas executed this portrait of his brother René's American born wife Estelle. She was a woman haunted by misfortune. Four of her six children died. Her first husband had been killed during the Civil War, and she was later abandoned by René. When Degas painted her she was completely blind.

Degas himself suffered poor eyesight, and had already lost some vision by the time he was in his thirties. Perhaps for this reason, his portrait of Estelle seems particularly sympathetic. Her unfocused gaze appears almost contemplative. The diffuse light around her obscures detail, and Degas' restricted range of tones -- dove grays, dull pinks, and off-whites -- gives the sensation of vision that is soft but indistinct.

Edgar Degas, French, 1834 - 1917, Madame René de Gas, 1872/1873, oil on canvas, Chester Dale Collection, 1963.10.124

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Shown from about the hips up, a woman whose pale face is deep in shadow stands with her back to us, wearing a black and gray dress and hat, in front of a colorful but loosely painted, indistinct background in this nearly square painting. She stands just to our right of center with her elbows bent, perhaps to clasp her hands in front of her. Her head is turned slightly toward us so we see the line of her forehead, nose, and chin almost in profile facing our left. Her auburn hair seems to be pulled up under a black hat that sits on the back of her head. Her high-necked, charcoal-gray vest-like bodice has a line of white at the neck, suggesting lace or an undershirt. The bodice covers a black shirt with ruffles that fall at least to her elbows, and the long dress drapes close along the contours of her legs. She looks to the far wall, which is painted with sketchy, visible brushstrokes in marigold orange, lemon-lime green, brown, black, and pale yellow to create the impression of paintings in gold frames. The artist signed the painting in dark red in the lower right corner: “Degas.”

Degas unleashed his biting wit on many of his colleagues, but was impressed with the work of American artist Mary Cassatt, saying of her "there is someone who senses painting as I do." Like him she maintained the importance of drawing and carefully planned composition. In 1877 Degas invited her to exhibit with the impressionists.

Probably it is Cassatt we see here. Degas made a number of prints and pastels of Cassatt and her sister during visits to the Louvre -- where, in fact, she and Degas first met. These works make it possible to identify the setting of this work. Although painted freely, Degas' sketchy brushstrokes convey the surfaces of painted canvases in heavy gold frames and the pink columns still found in the Grande Galerie. The line of Mary Cassatt's silhouette and the tilt of her head are lively and energetic, but her expression is withheld from view.

Edgar Degas, French, 1834 - 1917, Woman Viewed from Behind, oil on canvas, Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon, 1985.64.11

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A woman with peachy skin stands facing our left in profile ironing a pale blue shirt on a white surface, possibly a table, with a line of pastel-colored shirts hanging in front of curtained windows opposite us in this vertical painting. We seem to look slightly down onto the woman’s shoulders and onto the surface of the table. The white tabletop takes up most of the bottom half of the composition, and, seen from the knees up, the woman leans in from the lower right corner. The woman’s chestnut-brown hair is pulled up into a bun, and she wears a dark earring in her left ear. Her denim-blue dress is speckled with white dots and highlighted with strokes of blush pink. Her sleeves are rolled up to the elbow, and a dusty rose-pink apron covers her brown skirt. She presses down on the iron with her right hand, farther from us, and uses her left hand to straighten the fabric of the shirt collar. The iron has a thick handle and a flat, narrow, triangular surface used to press out wrinkles. A small, empty, bronze-colored bowl and crisply starched and folded porcelain-white shirt lie on the table to her left, closer to us. A row of hanging garments in pale crepe pink, flaxen gold, teal, and lavender purple soften the light coming into the room from three vertical windows, which are covered with sheer, ivory-white curtains. The artist’s feathery brushstrokes give the painting a hazy quality. The artist signed the work with olive-green letters near the lower left corner: “Degas.”

Women at work provided inspiration for Degas. In addition to ballet dancers and cabaret singers, he also painted milliners and dressmakers, laundresses and ironers—such as the young woman here. Writer Edmond de Goncourt described a visit to Degas' studio when the artist showed him "washerwomen and still more washerwomen...." Degas was interested in their movements and postures, the patterns and rhythms of their work. Degas, de Goncourt continued, had gone about "speaking their language, explaining to us technically the downward pressing and circular strokes of the iron, etc...."

Laundresses also appeared as characters in newly popular realistic novels, which detailed the difficult lives of these women. They worked long, hot hours for low wages, and because they wore loose clothing and made deliveries to men's apartments, their morals were often questioned. Degas, however, seems not to have been interested in their social situation so much as in their characteristic gestures—in the line of his ironer's body as she leans into her work, in the soft curtain of color provided by the garments that hang around her, in the crisp shirt folded on the table.

Edgar Degas, French, 1834 - 1917, Woman Ironing, begun c. 1876, completed c. 1887, oil on canvas, Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon, 1972.74.1

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Four light-skinned ballerinas with russet-orange hair tied back in buns adjust the straps of their bodices as they gather close together, their bodies and wide, knee-length tutus taking up the left half of this horizontal painting. The background or backdrop beyond them shows a grove of deep green trees to our left and a sunset view of meadows leading back to trees to our right. Three of the dancers stand in a row that extends from the lower left corner to our right and away from us. All three wear rust-orange bodices over tutus that are painted loosely with flecks of pale celery green and buttercup yellow against a muted royal-blue background. Their bodices and upper bodies are outlined with black. The woman closest to us stands with her body angled to our right. Her face turns away as she looks to her left and adjusts that shoulder strap. The two dancers farther from us stand with their backs to us, their bodies angled away from us to our left. The middle dancer looks back over her right shoulder as she lifts the other elbow to adjust that strap. The third dancer in the row holds both hands to her right strap as she looks off into the distance, to our left. The fourth ballerina, to our far left beyond this trio, stands with the arm we can see, her left, lifted with her hand held high as she looks off to our right. Her bodice is a brighter carrot orange, and is more loosely painted. The green foliage behind the dancers extends off the top edge of the painting. The pale sage-green field to the right stretches before puffy, rounded trees daubed with mauve-pink highlights. The coral-pink and golden yellow sky is streaked with lavender-gray clouds. The artist signed his name in red paint with tiny, almost illegible letters in the lower right corner, “Degas.”

Degas frequented the ballet and opera, where he found subjects not only in performance but also within the unexpected frames created by the angles of stage wings and practice-room mirrors.

He never accepted the label "impressionist," and his momentary, snapshot-like views result -- not from spontaneous improvisation -- but from deliberate arrangement. An avid photographer, his compositions were often influenced by that new medium. Here, for example, the figures are clustered to the left, some cut off at the picture edge. We cannot even be certain that it is four dancers we see -- perhaps, instead, this is a single figure, moving as in the sequential photographs of running horses and men by Eadweard Muybridge.

The sketchy background of the stage set, painted in a broad, almost blurry manner, is typical of Degas' late works, but he trains a sudden sharp focus on the dancers' backs. Our eye follows the linked movements of their arms, as Degas described in a sonnet: "The ribbon of her steps twists and knots...."

Edgar Degas, French, 1834 - 1917, Four Dancers, c. 1899, oil on canvas, Chester Dale Collection, 1963.10.122

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An older woman wearing a long black dress sits reading a book in front of a younger woman wearing cream white, who sits on a couch just beyond, in this vertical portrait painting. The scene is loosely painted with some visible brushstrokes, especially in the furniture, clothing, and room. Both women have pale skin and wear dresses with long sleeves and skirts. To our right, the older woman sits in a chair with a curved back, which runs parallel to the right edge of the canvas. The full skirt of her black dress angles down across the picture, almost spanning the bottom edge of the composition. Her gray hair is pulled back and covered by a black cloth or veil, which falls to her shoulder and blends with her dress. The collar is lined with a white ruffle, and white lace cuffs encircle her wrists. Her face is painted with rosy tones. She looks down at her book with dark eyes, and her rose-pink lips are closed. She wears a gold ring with a light stone on her left ring finger, and the book she holds has a moss-green cover. Her skirt overlaps the younger woman sitting nearby on the couch, which runs along the back wall of the room. The young woman’s knees are angled to our left but she looks slightly back to our right, to gaze down and into the distance with brown eyes. Her skin is paler, but she has lightly flushed cheeks and her petal-pink lips are also closed. An azure-blue bow is tied in her chestnut-brown hair. A few tendrils fall down her back and over one shoulder. Her dress falls loosely over her torso and legs. She wears a gold ring on her left hand and a gold bracelet on that wrist. She fingers a piece of lapis-blue fabric in one hand. The couch behind her has a pattern with stylized flowers or leaves floating within rose-pink ribbons that hang in swags, against a white background. Pillows patterned with ruby red, sky blue, and fawn brown peek out from behind the young woman. A round or oval wooden table with curving legs to our left holds a glass vase with a violet-purple flower, perhaps a hydrangea. A slip of paper or envelope sits on the table next to the vase. The wall behind the couch is fog gray, and the bottom edge of a gold frame hangs behind the young woman.

Berthe Morisot told her mother that she would "rather be at the bottom of the sea" than for this picture to appear at the Salon. Her reluctance stemmed from the "assistance" of her friend and future brother-in-law Edouard Manet, leader of the avant-garde, whose advice she had solicited. Calling at her home, Manet took up a brush, and as Morisot described in a letter: "...it isn't possible to stop him; he passes from the petticoat to the bodice, from the bodice to the head, from the head to the background."

In the mother's face and dark costume Manet's strong, broad brushstrokes are discernible. For both artists, however, the appearance of paint on the canvas, more than the illusion of reality, is of greatest interest. This picture, after having been accepted at the Salon, was probably seen again in the first impressionist exhibition in 1874. Unlike Manet, Morisot embraced the outdoor painting and spontaneity of impressionism, participating in all but one of the eight impressionist exhibitions.

Berthe Morisot, French, 1841 - 1895, The Mother and Sister of the Artist, 1869/1870, oil on canvas, Chester Dale Collection, 1963.10.186

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As a businessman and politician, collector and critic, Duret married an active public life with an interest in the arts. As a young man, he had been an intimate of the avant-garde circle of Manet and Degas.

In the background of Vuillard's portrait we see a literal reflection of that youth -- glimpsed in a mirror is another portrait of Duret, painted many decades before by the American James McNeill Whistler. Vuillard uses the Whistler portrait to contrast the old man with his younger, more vigorous self. The elegant younger figure stands erect; the old one is seated amid the papers that indicate his long career as a writer and critic. He is frail at seventy-four, almost a ghost of the young man whose political passions nearly sent him to the guillotine. His companion now is the cat Lulu, no longer the youthful men who challenged -- and changed -- art and literature.

Vuillard's dramatically tilted view into Duret's study recalls the unexpected angles of Degas' work, though for Vuillard, born a generation later, the influence of other artists, especially Gauguin, was more important.

Edouard Vuillard, French, 1868 - 1940, Théodore Duret, 1912, oil on cardboard on wood, Chester Dale Collection, 1963.10.70

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